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the frequent quotation of the Parliamentary Record. This is merely the copy which was printed, by William Robertson, the late under-keeper of the Register-house, and cancelled by the Record Commissioners, who disapproved both of its plan, and execution: Yet, unseemly, and unsatisfactory, as this printed copy is, I have found it of the greatest importance to historical research: It clears many an ob scurity; it confutes a thousand calumnies; and it ascertains a million of truths: It is this Record, which exhibits the common people, in a light, that does them high honour; in lamenting the assassination of James III., and crying out for justice on the trai
In the subsequent volumes, will follow the topographical history of the south-western, the eastern, and northern shires, in convenient season; as the materials are provided, the details are formed, and the composition is easy to the pen of diligence.
In the subsequent pages, the year 1747 is assigned, as the epoch of the Engineer's Survey of Scotland: The design was certainly then conceived, by the Duke of Cumberland; and adopted by the Board of Ordnance* : But, it was not actually begun, till the first week of June 1748, by Lieutenant-Colonel Watson +. The Honourable John Elphinston, who
See p. 61, in the following volume. + We may clearly ascertain the true epoch, from that officer letter to the engineer Skinner, dated the 7th of June 1748, from Edinburgh :"But, as I am obliged, this week, to "begin the surveying scheme, which "(amongst friends) has given me inf"nite pain, I have ordered Lieutenant, "Stewart, to acquaint you when Gene. ral Bland will be at Fort Augustus." The late General Skinner's MS. Letter Book, in my library. From it, he appears to have been appointed the direc tor of engineers, for Scotland, in De-, cember 1746. The original object of, that Survey more distinctly appears, in
is mentioned, in p. 61, as the publisher of a map of Scotland, was a practitioner engineer, under the engineer for Scotland, 1748; and died, at. Kilcroigh, in April 1753 *. Lieutenant-Colonel Watson, the quartermaster, meanwhile, made the survey of North-Britain. To the anecdotes of General Roy, in p. 64, may be added that, in 1757, he went upon the expedition to Rochfort; and, in January 1758, was examined, at the courtmartial on Sir John Mordaunt; and being the only engineer, with the rank of lieutenant in the army, on the expedition, gave it, as his opinion, that an entrenchment, [round Rochfort,] not assailable, without being laid open by cannon, might have been thrown up, in two, or three days; and that, in the same time, a covered way, glacis, and even an advanced ditch, might have been soon made t To what is said of General Debbieg, in p. 62, may be added that, in June 1757, when the rank of the whole engineers was settled, he appeared as a sub-engineer, with the rank of lieutenant in the army .
a dispatch from Charles Bush, the secretary of the Board of Ordnance, to the same engineer, dated the 7th of June 1748: "The number of engineers, and "others, intended to have been em
ployed, under Lieutenant Colone! "Watson, in surveying the highlands, south of the chain, being reduced; and Messrs. William Floyer, and Jasper Laforey, who were ordered to Edin"burgh, on that service, being thereby disappointed," &c. Gen. Skinner's Letter Book. It appears, also, from this engineer's information to the Board of Ordnance, that the Murray frith, between Arderseer, Inverness, and Cromarty, was surveyed, by Thomas Walker, a sub-engineer, in 1749. The en gineer Skinner was the builder of Fort George, which was founded, in 1748: And, he continued the director of the engineers in Scotland, till the year 1757. * Scots Mag. 1753, P. 206 † Ib. 1758, p. 22—8. Ib. 1757, P. 347.
In the subsequent volume, p. 601, it required much enquiry, and some calculation, to ascertain, that the massacre of James III.'s menials, at Lawder bridge, happened, in July 1482: But from a short Chronicle of James Gray, who compiled it, soon after that atrocious event, the real date clearly appears to have been the 15th of July 1482. In the latest of the Scotish historians, we may see, how uncertain is still the true date of the death of Margaret, the virtuous queen of James III. : : But, the same Chronicle shews, that she died, at Stirling, in 1486 §. It is, only, by collecting, and arranging such documents, that the real history of North Britain can be cultivated, as a science.
In the literature of England, there is a well-known book, under the propriate name of Liber Regis; containing the value, and advowsons, of all the ecclesiastical livings: But, in Scotland, they have no such document of useful information: There will be found, however, in the topographical history, of the subsequent volume, a Tabular State of the several parishes, in each shire, which may be deemed the Liber Regis of NorthBritain.
