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The substance of the remonstrance of which the King complained, was the following: “The King has been induced by false representations to the measures which he has adopted, and the dissolution of the first Parliament for instance, was not so much on account of contagious disorders, as Buckingham's fear of a just accusation. Formerly the examination of grievances always preceded the voting of the supplies; now the power and the influence of Buckingham was our chief grievance, and the investigation of it naturally cost much time. Then a new interruption was made hy the arrests of two members of the House of Commons, who were obliged to prove their innocence and to claim their rights. Besides this, the arbitrary levying of tonnage and poundage, not granted by Parliament, gave the more ground for alarm, as it is directly contrary to the laws of the kingdom. The House of Commons, therefore, only did its duty in turning its attention to all these things, and requests the King not to prefer one man to all other men, and to the public concerns, but to dismiss Buckingham. It will then devote itself with zeal and confidence to all the other business, especially to the supplies.”

The King, disregarding these arguments, believed that the right and power were on his side; he therefore ordered the remonstrance to be seized and burnt, wherever it might be found, and the Earl of Arundel to be arrested. In reference to all these measures and events, an impartial observer, Rusdorf, the Palatine Ambassador, writes: “The King has dissolved the Parliament before any business whatever was finished, in order to save his favorite from enquiry. (") Thus offending innumerable worthy people, he chooses rather to please one man than to give way to the people and the estates of the kingdom, in a just and legal manner. The King does and orders nothing without Buckingham, who governs without restraint, while all the other Counsellors are subject to him, or are intimidated, or rejoice when things go ill, because the favorite will then be more speedily ruined. Buckingham, with the greatest folly, makes use of the King's friendship only for his own advantage, while he offends many persons, and neglects the true interests of the country. Hence the King is hated, and the English government appears everywhere remiss as an ally, proud towards friends, violent without power and wisdom.” Cardinal Richelieu expresses himself in equally severe terms respecting Buckingham: “He is of mean origin, ill educated, without virtue and knowledge. His father was insane, his elder brother so mad that it was necessary to confine him; he himself fluctuates between reason and folly, is full of

irregularities, and is carried away by his passions. The folly of an enemy, guided by no rules, is almost more to be feared than his wisdom, because the fool does not act on the principles which are common to all other men. Reason has no touchstone when opposed to such an one, for he attempts everything, prejudices his own interests, and is restrained by nothing but downright impossibility.”

The events that soon succeeded, proved how correctly Richelieu had judged of the Duke: a more prudent statesman would at this moment have tried every means to effect a reconciliation between the King and the Parliament, in order to obtain means to carry on the war with Spain, or he would have made peace with Spain, to be enabled to do without the Parliamentary grants. Instead of this, Buckingham and his partisans dreaded every approach to reconciliation between the King and Parliament, and looked upon the continuation of the Spanish war as an affair of honour: nay, not satisfied with this twofold great error, he most absurdly engaged England, which already carried on the Spanish war without energy, in another war with France. The assistance of the Hugonots, and some less important motives, served as a pretext; others however state, that Buckingham, fearing the influence of Queen Henrietta, wished to break off all connection with France, and hoped besides to acquire great military glory. He thought then to go to Paris as a victorious Plenipotentiary, though he had been forbidden to appear there, because he had, on a former occasion, paid his court in an offensive manner to Queen Anne herself. His expedition to Rochelle in June, 1627, (") entirely failed, and gave occasion for just reproaches, which could not be averted by the King issuing an order, that nobody should accuse Buckingham, or lay the blame on him. While the Duke, following his own caprices and personal feelings, quarrelled with France, he offended or slighted the Dutch, Swedes, and Danes. Christian IV., who was hard pressed in the German war, therefore advised his nephew, King Charles, to grant the reasonable desires of his subjects, and reconcile himself with them, in order to obtain money and power to contend with really dangerous enemies. But Charles was much offended at this advice, as an improper interference, and was brought, by his financial measures, into still greater difficulties. First of all an order was issued under the great seal, that all taxes, hitherto existing, though not granted anew by the Parliament, should continue to be paid, and this principal violation of the established forms of law, was followed by many other errors and acts of injustice. The farmers of royal domains were arbitrarily taxed; the Roman Catholics, (contrary to a solemn promise,) were exempted, on the payment of larger or smaller sums, from the penal statutes; the burden of the naval armaments or the payment of ship-money, was laid upon the whole kingdom, especially the sea-ports; tonnage and poundage were levied without respect to the objections made by the Par iament; an attempt was made to change the current coin; and lastly, orders were given to sell all domains, forests, chases, ponds, fisheries, gardens, mills, houses, castles, rents, fiefs, the tithes, &c.; or immediately to raise the rents. As all these financial measures, which were injudicious or unjust, or both, did not bring in sufficient money, the King ordered, on the 16th of October, 1626, a loan to be levied, to which every one was to contribute, according to certain rules, which were arbitrarily laid down. In the ordinance issued for this purpose, is the following passage: “The King is compelled to adopt this extraordinary measure by necessity, and by the circumstance that there is not time to call a Parliament. This, however, is not meant to form a precedent, or deprive Parliament of its rights. Certain people indeed say, necessity may be alleged every year, and endeavours made to levy taxes without the Parliament. The King, however, is resolved not to suffer such speeches and intrigues to go unpunished. He will besides summon a Parliament as soon as it can properly be done, and as often as public affairs may require it. If the people now pay cheerfully and

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