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despots, for the Antediluvian law, whoso sheddeth man's blooch by man shall his blood be shed, is now as much as ever ia full force.
“The qualified voters of a state possess, on account of their slaves, the right of choosing a greater number of repre. sentatives, in proportion to the free citizens, than is enjoyed by the citizen of a state, who, from honourable and virtuous motives, refuses to participate in the barbarous oppression and slavery of their fellow creatures ; so that 20,000 proprietors of 50,000 slaves, have a voice in the elections equi. valent to that of 50,000 free persons who are destitute of this species of property."
If the citizens of the northern states do not wish to leave their children a prey to anarchy, intrigue, and intestine commotion, they should by all means endeavour to correct this glaring inequality, which undoubtedly is pregnant with inevitable consequences both to the federal union and civil liberty; for they are as much better qualified to correct this defect at present, than their progeny can possibly be hereafter, as one compared to one hundred ; even now, a general view of the population of the union—the relative situation of certain states with each other, and the predominant policy of certain southern states will demonstrate, that the representative principle, as established by the constitution, has given to the southern states a preponderating influence in our national affairs. That this influence will be improved to the total ruin, as it is now improved to the injury of the northern states, is as plain to me as the alphabet. That this will be the case, without a speedy remedy, is already ascertained from the history of the world in general, and the Jews in par. ticular. As this barbarous principle, which allows slave. holders more power and privileges according as they precipi. tate more of the human family into inexpressible misery, was assented to by the northern delegates with reluctance, and on account of local circumstances, it is certain it should be no longer binding, than while other states should adhere to the principles of liberty and equality on which the general government is erected, and which should countervail this un. generous inequality. Then since we find that the operation of this principle has already become so injurious to the northern states, that by its means their influence is literally
annihilated ; that they are at this moment the mere colonies of the south, who, notwithstanding, are very naturally still farther preparing the means of perpetuating their ascendency (or, if you please, supremacy !) by procuring innovations favourable to her own views.
Since the importation of slaves has been prohibited by the laws of all the states, the prohibition, though very often eluded, has no doubt operated as a partial check. But now, new avenues from Spanish America are opened to this destructive traffic, by the recognition of Texas, as they were before by the acquisition of Louisiana and through South Carolina, and to the eternal disgrace of our body politic, the slave trade between distant states is renewed and facilitated to a most deplorable extent; myriads of unhappy men, women, and children, victims to legal barbarity, are period-. ically transported through the American republic, who, though destitute of right themselves, and reduced to a level with the brute creation, yet they confer upon their purchasers the paramount rights of suffrage and of sovereignty, and every five of whom, upon any difference of policy or division of votes between the south and the north, may be considered as effectively balancing the votes of two freemen in the north. Another radical evil, however, of peculiar magnitude, I must notice. Candour forbids me to think, much less assert, that the principal characters of the State of Virginia and the south, men of profound erudition, or the mass of their citizens, plot the introduction of anarchy and innovation. Their souls would, I trust, recoil with horror at the idea of intestine commotion, instead of anticipating a crisis which would inevitably prove fatal to themselves if not to their opponents; but whoever will reflect upon the depravity of human nature for a moment, will see the danger of intrusting even the best of men with power. What is the reason that millions of the human family despise the paramount blessings of vital reli. gion and civil liberty ? The reason is, that the professors of both, while kept in a state of mediocrity, are more sincere ; but when exalted, forget themselves, disgrace the best of causes, and prove hypocrites and demagogues. I have seen or heard of but four men whose love of liberty was superior to their love of power and popularity: namely, Washington, Mr. Jefferson, La Fayette, and J. Q. Adams. I have not
known an individual in my life, and Mr. Wesley affirms that in sixty years he did not know six religious persons that were exalted temporally, but degenerated spiritually, and though they retained the shell, lost the kernel of religion. Those who consider the nature of pride and the treachery of the human heart, will not be surprised at this recital. Hence I believe, one exalted state may excite a tempest that all the states can never allay.
