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DUTIES OF THE SPEAKER.
1. The Speaker shall take the chair on every legislative day precisely at the hour to which the House shall have adjourned at the last sitting, imme. diately call the members to order, and on the appearance of a quorum, cause the journal of the proceedings of the last day's sitting to be read, having previously examined and approved the same.
2. He shall preserve order and decorum, and in case of disturbance or disorderly conduct in the galleries, or in the lobby, may cause the same to be cleared.
3. He shall have general control, except as provided by rule or law, of the hall of the House, and the disposal of the unappropriated rooms in that part of the Capitol assigned to the use of the House until further order.
4. He shall sign all acts, addresses, joint resolutions, writs, warrants, and subpoenas of, or issued by order of, the House, and decide all questions of order subject to an appeal by any member, on which appeal no member shall speak more than once, unless by permission of the House.
5. He shall rise to put a question, but may state it sitting; and shall put questions in this form, to wit: "As many as are in favor (as the question may be) say Ay;" and after the affirmative voice is expressed, “As many as are opposed say No;" if he doubts, or a division is called for, the House shall divide; those in the affirmative of the question shall first rise from their seats, and then those in the negative; if he still doubts, or a count is required by at least one-fifth of a quorum, he shall name one from each side of the question, to tell the members in the affirmative and negative; which being reported, he shall rise and state the decision.
6. He shall not be required to vote in ordinary legislative proceedings, except where his vote would be decisive, or where the House is engaged in voting by ballot; and in all cases of a tie vote the question shall be lost.
7. He shall have the right to name any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but such substitution shall not extend beyond an adjournment: Provided, however, That in case of his illness, he may make such appointment for a period not exceeding ten days, with the approval of the House at the time the same is made; and in his absence and omission to make such appointment, the House shall proceed to elect a Speaker pro tempore, to act during his absence.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS.
There shall be elected by a viva voce vote at the commencement of each Congress, to continue in office until their successors are chosen and qualified, a Clerk, Sergeant at Arms, Doorkeeper, Postmaster, and Chaplain, each of whom shall take an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, and for the true and faithful discharge of the duties of his office, to the best of his knowledge and ability, and to keep the secrets of the House, and each shall appoint all of the employés of his department provided for by law.
DUTIES OF THE CLERK.
1. The Clerk shall, at the commencement of the first session of each Congress, call the members to order, proceed to call the roll of members by States in alphabetical order, and, pending the election of a Speaker or Speaker pro tempore, preserve order and decorum, and decide all questions of order, subject to appeal by any member.
2. He shall make, and cause to be printed and delivered to each member, or mailed to his address, at the commencement of every regular session of Congress, a list of the reports which it is the duty of any officer or department to make to Congress, referring to the act or resolution and page of the volume of the laws or journal in which it may be contained, and placing under the name of each officer the list of reports required of him to be made; also make a weekly statement of the resolutions and bills upon the Speaker's table, accompanied with a brief reference to the orders and proceedings of the House upon each, and the dates of such orders and proceedings, which statement shall be printed.
3. He shall note all questions of order, with the decisions thereon, the record of which shall be printed as an appendix to the Journal of each session; and complete, as soon after the close of the session as possible, the printing and distribution to members and delegates of the journal of the House, together with an accurate and complete index; retain in the library at his office, for the use of the members and officers of the House, and not to be withdrawn therefrom, two copies of all the books and printed documents deposited there; send, at the end of each session, a printed copy of the Journal thereof to the Executive and to each branch of the Legislature of every State and Territory; preserve for and deliver or mail to each member and delegate an extra copy, in good binding, of all documents printed by order of either House of the Congress to which he belonged; attest and affix the seal of the House to all writs, warrants, and subpoenas issued by order of the House, certify to the passage of all bills and joint resolutions, make or approve all contracts, bargains, or agreements relative to furnishing any matter or thing, or for the performance of any labor for the House of Representatives, in pursuance of law or order of the House, keep full and accurate accounts of the disbursements out of the contingent fund of the House, keep the stationery accounts of members and delegates, and pay them as provided by law. He shall pay to the officers and employés of the House of Representatives, on the last day of each month, the amount of their salaries that shall be due them; and when the last day of the month falls on Sunday he shall pay them on the day next preceding.
DUTIES OF THE SERGEANT-AT-ARMS.
1. It shall be the duty of the Sergeant-at-Arms to attend the House during its sittings, to maintain order under the direction of the Speaker, and, pending the election of a Speaker or Speaker pro tempore, under the direction of the Clerk; execute the commands of the House, and all processes issued by authority thereof, directed to him by the Speaker, keep the accounts for the pay and mileage of Members and Delegates, and pay them as provided by law.
2. The symbol of his office shall be the mace, which shall be borne by him while enforcing order on the floor.
DUTIES OF OTHER OFFICERS.
1. The Doorkeeper shall enforce strictly the rules relating to the privileges of the hall and be responsible to the House for the official conduct of his employés.
2. At the commencement and close of each session of Congress he shall take an inventory of all the furniture, books, and other public property in the several committee and other rooms under his charge, and report the same to the House, which report shall be referred to the Committee on Accounts to ascertain and determine the amount for which he shall be held liable for missing articles.
3. He shall allow no person to enter the room over the hall of the House during its sittings; and fifteen minutes before the hour for the meeting of the House each day he shall see that the floor is cleared of all persons except those privileged to remain, and kept so until ten minutes after adjournment.
The Postmaster shall superintend the post-office kept in the Capitol for the accommodation of Representatives, delegates, and officers of the House, and be held responsible for the prompt and safe delivery of their mail.
