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three to five years old. The above old woman was the driver of the children's gang. I see them now, wandering through the plantation naked, under a vertical sun, and picking up from place to place their little bundles of grass, for the horses and mules. The above lady had a slave almost white. (I thought she was white when I first saw her.) She had a child by the overseer, altogether white. I was told, I think by the girl herself, that her mistress sent it, while very young and naked, to toil under and be burned brown by the sun. But time would fail me was I to particularize what I saw and know of the laceration and ruination of their mortal bodies, and the consequent demoralization and desolation of their im. mortal souls !
Mr. Jefferson, in writing on the policy of the Americans to the Africans in the United States, in his “ Notes on Virginia,” makes these prophetic remarks, to wit:
“ The whole commerce between master and slave, is a perpetual exercise of the most boisterous passions, the most unremitting despotism on one part, and degrading submission on the other. Our children see this, and learn to imitate it; for man is an imitative animal. This quality is the germ of all education in him. From his cradle to his grave he is learning to do what he sees others do. The parent storms, the child looks on, catches the lineaments of wrath, puts on the same airs in a smaller circle of slaves, gives a loose to his worst passions, and thus nursed, educated, and daily exercised in tyranny, cannot but be stamped with odious peculi. arities. And with what execration should the statesman be loaded, who, permitting one half the citizens thus to trample on the rights of the other, transforms those into despots, and these into enemies, destroys the morals of one part, and the amor patriæ (patriotism) of the other.
“ With the morals of the people, their industry is also dostroyed. For in a warm climate, no man will labour for himself who can make another labour for him. This is so true, that of the proprietors of slaves, a very small proportion indeed are ever seen to labour.
“ And can the liberties of a nation be thought secure, when we have removed their only basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are the gift of God that they are not to be violated but with his wrath ? Indeed, I
tremble for my country, when I reflect that God is just ; that his justice cannot sleep forever; that considering numbers, nature, and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, an exchange of situation is among possible events ; that it may become probable by supernatural interference ! The Almighty has no attribute which can take side with us in such a contest.”
And we may ascertain the opinion of all the governments of Europe, by the following remarks, written by the Irish patriot and statesman, Mr. O'Connell.
“I have often longed to go to America, but as long as that country is tarnished with slavery, I will never pollute my feet by treading on its shores. I have felt it a necessary duty to arraign the conduct of the Russian despot for his cruelty to the men, women, and children of Poland, but much as I detest his actions, there is a climax to my hatred-in the deepest hell, there is a depth still more profound, and that is to be found in the conduct of the American slave-owners. They laid the foundation of their liberty, by declaring the self-evident truths, that all men are created equal-and en. dowed with the unalienable rights of Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness, and still have the atrocious and mur. derous injustice to hold their brother men in slavery."
I would also respectfully propose, while so many premiums are offered for well written poems, tales, &c, that some rich patriot would offer a premium to the author of the best written oration on our favourite motto, to be delivered next fourth of July ; also, an essay, showing the increase in population, property, prosperity, &c, of the state of Georgia, and the city of Savannah, since I left it, near fifty years ago ; and contrasting the same with the increase aforesaid, of Pennsyl. vania, and Philadelphia, in the same number of years. Also of Virginia and Richmond, with the state and city of New York, and the state of Massachusetts, and city of Boston, with Lower Canada and Quebec. By this means the advanta. ges of liberty over slavery, and republicanism over monarchy, will be proved beyond the possibility of refutation.
We may here for one moment contrast the prosperity of the Northern with the Southern states, by introducing a short quotation from the memorial of the citizens of Wheeling in
Virginia, to their state Legislature, on the impolicy of sla. very, in 1832: it reads as follows, viz:
“Slavery retards the growth of our population. Virginia has a territory nearly one-third greater than any of the old thirteen states; is blessed with a delightful climate, fruitful soil, and many of the finest harbours and navigable streams in the world, and had once the largest population of any of the states ; her whole population is now less than that of Pennsylvania or New York, and she has fewer white inhab. itants than other states which have not one fourth as much territory. In 1789 she had ten representatives in Congress; Pennsylvania had eight, and New York had six,she will now be entitled to twenty-one, Pennsylvania to twenty-eight, and New York to forty-two.
