Sivut kuvina
PDF
ePub

CHAPTER V.

From the Accession of Charles I. to the breaking out of the Scotch
Troubles. 1625–1637.

Accession of Charles I.-His character—His love of learning
and of the arts—His marriage with Henrietta Maria, sister of
Louis XIII. Conduct of the Queen's French household—The
whole of them dismissed by the King. Charles's first Parliament.
Differences of opinion. Plague in London. The Parliament resolves
to investigate the grievances before granting the supplies. Parliament
dissolved. The second Parliament. Pym. The King's chaplain,
Montague. The King writes to the Speaker, urging the necessity of
granting the supplies. Parliament dissatisfied with the Duke of
Buckingham. The King supports him. The differences between
the King and the Parliament increase. Articles of impeachment
against Buckingham drawn up. Buckingham defends himself.
Parliament dissolved. War with France. Charles levies taxes
by his own authority—lmposes a forced loan. Hampden. Dr.
Mainwaring's Sermon. Third Parliament summoned. The King's
speech. Debates in Parliament. Committees appointed to discuss
the wants of the government and the grievances. Five subsidies
granted. The Parliament persists in enquiring into and discussing
the grievances. The Petition of Right—Presented to the King; who
returns an unsatisfactory answer, and announces his intention to
dissolve the Parliament. Vehement debates. The King gives his
sanction to the Petition of Right. The House finally grants the
five subsidies; but persists in enquiring into the grievances. Dr.
Mainwairing prosecuted and condemned. Representation of the
Commons to the King, complaining of the Duke of Buckingham.
The King justifies the minister, and prorogues the Parliament.
A fleet ordered to the relief of Rochelle. The Duke of Buckingham
assassinated. Parliament again assembled, but soon prorogued and
dissolved. The King's declaration. Ten members arrested—Pro-
ceedings against them—They are sentenced to be fined and imprisoned.
Diversity of opinion on the conduct of the King. Lord Clarendon's
character of the ministers. The Earl of Strafford. Archbishop
Laud. Peace with France and Spain. Charles's financial measures.

arbitrary proceedings of the Star-Chamber. Ship-money demanded
—John Hampden refuses to pay his quota—Proceedings against him
in the Exchequer—Seven of the twelve Judges declare him guilty.
Public discontent. Clarendon's opinion of the measures of the
government. The affairs of the church. Rigorous measures of
Archbishop Laud. The Puritans. Prynne and Bastwick—Prynne
prosecuted—Severe sentence on him. Bastwick and Burton. General
observations. Notes—Page—465–545.

[ocr errors]

THE name of the Author of the History of the House of Hohenstaufen, prefixed to an historical work, ought to ensure to it the favorable attention of the public; but there are some circumstances attending the publication of these volumes, which render it necessary to introduce them by some preliminary observations. The History of Europe since the end of the fifteenth century, was originally announced to be completed in six volumes: considering such a work as a desideratum in English literature, a translation of it was contemplated, not to be commenced however till the publication of the original should be somewhat advanced; but when the fifth volume was found to bring the history only to 1660, it became evident that the whole would be of much greater extent than originally proposed. If we consider the events of the last hundred and fifty years, we shall see reason to believe that it will scarcely be possible to compress them in less than five or six volumes more; for they embrace the English revolution; the wars of William III. and Louis XIV.; the war of the Spanish succession; that which was ended by the peace of Aix la Chapelle; the seven years' war; the American war; the partition of Poland; the French Revolution, and the rise and progress of the Russian power; with a host of distinguished characters, William III. and Louis XIV.; Marlborough, Eugene, Charles XII., the house of Hanover, Maria Theresa, Frederick II., Peter the Great, Catharine I., Catharine II., Napoleon, &c. Under these circumstances, it was resolved to translate into English that portion only of the original which relates to the history of our own country, in the persuasion that such a work by an enlightened foreigner, already so advantageously known as an historian, could not fail to be acceptable. Some persons may, however, imagine that, not being designed by the author as a history of England, properly speaking, but as that of a part of Europe, it might, if taken separately, appear rather as a fragment than as a complete work; when Professor Von Raumer was lately in England, he himself expressed an apprehension that it might be so considered, and requested that it might be mentioned in the Preface that this was only a portion of his great work. I am convinced that this

apprehension is merely the result of the author's
own modesty, and in support of the opinion that it
is ill founded, it seems sufficient to quote his own
words. In the Preface to his second volume he says,
that he had judged it the best, and necessary to re-
present the North of Europe, France, and England,
as three great characteristic pictures complete in
themselves: “Drei grosse meist für sich alge-
schlossene und eigenthiimliche Gemälde.” It
should seem, therefore, that there can be no solid
objection to taking one of these complete pictures,
and leaving the others.
In his Preface to the first volume, the author
says, there may be differences of opinion respecting
what is worthy of being recorded in history, but
as far as he himself is concerned, he agrees with
Menzel in considering every thing that does not
indicate the progress of human improvement, the
predominance of ideas, the distinguishing cha-
racteristics of eminent men, as ballast, which ought
to be reserved for special civil and military his-
tories, or the annals of cities and provinces. It
is probably on this account that he has touched
but slightly on the military events during the civil
troubles in England, in order to have sufficient
space for other matters, which he considers more
important. It is also for this reason that it has
been judged more appropriate to call the work
“The Political History of England.” Of the trans-

[ocr errors]
« EdellinenJatka »