Of matters illustrative, or ornamental, there will not be found much, in this volume. There is, indeed, a Tabular statement, which contains the political anatomy of every shire, in Scotland, on a broadside. There was intended to be prefixed to this volume a new map of Scotland; in which the boundaries of shires are more elaborated, than they formerly were; the limits of districts are better ascertained; the location of the churches are more discriminated, and the names, and places, are more appropriated to the history: But, the infirmities of the engraver have made it necessary to post
MS. 12. James Gray, Advocates' Library.
|| Pink. Hist. i. 423: 4.
pone this map, till the appearance of the following volumes.
not been discouraged by any difficulIn the investigation of truth, I have ty; and I have not declined any labour; I have sought new documents 3 and I have tried, in my narration, to be neither too general, nor too minute *. I will beg leave to conclude this Preface, with Carew's Prosopopeia to his Survey of Cornwall: “I crave not courteous ayd, of friends, "To blaze my praise in verse; "Nor, prowd to vaunt mine author's
"In catalogue rehearse : "I of no willing wrong complaine, "Which force, or stealth, hath wrought; "No fruit, I promise, from the tree,
That forth this blooth hath brought. "I curry not, with smoothing termes, "Ne yet rude threats I blast: "I seeke no patron for my faults; "I plead no needlesse haste."
*In p. 268, note (p). James Otterburn is misprinted for John, which mistake mars the argument. There may be prevented, in so long a work, whatbe other misprints, which cannot easily ever care may do. An Index, for this volume, was prepared: But, upon consideration, it was conceived, that a general Index, for the whole work, would be more commodious, to the studious reader.
A Cornish word, signifying the year; the spring; or rather the fruits of the year; or budding of trees.
A New Stove has just been in vented, which possesses many advantages over those at present in use, as will appear from the following descrip
The external appearance of it is re presented in the above Figure.-It consists of two domes, one placed over the other, and distant from it, in every part, from two to three inches. The outer dome, resting on the pedes tal, is represented by the outline of the figure; the inner dome is represented by the dotted line. Within this inner dome, and at the bottom of it, is a Grate on which the fuel burns. The flame, the air supporting the combustion, and the smoke, circulate within this inner dome, so as to heat it as equally as possible; and the smoke and current of air pass off by a tube behind, (which, from the figure being a front view, cannot be represented,) this tube passing into a chimney, or
being connected with a tunnel, which is led into the external air.
At the under part of the external dome, and around its circumference, are apertures, one of which is represented at a. Into these apertures the air enters; it rises in the space between the outer and inner domes; and being heated in its ascent, escapes warm at the upper part or neck of the dome, which is terminated by an opening, of the form represented in the figure, or of any other ornamental form. Or a tube may be adapted to this neck, and the heated air, if this is required, conveyed to a distance.
The opening at the Fire-Place is closed by a double door, represented in the figure, and the sides are closed by plates of iron, so that none of the smoke, or the air which has been in contact with the fuel, can escape and mingle with the current of pure air that rises between the two domes. In the Pedestal is a sliding box, which serves as an Ash-Pit; and in the front of this, Registers, marked b, to regulate the admission of air to the burning fuel, and of course regulate the combustion.
This is the general structure of the Stove, which admits, however, of several variations, to adapt it to particular purposes, which it is not necessary to specify.
The advantages of this Stove over Stoves on the common construction, are, that it is free from any unpleasant smell; that it does not vitiate the air; that it diffuses the heat more equally, and therefore to greater advantage; and that, where it is required, it can be made to produce ventilation as well as warmth.
1. The unpleasant smell, and suffocating sensation produced by common Stoves arise from the following cause. The Stove, whatever may be its form, is, from its situation, liable to be more or less covered with dust. Whenever the fire is kindled within it, and the
sides of the Stove are raised nearly to a red heat, this dust is scorched or half burnt, and produces the unpleas sant smell and the suffocating feeling. Should even the Stove, by uncommon care, be kept perfectly clean, still the particles of dust floating in the atmosphere are liable to be scorched by it in a similar manner, and produce, to a certain extent, the same effects. This inconvenience is completely remedied in the present stove. The outer dome serves as a covering to the inner one, to prevent dust from resting upon it, and the former can never be heated to that extent to scorch any dust which may be in contact with it. The rapid current of air rising between the two domes whenever the fire is kindled, will remove too any dust that might lie on the inner dome. The rapidity of this current also prevents any particles of dust diffused through the air from resting on the dome so as to be scorched; and, what is the most important effect, this current of air, constantly renewed, prevents the inner dome from being over-heated, and thus prevents the possibility of this scorching taking place. It has been supposed, that the smell, from common Stoves arises, in part at least, also from the metal itself highly heated: and if this be the case, the same advantage will still be derived in the present Stove from the current of air obviating this effect. The fact accordingly is, that in this Stove, if it be managed with common care, no such smell is produced,-a circumstance which at once gives it a superiority ever every other stove.
