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ed. This capricious levity attended him through life, and was the parent of many fraternal squabbles. The two brothers were always quarrelling in each others presence, and always repining in each others absence, so`that it was ludicrously said they could neither live together, nor apart.

Augustino, having found that Hannibal held a decided superiority in the pencil, his irritable genius took alarm, and resolving to maintain an ascendency some where, he devoted himself to engraving from spite. This quarrel was finally reconciled; and Augustino attended his brother to Rome, and materially assisted him in his labours in the Farnesian palace. This reconciliation, however, only gave birth to a new controversy, which was inflamed by Jachone, a pupil of Hannibal's, and eventuated in their separation again.

It gives us pain to record the melancholy fact, that this unhappy separation was final. It may serve, at least as a warning not to indulge such petty resentments where so much affection still remains. Augustino fell into a melancholy state, and died for grief at Parma, in the year 1602. Hannibal was truly affected by his loss, and erected a monument to his memory. .

Augustino spent much time in executing an engraving of Tintoretto's crucifixion, and it is singular that he should, since the principal merit of that piece lay, as has been before remarked, in the awful twilight that surrounds the figure, indicating the supernatural character of the victim, a character of beauty to the expression of which engraving is perhaps inadequate. His own paintings possessed considerable learning, elegance of form, and a colour highly Corregiesque. One of his most beautiful pieces is the communion of St. Jerom, preserved in the chartreux at Bologna, and executed after his return from Venice. The heads possess an uncommon character of sublimity. He attempted a series of paintings for the palace of the duke of Mantua, but was prevented by death from their accomplishment. His patron was so well pleased, that he would never suffer the work to be finished by the hand of any other artist. VOL. VII.

4 B


HANNIBAL CARACCI, was born in the year 1560. In the outset of his life, he felt no desire of advancement; but still there was a conscious superiority that his mind was above the business of a tailor, in which he was then engaged. His father observing this, placed him under a goldsmith, and then under Ludoico to learn the art of drawing

Here he felt for the first time this mystery of his previous sensations explained, his former habits were struggling against the current of nature at every effort, his present glided with the stream. While employed with his needle, he often expressed a confident persuasion that he should achieve something for posterity to admire; but he could not conjecture what that something was' to have been. Of one thing he was certain however, that this was not to be accomplished by his present employment. Such ideas are not uncommon to men of genius, long before they have undertaken what secures to them the admiration of posterity. Milton expressed the same persuasion as Hannibal did, a long time before he had entertained a thought of his immortal poem. I

Ludoico, soon discovered that he had the tutilage of a genius beyond his own-his plunging industry was disposed to dare all the depths of the art. The lectures of Corregio, the instruction and example of Paul Veronese, and Tintoretto, with both of whom he had formed an acquaintance, explained what Ludoico was unable to do.

Hannibal returned from his travels, rich with the stores of such various knowledge; applied himself assiduously to his art, and soon became the pride and boast of Bologna. He had never get trod on classic ground, and amidst all his celebrity, he was still anxious 10 explore the treasures of Rome. That favourite moment which seemed to form the boundary of his wishes, was delayed by fortune no longer. Cardinal Farnese desirous of painting the gallery of his palace at Rome, and the duke of Parma his brother, both warmly pressed Hannibal to undertake the task. He accepted with enthusiasm the offer, and set out with a chosen number of pupils from an academy which he had previously

founded. So anxious was Hannibal to engage in this important work, so full of the hope of transmitting his name to posterity, that he quite forgot to make any stipulation with the cardinal with regard to the expense. Fearing least he should fail in the practical department of his designs, he took with him to Rome, Aguccbi, his intimate friend, and a man whose learning was considerable.

He likewise solicited assistance from the friendship of his cousin and his brother, which was cordially rendered by both. In short, the completion of this gallery formed the apex of his ambition, and he laboured for ten years with undiminished zeal in the service of the cardinal. .

Poussin who surveyed this magnificent work, exclaimed that Hannibal was the only painter that existed since the time of Raphael, and that in this work he not only surpassed all other pain. ters, but even himself.

At length the important moment arrived when he put his finishing hand to the pencil, and when he looked for the reward of his labours. For this he received from the hands of the cardinal according to some authors, five, or, as others assert, three hundred crowns. He was too proud to complain, but notwithstanding his disinterestedness was extreme; he was deeply mortified, and felt the most lively resentment. He almost renounced the exercise of the pencil, and nothing but his necessities could compel him to resume it afterwards. He He abandoned Rome, which had thus been made the theatre of such towering hopes and such cruel disappointments. He journeyed to Naples, and attempted by change of objects to recruit his broken spirits; but the sting was implanted to deeply to be extracted by such means. Melancholy followed him like his shadow in his journey; and on his return to Rome his malady increased.

