Land Degradation: Creation and Destruction

Etukansi
Rowman & Littlefield, 2007 - 303 sivua
This up-to-date, second edition of Land Degradation explores substantial decreases in the land's biological productivity or usefulness to humans due to human activities. Case studies--including tourist impacts in Europe, the environmental footprints of urban areas, wetland drainage for agriculture in the American Midwest, run-on farming in the Negev, land degradation in the Amazon Basin, and irrigation in Egypt--cover the history of land degradation, identify the level of human responsibility in transforming natural landscapes into sustainable agro-ecosystems, look at local and regional effects of human interactions with the environment, and reveal both negative and positive aspects of land modification. Extensively illustrated, Land Degradation can be used as the primary text in a course of the same name or as a supplement in courses covering land use, environmental change, and sustainability.
 

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Sisältö

Human and Physical Interactions
1
Its Definition
2
Longterm Nonreversible and Shortterm Reversible Land Degradation
4
Time
6
Human Causes of Degradation
13
The Ecological Transition
15
Intentional and Unintentional Change
17
The Limitations of Economic Evaluation
20
Terrace Systems
150
Intensive Animal Husbandry
155
Parks Wildlife and Nature Protection
159
Summary
161
Regional and Global Examples
163
Satisfying the Needs of Urban Areas
165
Energy
168
Building Materials
171

Summary
23
2 Land Use and Degradation in Historical Perspective
25
Runon Farming in the Negev
29
Irrigation in the Mesopotamian Lowland
40
Summary
50
3 The Physical Domain and Land Degradation
53
Frequency Magnitude and Variability
55
The GeologicGeomorphologic Domain
58
The Geomorphologic Setting
62
Agriculture
71
Synthesis
74
4 Human Causes of Land Degradation
77
Environmental Deficiencies
79
Human Factors Promoting Land Degradation
81
Unperceived Distant Impacts
82
Present Gain Future Pain
83
Privileging Money Not Nature
86
Identifying Gainers Forgetting Losers
87
Imperfect Models and False Analogs
90
Lessons to Learn
92
5 Land Degradation at the Local Scale
93
Common Property Resources
94
Characteristics of CPRs
96
Management of LargeScale CPRs
98
Water Resource Degradation
99
Wild Animals
103
Management of SmallScale CPRs
104
Acid Rain and Forest Preservation
106
Mismanaging the Range
108
Tropical Deforestation and Land Degradation
115
Land Degradation in the Amazon Basin
116
Land Degradation in Southeastern Yucatan
120
Conclusions
121
Irrigation in Egypt
122
Irrigation in the Great Plains
131
Dams and Urban Water Supply
136
Rainfed Agriculture
142
Energy Production and Other Raw Materials
176
Minings Direct Impacts on the Land Resource
177
Nuclear Energy Production
181
Wood Consumption and the Environment
183
Cotton Productions Environmental Impact
185
Transportation and Land Degradation
189
Highways
190
Harbors and Coasts
192
The Global Water Crisis
195
Inter and Intrabasin Water Transfers
196
Invasions by Plants and Animals
199
Animal Invasions
202
Conclusions
204
Summary
205
7 Creative Destruction
207
LowIntensity Systems
208
Hunting and Gathering
209
Shifting Cultivation
213
Pastoral Nomadism
219
ModerateIntensity Systems
224
Terracing and Creative Destruction
227
Creative Destruction in the Chinese PondDike System
228
Drainage and Creative Destruction in the American Midwest
234
HighIntensity Systems
239
The Broads and Accidental Creative Destruction
240
Drainage Flood Protection and Creative Destruction
241
Creative Destruction in the Imperial Valley
248
Summary
254
Retrospective
257
Nature Society and Technology
260
Commandments for the Minimization of Land Degradation and for Sustainable Development
265
Summary
271
References
273
Index
297
About the Authors
303
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Sivu 274 - Agricultural and environmental changes in the upper Euphrates catchment of Turkey and Syria and their political and economic implications.
Sivu 284 - The Black Swamp: A Study in Historical Geography," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. XLV, 1955, pp. 1-35. Maintaining Drainage Systems, farmers' Bulletin 2047, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, 1952.

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