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DEMOCRATIC STATE COMMITTEES.-(Continued.)
MAINE.-Democratic State Committee, John B. Dunovan, Chairman; F. E. Beane, Hallowell, Secretary.
MARYLAND.-Democratic State Central Committee, Barnes Compton, Laurel, Chairman; Murray Vandiver, Havre de Grace, Secretary.
MASSACHUSETTS. - Democratic State Committee, John W. Corcoran, Clinton, Chairman; W. J. Dale, Jr., North Andover, Secretary.
MICHIGAN.-Democratic State Central Committee, Daniel J. Campan, Detroit, Chairman; Alfred J. Murphy, Detroit, Secretary.
MINNESOTA.-Democratic State Central Committee, W. M. Campbell, St. Paul, Chairman; P. J. Smalley, St. Paul, Secretary.
MISSISSIPPI.-Democratic State Executive Committee, R. H. Thompson, Brookhaven, Chairman; Robert E. Wilson, Jackson, Secretary.
MISSOURI. State Democratic Committee, C. C. Maffit, St. Louis, Chairman; Robert Frank Walker, St. Louis, Secretary.
MONTANA.-Democratic Central Committee, Timothy E. Collins, Great Falls, Chairman; Leon A. La Croix, Helena, Secretary.
NEBRASKA. Democratic State Central Committee, Chas. Ogden, Omaha, Chairman; Carroll S. Montgomery, Omaha, Secretary.
NEVADA.- Democratic State Central Committee, John H. Dennis, Virginia City, Chairman; P. J. Dunne, Secretary. NEW HAMPSHIRE. Democratic State Committee, John P. Bartlett, Manchester, Chairman; James R. Jackson, Littleton, Secretary.
NEW JERSEY.-Democratic State Committee, Allan L. McDermott, Trenton, Chairman; Willard C. Fisk, Jersey City, Secretary.
NEW MEXICO.-Democratic Territorial Central Committee, W. B. Childers, Albuquerque, Chairman; Felix Martinez, Las Vegas, Secretary.
NEW YORK. -Democratic State Committee, Edward Murphy, Jr., Troy, Chairman; Samuel A. Beardsley, Utica, Secretary; William B. Kirk, Treasurer.
Executive Committee, Daniel G. Griffin, Watertown, Chairman; Charles R. De Freest, Troy, Clerk.
NORTH CAROLINA. - Democratic State Executive Committee, Ed. Chambers Smith, Raleigh, Chairman; R. C. Beckwith, Raleigh, Secretary.
NORTH DAKOTA. -Democratic State Committee, Daniel W. Marratta, Fargo, Chairman; R. W. Cutts, Grand Forks, Secretary.
OHIO.-Democratic State Central Committee, James E. Neal, Hamilton, Chairman; L. C. Cole, Bowling Green, Secretary.
OKLAHOMA.-Democratic Central Committee, E. J. Simpson, Guthrie, Chairman; J. L. Vanderwerter, Oklahoma City, Secretary.
OREGON. - Democratic State Central Committee, B. Goldsmith, Portland, Chairman; George A. Brodie, Portland, Secretary.
PENNSYLVANIA.-Democratic State Central Committee, James Kerr, Clearfield, Chairman; Benjamin M. Nead, Harrisburg, Secretary.
RHODE ISLAND.-Democratic State Central Committee, Franklin P. Owen, Providence, Chairman; Elisha W. Bucklin, Pawtucket, Secretary.
SOUTH CAROLINA.State Executive Committee of the Democratic Party, J. L. M. Irby, Laurens, Chairman; G. Duncan Bellinger, Barnwell, Secretary.
SOUTH DAKOTA.-Democratic State Central Committee, Otto Peemiller, Yankton, Chairman; E. M. O'Brien, Yankton, Secretary.
TENNESSEE. - Democratic Executive Committee, T. M. McDonnell, Chattanooga, Chairman; E. B. Wade, Murfreesboro, Secretary.
TEXAS.-Democratic State Executive Committee, N.Webb Finley, Tyler, Chairman; Ed. Kauffman, Austin, Secretary. UTAH.-Democratic Territorial Central Committee, Samuel A. Merritt, Salt Lake City, Chairman: A. G. Norrell, Salt Lake City, Secretary.
VERMONT.-Democratic State Committee, Hiram Atkins, Montpelier, Chairman; John H. Senter, Warren, Secretary. VIRGINIA.-Democratic State Committee, J. Taylor Ellyson, Richmond, Chairman; James R. Fisher, Richmond, Secretary.
WASHINGTON.-State Democratic Committee, Daniel H. Gilman, Seattle, Chairman; George Hazzard, Tacoma, Secretary.
WEST VIRGINIA.-Democratic State Executive Committee, Thomas S. Riley, Wheeling, Chairman; B. H. Oxley, Charleston, Secretary.
WISCONSIN.-Democratic State Central Committee, E. C. Wall, Milwaukee, Chairman; W. A. Anderson, La Crosse, Secretary.
WYOMING.-Democratic Central Committee, Colin Hunter, Cheyenne, Chairman; W. L. Kuykendall, Cheyenne, Secretary.
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF DEMOCRATIC
President, Chauncey F. Black, Pennsylvania. Treasurer, Roswell P. Flower, New York. Secretary, Lawrence Gardner, Washington, D. C. Executive Committee, William L. Wilson, West Virginia, Chairman; Robert Grier Monroe, New-York; Alexander T. Ankeny, Minnesota; Chauncey F. Black, Pennsylvania; Harvey N. Collison, Massachusetts; Roswell P. Flower, New York; Lawrence Gardner, District of Columbia; George H. Lambert, New Jersey; Chas. Ogden, Nebraska; Harry Wells Rusk, Maryland; Bradley G. Schley, Wisconsin; Edward B. Whitney, New York. Headquarters, Metropolitan Hotel, Washington, D. C.
