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An Historical and Critical ACCOUNT
LIVES and WRITINGS
Most Eminent Persons
In every NATION;
Particularly the BRITISH and IRISH;
From the earliest Accounts of Time to the present Period.
Their remarkable ACTIONS or SUFFERINGS,
their VIRTUES, PARTS, and LEARNING, are
Printed for T. OSBORNE, J. Whiston and B. WHITE,
M DCC LXI.
Universal, Historical, and Literary
ÆLIUS AURELIANUS, or, as some have called him, Lucius Cælius Arianus, an ancient physician, and the only one of the sect of the methodists, of
whom we have any remains, was of Sicca, a town of Numidia, in Africa. This we learn from the elder Pliny, and we might almost have collected it, without any information at all, from his stile, which is very barbarous, and much resembling that of the African writers. It is half Greek, half Latin, harsh, and difficult : yet strong, masculine, full of good sense, and valuable for the matter it contains. It is frequently very acute and smart, especially where he exposes the errors of other physicians; and always nervous. What age Cælius Aurelianus Aourished in, we cannot determine, there being so profound a silence about it amongst the ancients : but it is very probable, that he lived before Galen, since it is not conceivable, that he should mention, as he does, all the physicians before him, great as well as small, and yet not make the least mention of Galen. He was not only a careful imitator of Soranus, but also a strenuous advocate for him. He had read over very diligently the ancient phyficians of all the fects; and we are obliged to him for the knowledge of many dogmas, which are not to be found but in his books Dé celeribus & tardis paffionibus. The best edition of these books is that publifhed at AmsterVol. III. B
dam in the year 1722. He wrote, as he himself tells us, fe veral other works ; but they are all perished. This however, which has escaped the ruins of time and barbarism, is highly valued, as being the only monument of the Medicina methodica, which is extant. He is allowed by all to be admirable in the history and description of diseases.
CÆSALPINUS (ANDREAS) an eminent philosopher and physician, was born at Arezzo, about the year 1159. After being long professor at Pisa, he became firit physician to pope Clement VIII. It should seem from a passage in his Quæstiones peripateticæ, that he had some idea of the circulation of the blood. “ The lungs, says he, drawing “ the warın blood, thro' a vein (the pulmonary artery] “ like the arteries, out of the right ventricle of the heart, “ and returning it by an anastomosis to the venal artery (the “ pulmonary vein) which goes to the left ventricle of the “ heart, the cool air, being in the mean time let in thro' the “ canals of the afpera arteria, which are extended along “the venal artery, but do not communicate with it by in“ osculations, as Galen imagined, cools it only by touch
ing: To this circulation of the blood out of the right “ ventricle of the heart thro' the lungs into its left ven“ tricle, what appears upon dissection answers very well : “ for there are two vessels which end in the right ventri“ cle, and two in the left: but one only carries the blood “ in, the other sends it out, the membranes being con“ trived for that purpose.” His treatise De plantis entitles him to a place among the capital writers in botany; for he there makes the distribution of plants into a regular method, formed on their natural similitude, as being the most fafe and the most useful for helping the memory and discovering their virtues. Yet, which is very surprizing, it was not followed, nor even understood, for near a hundred years. The restorer of method was Robert Morison, the firft profeffor of botany at Oxford. Cæsalpinus died at Rome, Feb. 23, 1603. His Hortus siccus, consisting of 768 dried specimens pasted on 266 large pages, is still in being. The titles of his writings are, Kátriper, live speculum artis medicæ Hippocraticum. De plantis libri xyi. cum appendice ; printed at Florence in 1583. De metallicis libri ii. Quæftionum medicurun libri ii. De medicamentorum facultatibus libri ii. Praxis univerfe medicinæ. Denonum investigatio peripatetica. Quzitionum peripateticarum libri v.
CÆSAR (JULIUS) a learned civilian, was born [A] near Tottenham in Middlesex, in the year 1557. He took the degree of bachelor of arts, May 17, 1575, as a member Biogr. Brit. of Magdalen-hall, Oxford ; and went afterwards to study Wood, Fafti, in the university of Paris; where, in the beginning of 1581, vol. 1. col. he was created doctor of the civil law; to which degree he
Biogr. Brit. was also admitted in 1583 at Oxford, and two years after became doctor of the canon law. In the reign of queen Eliza- Ibid. beth, he was master of requests, judge of the high court of admiralty, and master of St. Catherine's hofpital near the Tower. Upon king James's accession, he was knighted by that prince at Greenwich. He was also constituted chan- Ibid. cellor, and under-treasurer of the exchequer, and, on the 5th of July 1607, sworn of his majesty's privy council.
He obtained a reverfionary grant of the office of master Ibid. of the rolls, and succeeded to it on the ist of October 1614 ; upon which he resigned his place of chancellor of the exchequer. He was continued privy councellor by king Charles I. and appears to have been also custos rotulorum of the county of Hertford. Fuller says, he was chancellor Camden's of the duchy of Lancaster. He died April 28, 1639, in annals of the 70th year of his age, and lies buried in the church of king James. Great St. Helen within Bishopsgate, London, under
Biogr. Brit, monument designed by himself; which is in form of a deed, and made to resemble ruffled parchment, in allusion to his office, as master of the rolls. He was a man of great gravity and integrity, and remarkable for his extensive bounty and charity to all persons of worth, or that were in want. He made his grants to all persons double kindness by expedition, and clothed (as Lloyd expresses it) his very denials in such robes of courtship, that it was not obviously discernable, whether the request or denial were most decent. He was also very cautious of promises, leít, becoming unable to perform them, he might multiply his enemies, whilst he intended to create friends. Besides, he observed that great persons efteem better such persons they have done
[A] His father Cæsar Adelmar, from whom he had the name of (or Dalmarius, Dalmare, or Athel- Cæsar, which name Mary I. queen mer) phyfician to queen Mary ande/ of England ordered to be continued queen Elizabeth, was lineally de- to his pofterity: and his father was scended from Adelmar count of Peter Maria Dalmarius, of the city Genoa and admiral of France in the of Trevigio in Italy, doctor of reign of Charles the great, A.D.806. laws, sprung from those of his name This Cæsar Adelmar's mother was living at Cividad del Friuli. Biogr. daughter to the duke de Cesarini, Brit.