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his sudden changes of time, of measure, and of key, are frequently not explicable on any received principles of the art.

" The imagination is defined by metaphysicians as the faculty which enables us to create new forms, by throwing the parts of existing objects into new combinations;* but, in order that the new creation may be comprehensible, all its parts must be previously familiar to the mind. The wildest imagination, in forming the

Gorgons, and hydras, and chimeras dire, of the poets, can only compose them of parts, all of which exist in nature, but which nature has never placed in such fearful collocation. Originality in the arts consists in the novelty of the combinations into which the artist throws known materials. The architect, for example, creates an edifice entirely new in its general aspect, by a new disposition of those objects which are held to be constituent parts of all buildings of its class. Whatever may be its magnitude or complexity, its porticos, its pediments, its pillars, its pilasters, must all be modelled according to forms and proportions which are prescribed by the rules of the art. If each of these parts is properly introduced with a view to its particular function, and also with a view to the site and purpose of the building, the architecture will be pure and beautiful: if the parts are so combined as to produce a general aspect different from that of any existing edifice, the architecture will be original. If the architect, in the wantonness of imagination, throw together the elementary parts of the architecture of different orders, different ages, and different countries,-if he blend the Grecian portico, the Gothic arch, the cupola, the minaret, he will produce an architectural “chimera," which, however monstrous, may possess a certain wild and fantastic beauty, like the fictions of the poets, or arabesques of the painters. But endeavour to imagine a building, which shall be new in all its parts as well as its entire form,—a building not composed of the parts belonging to any order of architecture; and, if it is possible to imagine such a thing, it will be a mere mass of deformity. There are many styles in music; but every composition, whatever may be its style, in order to be beautiful or expressive, must consist of those elementary phrases of melody, or harmonic combinations, the beauty or expression of which the listener has already felt; and the originality of the work will depend on the novelty of the forms into which these elements are thrown.

“ Nature herself has dictated the simple forms of melody; and that which constitutes “the concord of sweet sounds," is fixed by immutable

*" The province of conception is to present us with an exact transcript of what we have formerly felt and perceived ; that of imagination, to make a selection of qualities and of circumstances from a variety of different objects, and, by combining and disposing these, to form a new creation of its own."-“ An uncommon degree of ima. gination constitutes poetical genius ; a talent, which, although chiefly displayed in poetical composition, is also the foundation of (though not precisely in the same manner) of various other arts."" A cultivated taste, combined with a creative ima. gination, constitutes genius in the fine arts. Without taste, imagination could produce only a random analysis and combination of our conceptions; and without imagination, taste would be destitute of the faculty of invention."-DUGALD STEWART.

appear the

laws. Caprice, and the love of change, may lead to arbitrary deviations from these principles, but such deviations are always temporary, and end in a return to the natural standards of taste. It was by listening to the beautiful, but hitherto neglected popular airs, which had been sung for ages among the hills and valleys of their country, that the Italian musicians of the sixteenth century formed that school of melody “ which enchants the world;" and it is by digging deeper into the rich mine of national song, that the most modern composers have discovered inexhaustible stores of the materials of melody. Beethoven's most beautiful works draw much of the originality of their character from the traits of national song with which they abound. But when he has attempted, in his latest productions, to attain originality by an entire novelty in his musical phrases themselves, he has failed in his object of giving delight, because he has presented objects, the forms of which do not pre-exist in the mind of the listener, associated with the ideas of beauty or expression. A piece of music, entirely constructed in this manner, would be analogous to a building destitute of the elementary forms of architecture. The one would be a fit residence for the king of a tribe of African savages; the other would be a suitable entertainment for his ears. But none of Beethoven's works are entirely constructed in this way. Even in those which most extravagant and incomprehensible,—in which we can neither discover a regular form, nor an intelligible design,--and which contain phrases and passages which convey no ideas either of melody or harmony, we are ever and anon enchanted with both melody and harmony of the purest, simplest, and most exquisite kind; and we regret that so much beauty should be mingled with what we cannot help feeling to be actual deformity.

