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the Protestants. Reading of the Bible permitted. Doctrine of the
Church. Henry again excommunicated by the Pope. Six articles
of faith proposed by the King to Parliament and agreed to. Death
of Queen Jane Seymour. Servility of the Parliament. Henry
marries Ann of Cleves, but immediately divorces her, and marries
Catharine Howard. Disgrace of Thomas Cromwell. The Queen
accused and beheaded. Henry marries Catharine Parr. Religious
books published by the King's order. Wars with France and
Scotland. The Duke of Norfolk, and his son the Earl of Surrey,
accused of High Treason, and the latter executed. Death of Henry
VIII. Accession of Edward VI. Council of Regency. The Duke
of Somerset chosen Protector. Religious Affairs. War with
Scotland. Proposed marriage between Edward VI. and Mary
daughter of James V. of Scotland. Mary sent to France by the
party averse to the marriage. Cranmer publishes a Catechism and
Book of Common Prayer in the English language. Lord Thomas
Seymour the Protector's brother—His intrigues—He is impeached,
and executed. Religious intolerance and persecution. Disturbances
and financial embarrassments. The Earl of Warwick. The fall of
the Protector Somerset. Peace with France. Somerset again ac-
cused, and executed. The Earl of Warwick created Duke of
Northumberland, and placed at the head of the government. The
succession to the throne. King Edward prevailed upon to declare
Jane Grey, daughter of the Duke of Suffolk, his successor. Death
of Edward VI. Jane Grey refuses to accept the throne, but
yields to the importunities of her parents. Fall of the Duke of
Northumberland. Jane Grey and her husband imprisoned. Queen
Mary ascends the throne—Her character. The subserviency of the
Parliament. Rigorous proceedings against the Protestant religion.
Proposed marriage of Mary with Philip II., King of Spain. Cruel
persecution of the Protestants. Jane Grey executed. The Princess
Elizabeth arrested, but set at liberty. Philip arrives in England, and is
married to the Queen. The Roman Catholic Church restored. Reli-
gious persecution. Bonner, Bishop of London. Bishop of Gloucester
burnt. Cranmer accused—His recantation—He is condemned to be
burnt at the stake; revokes his recantation. Further persecutions.
Death of Queen Mary. Notes.—Page 1–220.

CHAPTER II.

From the Accession of Queen Elizabeth to the conclusion of the Treaty
with France. 1558–1572.

The Constitution of Scotland. Cardinal Beatoun. The Earl of
Arran. Edward VI. and Mary Stuart. Cardinal Beatoun murdered.
Mary sent to France to be educated, and to be married to Francis
the Dauphin. Mary Guise, Queen dowager, concludes peace with
England—Is appointed Regent of Scotland. Memorial of the Pro-
testants, demanding various privileges—The Queen gives an unsatis-
factory answer. Princess Mary married to Francis the Dauphin,
and on the death of Henry II. declared reigning Queen of France;
and at the instigation of her uncles, assumes the titles and arms of
Queen of England. Character of Mary—Her claims of succession
to the English throne. Reply of the advocates of Elizabeth. Cha-
racter of Elizabeth—Her Counsellors. Character of Bacon, Walsing-
ham, Cecil, &c. Rejoicings at the accession of Elizabeth. Philip
proposes marriage to Elizabeth, which she declines. Elizabeth's
right of succession to the throne recognized by Parliament. Elizabeth
restores the Protestant religion. The moderation of Elizabeth—
Declines the wish of the Parliament that she would marry. Peace
of Cateau Cambresis. Conduct of the Queen Regent of Scotland.
John Knox—His character. Fanatic excesses of the people. Des-
truction of Churches, Monasteries, &c. The Prior of St. Andrew's.
Troops from France arrive in Scotland. The Queen Regent deposed.
Opinion of John Knox. The Scotch Confederates apply to Elizabeth.
Prudent conduct of Elizabeth—Convention with the Scotch Con-
federates. Death of the Queen Regent of Scotland—Her character.
Convention of Edinburgh. The Roman Catholic worship abolished
in Scotland. The constitution of the Church of Scotland. Reso-
lution to destroy Abbeys, Convents, Libraries, &c. Death of King
Francis II. Mary's letters to Elizabeth. Her objections to the
treaty of Edinburgh. Mary leaves France and lands in Scotland,
where she is received with great rejoicings and respect. Religious
differences. Knox preaches against the Catholics. Mary's conver-
sation with him—His austerity—He is accused of high treason, but
acquitted. Disputes for the possession of Church property. Nego-
ciations with France and England. Elizabeth's declaration respecting

