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in the second. All those who are in active service receive ene same pay as the other troops of Russia.

The population of the Don Cosacks amounts to 300,000 souls. Their troops are divided into 119 colonies or regiments. The age at which every Cosack is deemed fit for service, is between fifteen and fifty. During that period, his name is registered, and he is always bound to be ready to march at the orders of the sovereign or when his turn arrives, and to equip and arm himself at his own expense, and provide himself with two horses. Although they supply at this moment to the Russian em pire only forty thousand men, they can, in case of necessity, easily double that number. A fine regiment of Cosack guards has lately been formed by the empire out of the finest looking men, who are very richly dressed. From the earliest age, the young Cosack delights in being on horseback, in exercising his body, and accustoming it to every movement: to bend under his horse at full gallop, to manage his pike, which, like the tomahawk of the Indians, is his constant companion, and to shoot at a mark with his gun and bow. On holidays, this last is the occupation of the young and old; and sometimes whole regiments meet to enjoy this favourite diversion. The Cosack horses have a heavy and worndown air, but are quite the reverse when in action. None are then more lively, bold, strong, and easy to manage. A Cosack will leap with his horse from the steepest bank into a deep and rapid river; will traverse dry and burning sands, or cross the thickest forests covered with snow. The best Turkish cavalry, mounted on the finest coursers of Anatolia, have never been able to sustain their first shock, and when pursued are always overtaken by them. The first Cosack you meet will offer to sell you the horse of any Turkish trooper whom he may distinguish at a distance before the enemy's camp. He will set out with the rapidity of lightning, and certainly reach and bring him to you.*

* Several anecdotes of this kind are related; but we will content ourselves with repeating what occurred to general Milazadovitz, during the last campaign against the Turks, at his victorious entry into Bucharest. As he was crossing, at the head of his troops, a part of the city where the Turks still made resistance, a Turk mounted on a fine Arabian horse, galloped up and fired a pistol at him. The ball grazed him slightly; but the general, without VOL. VII.

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Suworoff showed his regard for the Cosacks by often assuming their dress, riding horses like theirs, speaking their language, and always being accompanied by some one of them. He understood too well the art of war, and was too good a judge of military merit not to have a reason for this partiality. He knew that these men, who are plunderers, and even burdensome, when they fight in their ancient manner, when reduced to discipline and order, unite all the good qualities of a soldier: brave, dexterous, patient, faithful, full at once of resignation and ardor; and capable of every species of military service. It is, however, particularly as light troops that they excel. Their frugality, their disregard of the extremes of heat and cold, which they support night and day in the open air, the smallness of their baggage, which consists only of he clothes they wear, their agility as horsemen, and the activity of their horses, who can subsist on any thing that grows: all these qualities place the Cosacks among the best troops of the world. Suworoff understood this. He contributed more than any other person to give them a proper standing in the Russian army; and foreigners have more than once experienced the uses to which he could apply them. In the late wars since 1778, the Cosacks have proved, in spite of all the prejudices of foreigners, that they can not only cope with regular troops, but are able to attack the strongest intrenchments, and mount victoriously to the assault.

We have thus far considered the Cosacks only as a brave and martial people, and endeavoured to explain their merit and ascertain their relative rank among other military nations. Our impartiality now obliges us to add, that, considered as an enlightened people, they are far from being on a level with the civilized inhabitants of Europe. Limited, however, as is their knowledge, and though the sciences are as yet in their infancy among the Cosacks, they already possess writers and poets., Of these we will mention only Simon Klinovsky, born in 1724,

losing his presence of mind, turned to the nearest Cosack, and ordered him to follow the Turk. This was sufficient: the order was instantly executed, and tlre Tark brought back a prisoner with liis horse.

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whose manuscript works on the greatness of the soul and on truth, are preserved in the imperial library, and contain very ' noble sentiments and much fine poetry. It is said that he enjoyed among his countrymen the same esteem and reputation which were once possessed by the sages of Greece; that like the inspired Pythia, he delivered in verse his wise counsels to his friends; and that strangers came from all parts to hear him. The song called The departure of the Cosack, which is deemed by the ladies so beautiful, and which is translated into several languages, is the composition of Klinovsky, the amiable pupil of nature, but to whom art had unfortunately given no assistance. Under the reign of the emperor Alexander, gymnasiums and schools have been established among the Cosacks, who have been found to possess the happiest dispositions, * and an astonishing degree of intelligence.t

P. Sy-n.



The two illustrious painters, whose lives have already been noticed, are called the founders of the two schools distinguished by the names of the Roman and the Florentine. They are so denominated, not because they were the earliest, but the most eminent painters. Of the Florentine school, Angelo was the master. He was distinguished for boldness of design. Nature was expanded and enlarged, and in short made the vehicle of strong

• The Cosacks of Siberia are usually the interpreters for the savages of that country; and some of them understand several of the dialects of those people: They are also the best guides over the dreary forests and deserts of Siberia.

+ Nature has gifted them with an exquisite sense of sight and hearing, similar to those of the American Indians, who can discover the tracks of their enemies with a surprising sagacity, and from the confused prints of their feet, calculate their numbers, and the time of their passing The Cosack, by apply. ing his ear to the ground, will tell, from the hollow sound, the distance and the number of a body of cavalry.

and energetic conceptions. Where astonishmeni is the passion invoked, little or no homage can be paid to the altar of the Graces. Vehement attitudes, such as served to display to advantag a knowledge of anatomy, were adopted. The character of this school comprised strength, sublimity, and grandeur; and is thought to have incorporated 100 liberally the principles of sculpture with those of painting.

Of the earlier Florentine painters, Cimabue is reported to have the honour of restoring the art in Italy. His picture of the Madonna was much admired, where the virgin was seen with her infant in her lap seated in her chair, supported by six full grown angels, all of them less in stature than the child. Giotto, his pupil, excelled in attitude, in the natural foldings of the drapery, in expressing the passions by the face, and was not entirely ignorant of the art of foreshortening. Masaccio, introduced the study of living nature, instead of the cold and lifeless models of sculpture. Paolo Uccello was the first who gave an ideal depth to his works, by his superior knowledge of perspective. Filippo Lippi, the elder, gave a boldness and grandeur to his figures before unknown.

The anatomy of the human body now began to be consulted, in which Paolo Juolo distanced all his competitors. In his contest of Hercules and Antæus, this superiority was strongly displayed. Baldovinetti excelled in portrait-painting. In his picture of the Queen of Sheba on a visit to Solomon, by one of those violent anachronisms for which the painters of that age were so remarkable, he introduced the features of Lorenzo di Medici. Andrea Da Castagna first attempted paintings in oil; and Luca Signarelli peculiarly excelled in drawing naked figures. Such was the state of this delightful art, when Michael Angelo and Leonardo Da Vinci established the Florentine school.

Leonardo Da Vinci was both the cotemporary and the rival of Angelo. He was a man of universal genius, and of such unbounded versatility of research, that he was unable to give his attention undivided to the pencil. Whatever science, whatever, pursuit, occupied his attention, he analyzed with an ardor that knew no restraint; and thus was his mind continually summoned from his favourite pursuit. The pencil, the chissel, the pen and

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