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and the attacks which have been made upon almost all the measures of government, and most of its executive officers, have for a long time past filled me with painful sensations, and cannot fail, I think, of producing unhappy consequences, at home and abroad."
To a letter of Mr. Jefferson's, in which he endeavoured to prove, that although he wished to amend, yet he had advocated the adoption of the Federal Constitution, the President thus replied.
“ I did not require the evidence of the extracts which
enclosed me, to convince me of your at. tachment to the constitution of the United States, or of your disposition to promote the general welfare of this country; but I regret, deeply regret, the difference of opinion which has arisen, and divided you and another principal officer of the government; and wish devoutly there could be an accommodation of them by mutual yieldings.
“ A measure of this sort would produce harmony and
consequent good in our publick Councils; and the contrary will inevitably produce confusion and serious mischiefs; and for what ? Because mankind cannot see alike, but would adopt different means to obtain the same end. For I will frankly and solemnly declare, that I believe the views of both to be pure and well meant, and that experience only will decide with respect to the salubrity of the measures which are the subject of this dispute. Why then, when some of the best citizens of the United States, men of discernment, uniform and tried patriots, who have no sinister views to promote, but are chaste in their ways of thinking and acting, are to be found, some on one side, and some on the other of the questions which have caused these agitations; why should either of you be so tenacious of your opinions as to make no allowance for those of the other?
“I could, and indeed was about to add more on this interesting subject, but will forbear at least for the present, after expressing a wish that the cup which has been presented to us may not be snatched from our lips by a discordance of action, when I am persuaded that there is no discordance in your views. I have a great and sincere esteem for you both; and ardently wish that some line could be marked out, by which both of you could walk."
These serious endeavours of the President pro- .. duced not their desired effect. The hostility of the two Secretaries remained in full force. The Attorney General almost without exception coincided in opinion with Mr.Jefferson ; the Secretary of War generally accorded in judgment with Colonel Hamilton, and of consequence the President was deprived of the proper advice of his Council. But he possessed in a degree which few other men ever did, the faculty to suspend his own judgment on every important subject, until he had exhausted every source of information, and had fully weighed the opinions of those about him. He early established it as a maxim never to give his opinion on any important question, until the moment that a decision was necessary, and from a rigid adherence to this maxim, on many critical occasions he derived singular advantage. In de
liberating upori national subjects submitted to him as the Supreme Executive, he appeared to be raised above the influence of passions, prejudice, and every personal and local consideration; and having given every circumstance its weight, to decide from the dictates of pure intelligence.
This was the political situation of the United States, when the French revolution had made such progress as to acquire an influence over the feelings and the sentiments of the American people, and to render the diplomatick concerns of the government with that country critical and embarrassing.
Mr. Morris, the American Minister at Paris, with much discrimination noticed the surprising events that were daily taking place in France, and transmitted a minute account of them to the Presi. dent; but while waiting for instructions, he cautiously avoided committing the government of his own country.
On the deposition of the Monarch, with all the bloody and ferocious deeds which accompanied it, the President gave Mr. Morris the following information for the direction of his ministerial conduct. The existing administration in France was to be acknowledged; as every nation possesses an inherent right to settle the frame of its own government, and to manage its internal concerns; that the United States would punctually pay the debt due to France, and would furnish any supplies to St. Domingo that the parent country might desire. Mr. Morris was directed to assure France of the friendly disposition
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of the United States, and that every opportunity would be embraced to promote her welfare.
Attached to republican principles, the President fondly hoped that the struggle in France would terminate in a free government; but his partiality towards the new order of things in that country, was not so great as to render him forgetful that the aid given to America was afforded by the fallen king, or unmindful that he was the head of his own nation, whose independence and prosperity he ought to hold in higher estimation than the interest of a foreign people.
The prejudices and partialities of the American people towards England and France, excited by the revolutionary contest, had not at this period wholly subsided, and the commencement of war between regenerated France and the Monarchs of Europe, operated upon their feelings like a shock of electric- . ity. Reason and judgment seemed to be laid aside, and nothing was heard but the language of passion. Without inquiring which nation was the first ag. gressor, Americans saw a number of despots com. bined against a sister Republick, virtuously struggling to establish her liberty. Their national vanity was flattered by the persuasion that the spark which lit the flame of liberty in France, was taken from their altar, or, in the language of Dr. Franklin, “the French having served an apprenticeship in America, set up for themselves in Europe."
If a few individuals more cool, doubted the tendency, and dreaded the issue of the commotions in France, they were generally denominated aristocrats, the enemies of equal liberty, and the enemies of their own country.
Although there was no intention in the body of American citizens to involve the United States in a war, yet they generally discovered an ardent inclination to grant those favours to France, which must inevitably lead to a state of hostility.
The President was at Mount Vernon on some urgent private business, when the intelligence of the declaration of war between France and England reached the United States. Perceiving the importance of the crisis, he with haste returned to the seat of government. On the day which succeeded that of his arrival, April 17, 1793, he addressed the following letter to the members of his Cabinet, for their solemn deliberations.
“The posture of affairs in Europe, particularly between France and Great Britain, places the United States in a delicate situation, and requires much consideration of the measures which will be
proper for them to observe in the war between those powers.
With a view to forming a general plan of conduct for the Executive, I have stated and enclosed sundry questions to be considered, preparatory to a meeting at my house tomorrow, where I shall expect to see you at 9 o'clock, and to receive the re. sult of your reflections thereon.
“ Question I. Shall a Proclamation issue for the purpose of preventing interferences of the citi. zens of the United States in the war between France and Great Britain, &c. ? Shall it contain a