But it should be remembered, that each state has two votes in the Senate of the United States; that the catalogue of new states has been extended by the policy of the south, and that their local situation gives them an unlimited control over the immense southwestern territory, which will be divided into states at their pleasure, and will realize towards her, from the time of their birth, the affections and prejudices of children of the same parent. The country purchased for 15,000,000 dollars, (Louisiana,) of an immeasurable extent, has facilitated the augmentation of the number of states, that are 'ene. mies to the rights of man. The official communication of our minister in France then was; “ That it can be cultivated by slaves only.” We are also informed, that a portion of this newly acquired world is further from us than some of the West India Islands, and that some parts are more distant than Europe ; that the fertility and natural advantages of the territory already explored invite a rapid population. The settlements already organized, are said to contain a motley race of all nations and tongues, and will afford a secure asylum for hordes of fugitives and vagabonds, whose emigra. tion will tend to consolidate slavery, and whose business it will be to drive slaves; and when assimilated to American citizens, what will they or rather what will they not accomplish? Thus will the Virginian or southern policy intrench itself behind the most formidable ramparts. States will be multiplied at her pleasure, with as much expedition as town. ships are incorporated in the northern states and stocked with voters more easily than the rational vot
ies of liberty can stock their farms with cattle. Does it not incontestibly result, that these circumstances have an unavoidable tendency to deprive the northern states of all interest and consideration in the national government, and so accelerate the annihilation of the federal union, the palladium of our constitution. Every
person not blinded by interest or prejudice must see, that without indefatigable exertions, the citizens of the northern states will be ingulfed in a vortex of politics and interests alien to their own, and that the voices of their representatives will be drowned amidst the jargon of cow-skin delegates, chosen by negro drivers and African slave traders. I ask once more, in the name of common sense, when some 1,500,000 slaves more are imported and transported to cul. tivate the Louisiana and Texas regions, which are every week rapidly being stocked, what will
become of the interests, the unalienable rights and natural privileges of the northern states? Where shall we find the liberty and independence for which the patriots of '76 fought and bled. ....for which the revolution was begun and achieved ? Or, where shall we find the federal equality which it was the object of the present constitution to guaranty? Behold the French Republic and the democracies of antiquity, and we need not be at a loss for an answer. Some of them, who depended on their own intrinsic force, have fallen a prey to factious demagogues and anarchy. Some who had confederated for mutual de. fence have been rent asunder, owing to the ambition of the great to tyrannize over the less; and what accelerated their downfall was the blind confidence which they had in their flatterers. All these republics have flitted away, and like blood-stained spectres, pursued by an angry demon, or like thoughtless children, deceived by the fraudful kidnapper to their ruin, and have been precipitated together into one horrid abyss of despotism. ... T'his, no doubt, must, in the nature of things, be the fate of America, unless we shun the rocks on which they split, even admitting that there is no God to redress the grievances of the oppressed here, or justice to punish the cruel oppressor hereafter.
From the arguments already adduced it will appear evident to every person, not contaminated by local prejudice, (and the angel Gabriel himself could not convince such,) that there never was a time when it was more necessary for the friends of liberty to watch congressional intrigues more circumspectly than the present, and to distinguish the politics of individual states from the politics of the nation. It is the love I bear my fellow creatures, the desire I feel for their happiness, and the solicitude I imperiously anticipate for the honour of human
nature, that stimulates me to think and write on politics, for I have, naturally, no inclination to discuss such topics. I have preferred poverty with virtue, to affluence with villany, and do uniformly avoid all parties and party connexions, either in church or state, and finally I seek a peaceful asylum in the shades of obscurity.
The degeneracy of France and the hypocrisy of her tyrant, Napoleon, has entirely changed matters in Europe, and given civil liberty a mortal wound. All the despots of the world combined against her, and nothing but a reciprocal union could have given sufficient security against their intrigues. What a pity it is, that the nations of Christendom are not as anxious to exterminate this greatest of all judgments, san. guinary warfare, from the world, as they are to promote it! How easily might this be done, if governments were of a pacific turn; but, alas ! the contrary is the case-stubborn facts prove it so to be. What impoverishes thousand of families and makes millions of wretched orphans? War, bloody war. What a glorious reformation it would be, if a general con. gress, or pacific republic was organized by all nations, for the purpose of precluding the necessity of war, by accommo. dating all disputes, amicably, which might arise between nation and nation. How easy might a court of arbitration thus formed, by a delegate from each civilized nation, settle every foolish misunderstanding which too frequently is the cause of the loss of thousands of useful lives and millions of treasure. Such a plan would reduce taxation in some nations, at least 100 per cent. less than it is at present.
As the American government is the only free one in the world, like a city placed on a hill, she should show a pattern of political rectitude and pacific moderation to a world of despots and slaves.
No nation can boast so fair an origin. The proudest government in the old world originated from indivi. dual ruffians and murderers, or united bands of them. But the first settlement of the Northern States was with honourable patriots. We should not, therefore, disgrace our origin by our imbecillity or hypocrisy. The eminence on which our republic stands—the vast prospect before us—the eager eyes of millions of enlightened slaves in Europe placed upon us, who long to shake off their manacles and be free,-the mil. lions of families plunged in unutterable misery and distress in