The Chaplain shall attend at the commencement of each day's sitting of the House and open the same with prayer.
OF THE MEMBERS.
1. Every member shall be present within the hall of the House during its sittings, unless excused or necessarily prevented; and shall vote on each question put, unless, on motion made before division or the commencement of the roll-call and decided without debate, he shall be excused, or unless he has a direct personal or pecuniary interest in the event of such question.
2. Pairs shall be announced by the Clerk, after the completion of the second roll-call, from a written list furnished him, and signed by the member making the statement to the Clerk, which list shall be published in the Record as a part of the proceedings, immediately following the names of those not voting: Provided, That pairs shall be announced but once during the same legislative day.
QUESTIONS OF PRIVILEGE.
Questions of privilege shall be, first, those affecting the rights of the House collectively, its safety, dignity, and the integrity of its proceedings: second, the rights, reputation, and conduct of members individually in their representative capacity only; and shall have precedence of all other questions, except motions to fix the day to which the House shall adjourn, to adjourn, and for a recess.
1. Unless otherwise specially ordered by the House, the Speaker shall appoint, at the commencement of each Congress, the following standing committees, viz.:
On Elections, to consist of fifteen members.
On Ways and Means, to consist of fifteen members.
On Appropriations, to consist of fifteen members.
On the Judiciary, to consist of fifteen members.
On Banking and Currency, to consist of fifteen members.
On Coinage, Weights, and Measures, to consist of thirteen members.
On Interstate and Foreign Commerce, to consist of seventeen members.
On Rivers and Harbors, to consist of fifteen members.
On the Merchant Marine and Fisheries, to consist of thirteen members. On Agriculture, to consist of fifteen members.
On Foreign Affairs, to consist of thirteen members.
On Military Affairs, to consist of thirteen members.
On Naval Affairs, to consist of thirteen members.
On the Post-Office and Post-Roads, to consist of fifteen members.
On the Public Lands, to consist of thirteen members.
On Indian Affairs, to consist of thirteen members.
On Territories, to consist of thirteen members.
On Railways and Canals, to consist of thirteen members.
On Manufactures, to consist of eleven members.
On Mines and Mining, to consist of thirteen members.
On Public Buildings and Grounds, to consist of thirteen members.
On Pacific Railroads, to consist of thirteen members.
On Levees and Improvement of the Mississippi River, to consist of thirteen members.
On Education, to consist of thirteen members.
On Labor, to consist of thirteen members.
On the Militia, to consist of thirteen members.
On Patents, to consist of thirteen members.
On Invalid Pensions, to consist of fifteen members.
On Pensions, to consist of thirteen members.
On Claims, to consist of fifteen members.
On War Claims, to consist of thirteen members.
On Private Land Claims, to consist of thirteen members..
On the District of Columbia, to consist of fifteen members.
On Revision of the Laws, to consist of thirteen members.
On Expenditures in the State Department, to consist of seven members. On Expenditures in the Treasury Department, to consist of seven members.
On Expenditures in the War Department, to consist of seven members. On Expenditures in the Navy Department, to consist of seven members. On Expenditures in the Post-Office Department, to consist of seven members.
On Expenditures in the Interior Department, to consist of seven members. On Expenditures in the Department of Justice, to consist of seven members.
On Expenditures in the Department of Agriculture, to consist of seven members.
On Expenditures on Public Buildings, to consist of seven members.
On Accounts, to consist of nine members.
On Mileage, to consist of five members.
Also the following joint standing committees, viz.:
On Printing, to consist of three members.
On Enrolled Bills, to consist of seven members.
2. He shall also appoint all select committees which shall be ordered by the House from time to time;
The first-named member of each committee shall be the chairman; and in his absence, or being excused by the House, the next-named member, and so on, as often as the case shall happen, unless the committee by a majority of its number elect a chairman; and in case of the death of a chairman, it shall be duty of the Speaker to appoint another.
4. The chairman shall appoint the clerk of his committee, subject to its approval; who shall be paid at the public expense, the House having first provided therefor.
POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES.
All proposed legislation shall be referred to the committees named in the preceding rule as follows, viz.: Subjects relating
1. to the election of members: to the Committee on Elections;
2. to the revenue and the bonded debt of the United States: to the Com mittee on Ways and Means;
3. to appropriation of the revenue for the support of the government as herein provided, viz.: for legislative, executive, and judicial expenses; for sundry civil expenses; for fortifications and coast defenses; for the District of Columbia; for pensions; and for all deficiencies: to the Committee on Appropriations;
4. to judicial proceedings, civil and criminal law: to the Committee on the Judiciary;
5. to banking and currency: to the Committee on Banking and Currency; 6. to coinage, weights, and measures: to the Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures;
7. to commerce, life-saving service, and lighthouses, other than appropriations for life-saving service and lighthouses: to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce;
8. to the improvement of rivers and harbors: to the Committee on Rivers and Harbors;
9. to the merchant marine and fisheries: to the Committee on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries;
10. to agriculture and forestry: to the Committee on Agriculture, who shall receive the estimates and report the appropriations for the Agricultural Department;
11. to the relations of the United States with foreign nations, including appropriations therefor: to the Committee on Foreign Affairs;
12. to the military establishment and the public defense, including the appropriations for its support and for that of the Military Academy: to the Committee on Military Affairs;
to the naval establishment, including the appropriations for its support: to the Committee on Naval Affairs;
to the post-office and post-roads, including appropriations for their support: to the Committee on the Post-Office and Post-Roads;
15. to the lands of the United States: to the Committee on the Public Lands;
16. to the relations of the United States with the Indians and the Indian tribes, including appropriations therefor: to the Committee on Indian Affairs;