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passive obedience are recommended, and mankind are required to forget, or banish from their minds, all higher considerations in the gratification of the first wants of ordinary existence, and in the absence of minor evils.

VOL. I. N In

NOTES TO CHAPTER V.

(1) Page 467. On the 20th of November, 1625, he writes to Buckingham, “You know what patience I have had with the unkind usages of my wife.” Hardwicke State Papers, vol. II., p. 3.

(2) Page 468. Howell, vol. IV., p. 36. Richelieu, Mem., vol. III., p. 163–176. These matters are treated of in great detail by Israeli, vol. II., p. 199, and vol. III. p. 119; where he also proves that Henrietta was no great political character, and had less influence than is generally supposed.

(3) Page 468. Fontenay, LI., p. 360. Recueil de pièces concernant l'histoire de Louis XIII., vol. II., p. 372. Warwick, p. 6, praises Henrietta's beauty and lively understanding. On the 13th of August, 1627, Charles writes, “I and my wife were never better together.” Hardwicke, vol. II., p. 14.

(4) Page 470. James had left debts to the amount of about £300,000. Whitelock, p. 2.

(5) Page 471. In one week of July, 1222 persons died. Laud Diary, p. 20. Nay, according to Whitelocke, p. 2, 5000; and in London and the environs, in all, 35,000.

(6) Page 474. Vaughan Mem. of the Stuarts, vol. I., p. 369. Lingard, vol. IX., p, 341. Even Israeli, vol. II. p. 5, relates that Charles, so early as 1626, said in the Council, that he hated the name of Parliament.

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(7) Page 475. Brodie, vol. II., p. 65. Whitelocke, p. 1. On the 15th of February, a Committee was appointed for religious affairs, and another against scandalous and unworthy ministers. Journals of the Commons, vol. I., p. 819. (8) Page 482. Parlia. His., p. 106. That Buckingham gave a poisoned medicine to King James is a calumny. Johnston, p. 681. In the journal of the Lords, vol. III., p. 625 —664, there is a list of the uncommonly valuable presents and estates which Buckingham had received from James and Charles. He endeavours to correct it, and reduce the amount. (9) Page 482. Diggs, in the introduction, compared (which was thought a master-piece of eloquence,) England with the world, the King with the sun, the House of Commons with the earth and sea, the Lords with the planets, the Clergy with the fire, the Judges with the air, and Buckingham with a comet. Whitelocke, p. 5. Bacon, Middlesex, and others, had been previously accused in a similar manner. Hallam, vol. I., p. 515. (10) Page 486. The enquiry which Charles, for appearance sake, caused to be instituted against Buckingham before the star chamber, was of no importance whatever; and the whole proceedings were subsequently quashed, because the King declared that he was convinced of the innocence of the accused. Whitelocke, p. 9–10. (11) Page 488. Israeli, (Commentaries, vol. 1I.,) endeavours by every means to excuse and justify Buckingham, but the dexterity of the courtier and the courage of the soldier appear, in this case, to be quite subordinate and insufficient qualities in conjunction with the greatest defects. (12) Page 498. Annals of James, p. 243. Brodie, vol. II., p. 96, shows that Thomas Wentworth, afterwards Earl of Strafford, has often been confounded with another Thomas Wentworth, Member for Oxford. But as the latter died in October, 1627, the former must be the person here meant. (13) Page 500. Parliam. Hist., p. 281. Annals, p. 231.

When the Parliament applied to the King to grant a fast day, he answered, “That fighting would help their Protestant brethren more than fasting.” He, however, consented, only it must not come too often. The Commons, on the other hand, said, “Religion must first be attended to, and then tonnage and poundage.” Whitelocke, p. 12. (14) Page 50l. The words of the coronation oath are, “Will you grant to hold and keep the laws and rightful customs which the Commonalty of this your kingdom have, and will you defend and uphold them to the honour of God? Yes.” Sanderson's History of Charles, p. 26. (15) Page 504. Leave entire the sovereign power wherewith your Majesty is intrusted, for the protection, safety, and happiness of your people. Rushworth, vol. I., p. 510. This forcibly reminds us of the celebrated fourteenth paragraph of the French charter. (16) Page 515. Israeli, vol. II., p. 138, endeavours to justify the King's conduct, but, as it seems to me, in an unsatisfactory manner. (17) Page 518. Parl. His. vol. II., p. 488. It was said, “The King had indeed the right to dissolve and prorogue Parliament; but not to adjourn it.” Neal, vol. II., p. 171. The refusal to adjourn was so far useless in the end, as the King might prorogue it. (18) Page 519. We find several Noblemen active in these movements; thus, Hollis was son of the Earl of Clare, Nathaniel Fiennes a son of Lord Say, &c. Lingard, vol. X., p. 101. (19) Page 520. Earl Carlisle, and two or three others, begged the King, upon their knees, not to dissolve the Parliament so suddenly, and in such anger: but all the Counsellors unanimously advised the dissolution. So they were not more calm or prudent than the King. (20) Page 524. Salmon's Trials, p. 103. Whitelocke, p. 12. Elliot was especially reproached with having said, “That your Majesty's Council, all your judges, had conspired together to trample under their feet, the liberties of the realm.” Rushworth, vol. I., p. 667. Hallam, vol. II., p. 6. (21) Page 524. Sanderson, p. 135, seq. Brodie, vol. II., p. 233. Israeli, vol. II., p. 231, ascribes the King's anger to the circumstance that Elliot compared Buckingham to Sejanus, and therefore indirectly characterized him as Tiberius. (22) Page 530. Laud was a very ass in anything but Church matters. Lilly's Life of Charles, p. 48. Lingard, vol. X., p. 5–285. Hallam, vol. II., p. 53–61. Warwick, p. 73–81. (23) Page 531. You must not longer delay to discharge your illusory privilege, else the mockery will be withdrawn. Brodie, vol. II., p. 219. (24) Page 532. On the 23d of March, 1637, a new tariff of duties of custom on importation and exportation was published with reference to preceding royal ordinances. (25) Page 535. Bibl. Regia, p. 249. Brodie, vol. II., p. 389. Lingard, Vol. X. p. 27–33. The judges fell into contempt, by sacrificing the national rights. Neal, vol. II., p. 267. (26) Page 538. It was, however, not proper, and gave offence, that clergymen, by reading the royal ordinance from the pulpit, seemed to encourage the people to worldly amusementS. (27) Page 542. In 1663, a part of Prynne's ears had been cut off, and he was branded on the cheeks with the letters S. L., (seditious libeller). Rushworth, vol. II., p. 1–379–382. Sanderson, p. 218. Monteth, p. 62. (28) Page 542. The following is a similar story: among the papers of the former Lord Keeper Williams, a letter of the Canon Osbolston, was found: “The little vermin, the hedgehog, hocuspocus (Laud) is engaged in a great dispute with the

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