“It impairs our national strength—for no state can be powerful which is full of internal enemies.
“ It is inconsistent with the true spirit of the Christian religion, which teaches us that all men are equal in the eye
“ It is degrading to our character as a nation. It is de. grading to our national character, not only because it is inconsistent with the principles of liberty and equality, by which we profess to be governed, but because thousands of our citizens are engaged in a traffic, at the bare mention of which humanity must blush-a traffic in human beings !!!
“ It must ultimately lead to the most ruinous and destructive servile wars. In many counties our white population is rapidly decreasing, whilst the slaves are every where increasing. In that part of the state lying east of the Blue Ridge, the coloured has gained upon the white population more than one hundred thousand in the last forty years; and it is susceptible of the clearest demonstration, that that gain must be much more rapid hereafter, than it has been in times past, until at last the disproportion will become so great, we must expect that the horrid scenes of St. Domingo, or such as took place in the island of Jamaica during the last year, will be acted over again in this country.”
Whereas the planters of the South had the evil of slavery entailed upon them by their forefathers, without their con. sent, I would humbly propose to the National Government, individually and collectively, that they appropriate part of
the surplus revenue to accomplish the object the British Par. liament has done, to their immortal honour and national advantage; I mean, purchase the liberty of the slaves of the South from their masters; and at the same time compensate the slaves, as Moses commands in Deuteronomy, chap. 15. We ought to have given them the example sixty years ago
-can we refuse to follow it now? The British Govern. ment are thousands of millions of dollars in debt, and yet went eighty millions more in debt to accomplish this valua.
Who can help admiring this noble action ! And if we refuse to imitate it-we, the richest nation on earth-out of debt, with millions of useless dollars in our treasury, who can help despising us, especially if they have read our Declaration of Independence. I think nothing but this will save the republic from disunion and destruction.
Gratitude, in unison with conscience, commands me to say a few words on this vital subject to the citizens of the South. But where can I find words sufficiently eloquent to express a few of the many thoughts that crowd into my mind! Ah! had I the talents of the author of " The Rights of Man,” which I read with profitable delight in my youth, pressed the hand that wrote it with reverential friendship, and finally took him for my model and master in politics.
The abolitionists have increased in numbers and respecta. bility within a few years, from thousands to hundreds of thousands. The best and brightest men in the republic, or in the world, are in their ranks; and they have taught their youth to consider the sin of slavery as a God dishonouring, a country-destroying sin ; and that not to use all their
pow. ers, at all hazards, to abolish it, peaceably if they can, is to share the crime.
I will now respectfully and affectionately propose to the citizens of the South, to use all lawful means for the revival of patriotism, the preservation of the Federal Union, and the protection of the constitution from all innovators, especially that most estimable part of it which guaranties to all citizens " liberty of speech and the press.” To permit this innovation, in order to repress the abolitionists, is like a man cutting off his nose to be revenged of his face, and dooming his posterity to the same punishment: and in case of the disso. lution of the Union they would be the greatest sufferers, for
this plain and powerful reason, to wit; at present the citi. zens of the North are bound to defend them, if an insurrec. tion of their slaves should take place ; but then they would have near three millions of deadly enemies in their centre, and an army of hostile foes on their circumference. Would it not be more for their honour, interest, and happiness, to learn, from the patience and forbearance of God to them, to bear with patience the well-meant though severe animadversions of the abolitionist ? always remembering what their fa. thers and grandfathers sacrificed and suffered to purchase the federal union and constitution.
For them they fought, and conquer'd side by side-
[Friend Lundy's excellent pamphlet on “The War in Texas,” cannot be circulated too widely. I would introduce a large extract, but this has been done, in an 8vo. and a 12mo. stereotyped pamphlet, compiled from strong documents and authorities of all ages and climes, for sale at the antislavery offices, entitled "LIBERTY !"]