the succession. The state of England. Elizabeth assists the French
Huguenots. Offers of marriage to the two Queens. Robert Dudley,
Earl of Leicester—His character. Chastelar and Mary Queen of
Scots. Proposed marriage between Queen Mary and the Earl of
Leicester. Mary marries the Earl of Darnley. Character of
Darnley. David Rizzio—He is murdered. Birth of James I.
Elizabeth declines to name a successor. The Earl of Bothwell—His
character—His influence with Mary. Darnley's illness—His recon-
ciliation with the Queen. Murder of Darnley. Mary's remissness
in proceeding against Bothwell. The Earl of Lennox, Darnley's
father, accuses Bothwell of the murder. Elizabeth's letter on the
subject. Bothwell tried and acquitted—He obtains a declaration in
his favour—Carries off the Queen, and is pardoned by her. Craig
refuses to publish the banns of marriage between Mary and Bothwell.
—Mary marries Bothwell—Attempts to justify herself. Confederacy
against Mary—She is taken prisoner, and confined in Lochleven
castle—Signs her renunciation to the throne, and recommends
Murray as Regent for James, who is crowned King. Bothwell flies
to the Orkney Islands. Elizabeth disapproves of the conduct of the
Scotch Confederates. Mary escapes from Lochleven castle—Assembles
an army, but is defeated at the battle of Langside, and flies to
England. Discussions respecting the treatment of Mary–Mary's
complaints to Elizabeth. Negociations with her respecting a media-
tion between her and her subjects. Embarrassment of Murray.
Conferences at York and Westminster. Mary's letters and sonnets
to Bothwell produced. Elizabeth's proposals. Mary complains of
Elizabeth's partiality. Question of Mary's guilt or innocence dis-
cussed.—Her sonnets. Projects of the Duke of Norfolk. Rebellion
of the Earls of Westmoreland and Northumberland. The dangerous
situation of Elizabeth. The Pope's Bull of excommunication
affixed by Felton to the Bishop of London's Palace. Elizabeth's
instructions to Norris her Ambassador at Paris. Proceedings in
Scotland. The Earl of Murray assassinated—His character. The
Earl of Lennox appointed Regent. New negociations for the release
of Mary. Arrest and execution of the Duke of Norfolk. Treaty
with France. Notes—Page 221–290.

CHAPTER III.

From the Peace with France to the Death of Elizabeth.
1572–1603.

Religious differences. The Puritans. Archbishops Parker, Grindal,
and Whitgift. Parliamentary discussions. Debates in the Commons
on changes in the Liturgy. The Queen offended—Differences
between her and the Parliament—The massacre of St. Bartholomew.
—Sir Francis Drake. Negociation for a marriage with the Duke of
Alençon—It is broken off. The affairs of Scotland. The death of
John Knox. The Earl of Morton succeeds to the Regency—He
is accused by the Earl of Arran and executed. Discontent of the
nobles. Arran arrested and the King placed under confinement.
Debates respecting the property of the church. Severe laws against
the Papists. Negociations with Elizabeth for the restoration of
Mary—Wehemently opposed by the Scotch. Insurrections in England
and Ireland excited by Philip of Spain. Cardinal Allen. Con-
spiracies against Elizabeth. Laws against the Jesuits. Association
for the protection of the Queen. Mary's proposals to Elizabeth.
Treaty between King James and Elizabeth. Elizabeth assists the
Netherlands against Spain. Babington's conspiracy. Proceedings
against Mary. Commissioners sent to Fotheringay. Mary declared
guilty of participating in Babington's conspiracy. The Parliament
calls on Elizabeth to have the sentence executed. Elizabeth declines,
and requests the Parliament to think of some other means. The
two Houses persist in their opinion that the execution of Mary is
necessary. Public notice given of the sentence passed on Mary.
Intercession of France in her favour. Elizabeth's letter to Henry III.
Intercession of James. Arguments for and against Mary. The
warrant for Mary's execution drawn up and sealed, and intrusted to
Davison. He communicates it to the Privy Council, which resolves,
without applying to Elizabeth, to send the warrant to be executed.
Mary's firmness. Her execution. Elizabeth's agitation on receiving
the news. Her justification. Her letters to King James and to the
King of Denmark. Letter from the French Ambassador to Henry III.
The Author's observations. Warlike preparations of Spain. The
Invincible Armada. Armaments in England. Elizabeth visits the
camp at Tilbury. The Invincible Armada defeated. The death of
Burghley. The Earl of Essex—His favour with the Queen—His

arrogant behaviour to her—Her resentment—Their reconciliation,

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