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which animates them; (thus even Philip and the Pope are averse to the marriage:) and should this improbable case occur, England, united in itself, will be stronger than if bound and ill directed by a thousand unnatural considerations. When these and similar objections made both by men and women at court came to the ears of Elizabeth, when the Parliament and people, especially the Puritans, declared more loudly and vehemently, both in words and writing, against the marriage, the Queen became doubtful respecting a plan which she had never cordially entertained. The personal appearance of Alençon, perhaps, equally contributed to deter her. He had ruined his constitution by a dissolute course of life, and his face, which was marked by the small-pox, was still more disfigured by an excrescence on his nose.() The question how religion was to be secured in England, and the alliance with France established, led to delays; and when Alençon, partly by his own fault, lost all his influence in the Netherlands, and was reduced by sickness nearer and nearer to his end, (he died in 1584,) the whole plan fell to the ground, and neither the Duke nor the French court made any serious remonstrances with Elizabeth for having retracted. The affairs of Scotland likewise claimed the attention of Elizabeth during these years. The Earl of Lennox, the governor, caused the Archbishop VOL. I. X

of St. Andrew's to be hanged, as an accomplice in the murder of Murray, and was killed in return in a surprise, in the year 1571. His successor, the Earl of Mar, endeavoured in vain to reconcile the religious and political parties, which cruelly persecuted each other, or at least to inspire them with milder sentiments; he died in the next year, partly from grief. Soon after him, namely, on the 4th of November, 1572, died John Knox, in the 67th year of his age, and declared upon his deathbed that he had never expressed himself harshly through hatred, but because he considered it to be necessary, and conformable to the divine ordinances. The Earl of Morton, who succeeded Mar in the Regency, and who had been often vehemently reproved by Knox, said at his burial, “here is one who never feared any man.” Courage was undoubtedly the first indispensable quality, if the objects at that time proposed were to be attained, only gentleness and humility were too often thrown into the background. In the same year it was resolved in Scotland that no Roman Catholic should possess offices or civil rights; a law which escaped severe censure because the Roman Catholics in other countries, (it was the time of the Duke of Alva, and the year of the massacre of St. Bartholomew,) did not leave the Protestants even their lives. New attempts at image-breaking, (thus some zealots proposed to pull down the beautiful cathedral at Glasgow, as being the only remaining monument of idolatry,) were defeated by the good sense of the citizens. Yet the endeavours of the Clergy to obtain a larger share of the ancient property of the Church failed; they were obliged, though unwillingly, to leave it to the nobility, who protected them in other respects. Morton now endeavoured by energy to restore peace and order in the distracted country; but the severe punishment of some friends of Mary, rapacity, and an offensive way of life, made him so odious, that he was surprised by conspirators in the year 1577, and compelled to lay down the regency. But by the aid of the zealous Protestants, and the intervention of Elizabeth, he soon recovered his power, and kept it till the year 1581, when the Earl of Arran, the unworthy favorite of the young King, accused him of having been privy to, and assisting in, the murder of Darnley. The proceedings against him were conducted in a most irregular and arbitrary manner, but Morton at length owned that he had by no means agreed to the proposals made to him by Bothwell on that subject,(*) yet, for want of proof, had hesitated to give information to the weak King or to the Queen, who on all occasions favoured Bothwell. On the 2d of June, 1581, Morton received his death-blow with the greatest firmness. * The Earl of Arran, and Aubigny, who had been raised to the dignity of Earl of Lennox, now governed in the name of the young King, with so much arrogance and unskilfulness, that many Lords conspired against him, and in August, 1582, demanded of James to remove all those from about his person of whom they disapproved. The young King in vain scolded, begged, and wept; the Tutor of Glanis said to him, it is better that children should cry than old men. Arran was arrested, and Lennox banished; the King, with all outward marks of respect, was strictly watched, and all the measures that had been adopted were confirmed by the Parliament and the Protestant assembly of the Church. The latter even declared that the association of the Barons and their proceedings were for the benefit of the country and of religion. After an interval of ten months, the King indeed succeeded in escaping from his confinement; he, however, maintained the resolutions which he had confirmed and declared, (in part, it may be supposed, at the urgent exhortation of Elizabeth,) that what was past should not be enquired into and punished. But when Arran unexpectedly recovered his influence, this promise was by no means punctually kept, on which account many nobles, and soon afterwards still more clergy, fled. After the loss of so much property, the latter considered it to be their greatest right to speak and write at liberty, but this liberty frequently degenerated into presumption, and, as the King affirmed, into licentiousness. Their influence increased, when in the year 1584, deputies from the inferior nobility and the former Church lands, entered Parliament, and it was resolved there that the Bishops, who of late years had been persecuted and deprived of their property, should be restored to their rights; that the King and Parliament should be the supreme judges over Clergy and Laity, and that assemblies of the Church should not meet without permission. But when Arran, in consequence of his unworthy conduct in the Administration, was deprived of his post in 1585, and a reconciliation effected with the emigrants and the exiles, the discussions respecting the constitution and the property of the Church were renewed. To the zealous Presbyterians it was stated, the Bishops are not to be overthrown except by depriving them of their property, and their dignities rendered of no value. The Protestant Clergy will obtain a sufficient indemnity by the restoration of the whole of the tithe. To the King it was said, that if he acquired that property, he might be content to let the Bishops fall to the ground. All were, however, deceived, for the Clergy did not recover the whole of the tithes, and the estates promised to the King soon got into the hands of the courtiers; so that in the end the Church was poorer, and the King not

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