PEOPLE'S PARTY NATIONAL COMMITTEE. *
Chairman, H. E. Taubeneck, Marshall, Illinois.
W. D. Condon
W. R. Shields.
H. E. Taubeneck.
M. L. Wheat
E. S. Heffron.
W. A. Dunning.
E. M. Boynton..
Mrs. S. E. V. Emery
See footnote on p. 16.
THE advantages which are claimed for the Australian Ballot System, as set forth by the Rhode Island Ballot Reform Association, are: 1. A secret ballot, cast as proposed in this plan, interposes the most effectual preventive of the bribery of the voter ever devised. 2. A secret ballot secures the voter against coercion or undue solicitation of others, and enables the most dependent elector to vote as his conscience dictates, in perfect freedom. 3. Excuse for assessment of candidates is taken away. A poor man is placed on an equality with a rich man as a candidate. Money will be less of a factor in politics. 4. The voter will be alone with his country, his conscience and his God," and elections will be more than ever the intelligent and conscientious registering of the popular will. 5. The method of ballot reform has been much discussed in the United States for several years, and has received general favor, being recognized, after careful scrutiny, as a practical and salutary measure.
A marked feature of the ballot practice in New South Wales is that the names of all the candidates being on one list, the names of persons for whom the voter does not wish to vote must be crossed off, a blue pencil being provided for the purpose by the authorities, while there are clearly printed on the ticket, in red ink, directions as to how many candidates must be voted for. If more than the limit are voted for, the ballot is informal.
The Australian Ballot System was practically introduced in the United States in 1888 by its adoption by law in the State of Massachusetts and the city of Louisville, Ky. The principle of the system was embodied in the Saxton bill which passed the New York Legislature in the sessions of 1888-89, and was vetoed both times by Governor Hill. The grounds of the Governor's vetoes were the unconstitutionality of the bill in that it would embarrass, hinder and impede voters in exercising the suffrage, and would, for one class of voters--the blind and illiterate-destroy the secrecy of the ballot by compelling an avowal of their votes as a condition of exercising the right. At the instance of Governor Hill a reformed ballot bill, or modification of the Saxton bill, was introduced in the Legislature in the session of 1889, but was not passed; but another bill, a compromise of the Hill and Saxton plans, met with success in 1890. Laws adopting the new system of voting, and following the example of Massachusetts, were passed in 1889 by the Legislatures of Indiana, Montana, Rhode Island, Wisconsin, Tennessee, Minnesota, Missouri, Michigan and Connecticut, in the order given. Most of the laws passed adhered closely to the Massachusetts form. The Connecticut form varied from it more than the others. In 1890 laws which are more or less modifications of the Australian system were adopted by the Legislatures of Washington, New York, Maryland, New Jersey and Vermont. In 1891 the Legislatures of the States of Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Maine, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota and West Virginia, and the Territory of Arizona, adopted laws based on the Australian system.
This leaves Iowa, Kansas, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, and the Territories of Utah and New Mexico. In Kansas a reformed ballot bill has passed one branch of the Legislature.
There are two methods of grouping the names on the tickets, and both have been tried. The first of these is the English, or original Australian style of alphabetical arrangement of the names of the candidates under the title of the office. This is used by the following States: California, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, Washington and Wyoming.
"The second is known as the Belgian system, and consists of grouping all nominations and offices by parties. It is used in Missouri, Ohio, Wisconsin, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Maryland and Oklahoma Territory."
*For any further developments, up to the moment of going to press, see Addenda, preceding Index.
THIS is a political term, which came into use in 1811. The dominant party in Massachusetts, having a majority in the Legislature, determined to district the State anew. The work was sanctioned and became a law by the signature of Elbridge Gerry, the Governor of the State at that time. The result was that the party in power carried everything and filled every office in the State, although it is alleged that the returns showed that two-thirds of the votes were those of persons holding opposite views.
During the process of re-districting, Elbridge Gerry contrived a scheme which gave the district embracing Essex county, in its relation to districts and towns, a shape like that of a lizard. Gilbert Stuart, a well-known artist, entering the room of Russell, the veteran editor of the Boston Sentinel," who had a map of the new districts hanging on the wall over his desk, observed: "Why, this district looks like a salamander," and put in the claws and eyes of the creature with his pencil. "Say, rather, a Gerrymander," the editor replied, facetiously, and the term became of general use in similar cases.
The aim of gerrymandering is so to lay out the one-numbered districts as to secure, in the greatest possible number of them, a majority for the party which conducts the operation. This is done sometimes by throwing the greatest possible number of hostile voters into a district which is certain to be hostile, sometimes by adding to a district where parties are equally divided a place in which the majority of friendly voters is sufficient to turn the scale. The so-called Shoe-string district of Mississippi, 500 miles long by forty broad, is an example of this system.
In Missouri a district has been contrived longer, if measured along its windings, than the State itself, in which as large a number as possible of the negro voters have been thrown. Hon. Harvey Watterson, after canvassing a certain district of Tennessee, stretching across mountains and rivers the whole length of that State, for the Confederate Congress, when asked what success he had met with, replied, he had "made but few votes, but learned a great deal of geography." By this process counties adjacent only by a stretch of imagination are included in these straggling districts, often divided by water, so that, as Hon. Roswell G. Horr said of the division of South Carolina, "a connection can be effected only by tunneling under." The following States have been re-districted under the Apportionment law of 1890:
In several States the districts have been changed, 1891, the number remaining the same.