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acid allow Anderston apparatus appears applied ascer atmosphere Black Black's Lectures bodies boiler boiling point boiling water burning canister cast-iron charcoal cold colour combustion conducting power cooling cotton-mill Count Rumford cubic feet cubic foot cylinder Dalton degree density diameter drying effect elastic fluids emitted equal escape Essay expansion external air Fahrenheit feet of space fire flame foot freezing fuel geometrical progression glass heat produced heating by steam horizontal pipe Houldsworth ignition inches inches of mercury increase joints KLMN lamp black Leslie liquid melts ment mercury Messrs mill mode nearly Nitric acid Observations perature Phil pit-coal proper proportion purpose quantity of heat radiation red heat saddle joint scale Smeaton solid space heated specific heat spigot steam-engine steam-pipes steam-tubes stoves substances sufficient syphon temperature thermometer tin-plate tion tube valve vapour vertical pipe vessel warm water of condensation Watt
Sivu 35 - The Lord of all, himself through all diffused, Sustains, and is the life of all that lives. Nature is but a name for an effect, Whose cause is God.
Sivu 67 - ... or elastic fluid, the air by proper contrivances can be intimately mixed with it, and made to act on every part of it, external and internal at the same time. — The great power of flame, which is the consequence of this, does not appear when we try small quantities of it, and allow it to burn quietly, because the air is not intimately mixed with it, but acts only on the outside, and the quantity of burning matter in the surface of a small flame, is too small to produce much effect.
Sivu 98 - ... being thus pressed equally in opposite directions, must remain stationary. But if, for instance, the ball which holds a portion of the liquor be warmer than the other, the superior elasticity of the confined air will drive it forwards, and make it rise in the opposite branch above the zero, to an elevation proportional to the excess of elasticity or of heat.
Sivu 66 - For flame, when produced in great quantity, and made to burn violently, by mixing it with a proper quantity of fresh air, by driving it on the subject, and throwing it into whirls and eddies, which mix the air with every part of the hot vapor, gives a most intense heat.
Sivu 60 - The second kind of fuel mentioned, peat, is so spongy that, compared with the more solid fuels, it is unfit to be employed for producing very strong heats. It is too bulky for this : we cannot put into a furnace, at a time, a quantity that correspondí with the quick consumption that must necessarily go on when the heat is violent.
Sivu 146 - ... vacuo. For we find that the latent heat of the steam, is at least as much increased, as the sensible heat is diminished *. 119.
Sivu 64 - The heat produced by equal quantities, by weight, of pit-coal, woodcharcoal, and wood itself, are nearly in proportion of 5, 4, and 3. The reason why both these kinds of charcoal are preferred, on most occasions, in experimental chemistry, to the crude wood, or fossil coal, from which they are produced, is, that the crude fuels are deprived, by charring, of a considerable quantity of water, and some other volatile principles, which are evaporated during the process of charring, in the form of sooty...
Sivu 64 - ... chemistry. For, besides, obstructing the vents with sooty matter, they require much heat to evaporate them ; and therefore the heat of the furnace, in which they are burnt, is much diminished and wasted by every addition of fresh fuel, until the fresh fuel is completely inflamed, and restores the heat to its former strength. But these great and sudden variations of the heat of a furnace are quite inconvenient in most chemical processes. In the greater number of chemical operations, therefore,...
Sivu 61 - ... procured at any time, by burning wood in close vessels. Little pieces may be very finely prepared, at any time, by plunging the wood into lead melted and red hot. This kind of fuel is very much used by chemists, and has many good properties. It kindles quickly, emits few watery or other vapors while burning, and, when consumed, leaves few ashes, and those very light. They are, therefore, easily blown away, so that the fire continues open, or pervious to the current of air which must pass through...
Sivu 63 - is very intense, these ashes are disposed to melt or vitrify into a tenacious drossy substance, which clogs the grate, the sides of the furnace, and the vessels. This last inconvenience is only troublesome, however, when the heat required is very intense. In ordinary heat the ashes do not melt, and though they are more copious and heavy than those of charcoal of wood, they seldom -choke up the fire considerably, unless the bars of the grate be too close together. This fuel, therefore, is preferable...