He now had recourse to that awful substitute, so often resorted to by dejected genius, intemperance and debauchery. Like Raphael, he fell a martyr to such criminal indulgence, in the year 1609, and in the forty-ninth year of his age. He expressed the warmest admiration for the genius of that artist, and desired to be buried near his remains, not, as he said, because he believed his talents entitled him to such honour, but to testify his high

veneration for his character. Thus lived, and thus died, unquestionably one of the first painters of his age.

The beautiful picture whence the annexed engraving is taken, is from the pencil of Hannibal Caracci. The Iofant in the arms of his mother is enjoying profound repose. St. John appears in the act of caressing him; fwhile the Virgin, by an expressive sign, desires him not to disturb the slumber. It was painted originally on wood, and is not more than a foot in extent. The draw. ing is correct, and touched with uncommon felicity of tint.

It becomes now difficult to assign to each of these painters his proper work, as they were often all engaged in the same piece. All of them have notwithstanding a decided character of their own. The style of Ludoico was emblematic of his character, modest, simple and full of sweetness, seldom aspiring to elegance, yet whenever it did, attended with enviable success. The figures free from all dramatic strut and artificial attitude, possess a serene and unconscious dignity more bewitchingly sweet for their simplicity. Augustino possessed more truth of colouring, more correctness, a taste more rigid than Hannibal or Ludoico, but he lacked the fire of the one, and the fascinating sweetness of the other. Hannibal was superior to both in fire, invention, and strength of execution, but inferior in delicacy, and judgment. The three Marys weeping over the body of our Saviour, is the joint effort of these artists; and it combines with wonderful harmony the excellencies of drawing, chiaro obscuro, colouring and composition to a degree that has seldom been surpassed. Ludoico, sometimes succeeded in the hardier tones of his art. Such is the flagellation of our Saviour in the church of St. John the Baptist, where the depths of the flesh unts, contrasted with the blue of the sky produce an electric astonishment and horror. Hannibal with all the redundancy of his genius, entangled his pencil in the diversity of styles that he had adopted. At Rome he studiec basso relievos, and ancient statues with such attention, that he renounced his beautiful carnations, his warm, glowing and mellow tints, for a style too monumental, cold and correct. After several attempts he became convinced of his error, and had recourse once more to his first love, which he never afterwards abandoned. Such are the appropriate and distinctive merits and defects of these eminent artists.

Hannibal differed from his brother Augustino, in his habits; the former lived in a plain and philosophical style, the latter in great luxury and splendor. Hannibal once observing his brother walking with a haughty gait in company with some person of distinction, drew him aside, and whispered these words in his ear, Remember your father was a tailor Hannibal was ever averse to company. The cardinal Borghese, having condescended to pay him a visit, he slid out of a back door, and left to his disciples the task of receiving his compliments.

Previous to the departure of Hannibal for Rome, they established an academy at Bologna entitled the academy of the Caracci. Ludoico directed the whole by his advice, Augustino taught to young artists the principles of perspective. The masters obtained the most beautiful forms, and proportions of nature, selected from the best models of the most admired artists. Ludoico collected while at Rome, a number of fine casts of exquisite statues, and basso relievos. Frequent conferences were held, in which not merely artists, but men of general knowledge were invited to attend, and to elucidate points relating to the graphic art. A celebrated anatomist, named Anthony de la Jour, taught whatever was necessary to be known, relative to the knitting of the bones and insertion of the muscles. The avowed objects of this institution was to select the beauties, amend the defects, correct the errors, avoid the extremes of the most admired masters of the pencil, and from the whole mass, to form a perfect style.

This academy maintained its celebrity for a season under the joint auspices of the Caracci, until it was dissolved by the removal of its founders to Rome; yet in that time it had formed the talents of a host of eminent scholars. Among these we will first introduce Francisco Albano, who was born at Bologna in the year 1578. His father was an opulent merchant of that city, and did every thing in his power to prevent his early passion for the pencil. The genius of the young artist, however, seemed only invigorated by opposition, until the parent himself became convinced how hopeless the contest was when paternal authority wages warfare on nature. Albano, with the consent of his father, thus reluctantly ex

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