“ But it will be said, music of an original character is never appreciated at first. The works of Haydn and Mozart, and the earlier compositions of Beethoven himself, which are now in general favour, were, in their novelty, looked upon as strange and extravagant. This, however, arose from these works being more complex in their forms, and demanding more skilful execution than their precursors. The bounds of melody were enlarged by the development of the powers of instruments; and the growing, skill of performers enabled them not only to execute passages that formerly would have been deemed impossible, but to untwist ihe most complicated chains of harmony. For such performers as these, the works we speak of were composed, and by such they were comprehended and relished from the first. But, in the hands of ordinary performers, a concerted vocal piece, a quartet, or a symphony of one of those composers, was a mere mass of confusion; and, as they themselves could neither perform it nor understand it, it was, of course, equally incomprehensible to their audience. Wherever, however, these pieces were really performed, they were instantly understood. Innumerable amateurs are now able to execute them with more correctness and effect than the ordinary professional artists of the period when they appeared : and they give delight to every one whose musical taste has received the most moderate cultivation; because their elementary phrases, though drawn from a greater variety of sources, and more varied in their combinations than before, already have VOL. 1.-NO. I.


their types in the mind of the hearer, and thus instantly excite the feeling of beauty. The extreme naturalness of Beethoven's melody, we have already had occasion to point out as a peculiar feature of his most admired works; and hence it arises, that there is no music, belonging to the highest department of the art in its modern state, more easily comprehended, and more powerfully felt by a promiscuous assembly. There is thus no analogy between the

case of the compositions in question, and the latest works of Beethoven. The truth appears to be, that, in consequence of his total exclusion from the audible world during his latter years, not only must his mind have been deprived of that constant supply of new ideas, derived from the hearing of actual sounds, which is the daily food of the imagination, but the ideas accumulated during his earlier years must have gradually faded away from his memory;

“If, then, the view which we have taken of the later works of Beethoven is correct, it seems less probable that they will gradually gain popularity, than that they will fall into oblivion ; leaving, however, enough behind them to secure the undying fame of their author.

“ It is in his symphonies that the powers of Beethoven's genius are most fully displayed. The symphony in C minor stands alone and unrivalled ; and the Sinfonia Pastorale is probably the finest piece of descriptive music in existence. Every movement of this charming work is a scene, and every scene is full of the most beautiful images of rural nature and rural life. We feel the freshness of a summer morning. We hear the rustling of the breeze, the waving of the woods, the cheerful notes of birds, and cries of animals. We stray along the margin of a meandering brook, and listen to the murmuring of its waters. We join a group of villagers, keeping holiday with joyous songs and dances. The sky grows dark, the thunder growls, and a storm bursts on the alarmed rustics, whose cries of dismay are heard amidst the strife of the elements. The clouds pass away; the muttering of the thunder is more and more distant; all becomes quiet and placid; and the stillness is broken by the pastoral song of gratitude. Nothing can be more beautiful or more true to nature than every part of this representation. It requires no key, no explanation, but places every image before the mind with a distinctness which neither poetry nor painting could surpass, and with a beauty which neither of them could equal.

“In his chamber compositions—his quintets, quartets, and trios, for bowed instruments, and especially in his splendid series of works for the piano-forte – Beethoven has left to the amateurs of music an inexhaustible fund of delight. He has shown that this instrument has powers which it was not formerly imagined to possess, and has made it the means of producing effects which neither those who have preceded, nor those who have followed him, have been able to reach.