2. By the action of a Stove raised to a red heat, as common Stoves almost always are to produce sufficient warmth, the air must, to a certain extent, be vitiated, from the causes mentioned in the preceding paragraph.In the present Stove, as the operation
of these is obviated, this deterioration of the air is avoided.
3. In common Stoves, the heat is always very unequally diffused. Its sides are raised to a red heat, or near it; and in the immediate neighbourhood of the Stove, the warmth is unpleasant, or impressive, while at a distance it is little felt. In the present Stove the heat, being diffused principally by the current of heated air, is equally spread. The outer dome is never so much heated as to feel unpleasant; and at the most distant part of the apartment in which the Stove is placed, heat is distributed, by the free and rapid diffusion and intermixture of the warm air. The heat, too, is thus not only more equally communicated, but it is distributed to advantage, while in common Stoves much of it is lost, by being accumulated in the neighbourhood of the Stove, and producing inconvenience rather than any benefit.
Lastly, this Stove may be easily made to produce ventilation as well as warmth, in situations where this is required. To effect this, all that is necessary is to inclose the apertures at the bottom of the external dome within a circular tube, with which a tube from the external atmosphere is connected. A constant current of fresh air will thus be brought in, and, rìsing through the space between the two domes, will be discharged warm and perfectly pure. In Stoves on the common construction, it is impossible to procure this advantage; and there is even always the temptation to diminish ventilation, in order to procure warmth. In every situation where there is not a very free supply of air, it is recommended to bring in the fresh air, in the manner above described, as the same air, when repeatedly heated, must prove unpleasant and injurious.
A Tour from ARBROATH to MONTROSE, principally with a View to its remote Antiquities.
(Continued from p. 11.)
LEAVING Dickmontlaw, and returning to the turnpike road, the next object which merits attention is the estate of Murroes, formerly Muir House, now Parkhill, from a barren heath, lately converted into fertile fields by the spirited exertions of its former and present proprietor.
On your right is the estate of Ethie, concerning which I shall speak in its proper place, after having conducted you forward in the present line of read to Lunan water.
About five miles from Arbroath, you reach Balnamoon's Mires, a morass of considerable extent, now drained and under cultivation. From this morass the streamlet Killer takes its rise, which, at its influx into the German ocean, receives the adjection of Inver, and gives name to the extensive parish of Inverkillor.
A foolish tradition respecting this mire is commonly told, viz. that the Laird of Balnamoon, in the neighbourhood of Brechin, coming to pay a visit to the proprietor of Ethie, Laired (entangled) his horse in this mire, and that hence it took its name. It is needless to comment on the absurdity of this tradition, for Balnamoon, i. e. Balna Moin, i. e. the House of the Moss, clearly points it out as an ancient fastness, or place of strength. A peninsulated rock, an island in a lake or morass, an inaccessible hill, &c. were the favourite and secure residencies of our warlike ancestors. The Moss Troopers on the borders of Scotland, so called from their sheltering themselves in mosses, were a set of desperadoes, too well known to need any description in this place. Tho' neither tradition nor auy remaining vestige now points out where this house stood, still the name leaves no doubt remaining as to the certainty of its quondam existence.
Immediately to your left is Brien town, anciently Bal Brien. An antiquity was within these two years discovered on this farm, which had for time immemorial been consigned to oblivion. A tumulus, of an elliptical form, was cleared off in order to take it into the adjoining field, when it was discovered that it was a burying place. This was the more unexpected, as uniform tradition pointed out this tumulus as a heap of rubbish, accumulated in searching for a free stone quarry, and an adjoining excavation seemed to confirm the tradition.
It was probably the oval or irregular shape which made it be mistaken for quarry rubbish the workmen, however, were not long in 'finding their mistake, for they had proceeded but a short way, when they discovered three inverted urns, placed on flat stones, full of burnt human bones. The urns were capable of holding about six Scots pints each, were made of clay, and had been indurated by fire. Within one of these urns was a small one of clay, but not indurated by fire, containing a few oblong beads made of a black substance, and a few circular silver beads, of small dimen sions and rude workmanship. The urns had no inscription or emblematical device.
That part of the tumulus which covered these urns was composed of loose earth, mixed with free stone, and had been dug from the above-mentioned excavation; but this being cleared away, left a complete circle composed of totally different materials: it now became evident, that this tumulus was the work of two different periods, if not of two different nations, and that a later addition to it had marred its original circularity.
The remaining circle was literally a Gaelic sepulchral cairn. A very thin scurf of carth covered the cairn, which had not been intentionally superimposed, like the other part containing the urns, but was the mere effect of vegetation. This circular