“ Beethoven's greatest vocal composition is the musical drama, or oratorio, The Mount of Olives. Some parts of this work are more in the theatrical than the ecclesiastical style, and some of the scenes would require dramatic action to give them their full effect. But it bears the impress of his mighty genius. The gloomy sounds of the opening symphony, sinking into a silence broken only by the slow and measured

strokes of the drum, are sufficient to banish every wandering thought, to fill the most indifferent auditor with awe, and to prepare his mind for the strain, so full of woe, which expresses the passion of the Redeemer. In the original form of the piece, the Divine Person himself is supposed to speak this language of intense suffering; but this, though not inconsistent with continental notions, is very properly viewed in a different light in England. This passage, therefore, is delivered in the third person, so as to be a description, by another, of the agony it is meant to express ; and the design of the author is necessarily sacrificed to a right sense of religious decorum. Considered as a drama, containing scenes of intense interest, and full of the deepest feeling, The Mount of Olives leaves nothing to be desired; but, when heard in a church, it wants the sustained gravity and solemnity of the ecclesiastical style. Almost the only parts of it, indeed, which really belong to that style, are the instrumental symphony at the commencement, and the concluding chorus,' Hallelujah to the Father,' which is full of sublime simplicity.”-pp. 346-56.

Mr. Hogarth's book supersedes every work of the same kind in our language. It condenses within one elegantly printed volume, every thing concerning the History of Music, which an amateur, or a professor, would wish to know; it is wholly free from pedantry and the jargon of the schools, and is calculated, more than any production of which we possess any knowledge, to diffuse through the country a taste for that “only one of all the arts," which, according to Montesquieu, “ does not corrupt the mind.”


ART.VI.-England in 1835; being a Series of Letters written to

Friends in Germany, during a residence in London, and Excursions into the Provinces. By Frederick Von Raumer, Professor of History at the University of Berlin, author of the * History of the Hohenstaufen;" of the “ History of Europe from the end of the Fifteenth Century;" of " Illustrations of the History of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries," &c. &c. Translated from the German by Sarah Austin.

3 Vols. 8vo. London, 1836. FEW 'EW names are more celebrated on the Continent than that

of Frederick Von Raumer. The historical volumes which he has produced, especially his work on the Emperors of the House of Hohenstaufen, have long since raised him to the highest rank on the splendid roll of German literature. But his labours have not been confined to the department of history. He commenced his career at an early age, in the civil service of the Prussian Government, and subsequently passed through a variety of offices, which have given him more than ordinary experience

in all matters relating to the difficult science of political economy, blended with every question which can arise in the internal administration of a highly civilized country. From the chamber of the Kurmark he was promoted to the presidency of the board for managing the royal domains at Wusterhausen, near Berlin ; thence he was removed to the office of the then minister of finance, the Prince Von Hardenberg, who received him into his house, admitted him to familiar intercourse, and entrusted him with the transaction of affairs of the highest importance. The trammels of official life being, however, but little in accordance with the natural independence of such an intelleet as that of Von Raumer, he obtained permission to spend some time in Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Upon his return to Berlin, he was appointed Professor of Political Science; but the doctrines which at that period (1819) prevailed at the Prussian Court, being inconsistent with the liberal principles of the new professor-principles from which no hope of advancement, or apprehension of disgrace, could ever induce him to deviate—he confined himself to lectures on history, statistics, and public law.

When we say that Raumer's political principles have been and continue still to be of a liberal character, we do not intend to ascribe to him any of those extravagant notions of government, for instance, which were propagated by the disciples of Jahn, and other German fraternities, who are for hastening at once into all the abysses of sanguinary revolutions. It has been his fate often to stand alone amid the conflicts in which parties of every shade have been involved upon the Continent. In Prussia, he has been a firm and an admirable advocate of all that is free and wise in the

system of internal policy adopted by the reigning sovereign of that kingdom; but, although a sincere royalist, that is to say, a friend to the monarchical principle of government, he has always held, that it could not be permanently or safely carried out through all its legitimate consequences, unless it was assisted by the machinery of free institutions, by a perfect code of education, and a well-regulated press. We cannot, of course, agree with him in thinking that the press should be subject to a censorship: but even on this point he is greatly in advance of many persons in his own country, for he holds that the censorship ought only to remain until the people shall be sufficiently educated to be able to form their own opinions upon public affairs, and that, in the meantime, the restrictions upon it should be gradually relaxed.

It has been Raumer's peculiar good fortune, arising, no doubt, from the implicit confidence reposed in his integrity by the monarch whom he serves, that he has been allowed to occupy a kind of

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