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ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.

CHRISTIAN CHURCHES.

AGATHON. The mass as the only continuing

good bestowed on mortals. AGNUS DEI. "The Lamb of God." "The

name given to a cake of wax stamped with the figure of a lamb bearing the banner of the cross which is supposed to possess great virtue, being consecrated by the pope, with great solemnity. These cakes are distributed to the people who cover themselves with a piece of stuff the shape of a heart and carry them devoutly in their processions.

ALTAR. Lat. Altus and Ara. The sacred table

on which the Mass is offered. It should be by rule, three and a half feet high, six and a half feet long and three ieet wide. Properly it should be made of

stone but variations are allowed. ALTAR CLOTH. A covering for the table pro

vided for the celebration of the Holy Communion. It is usually of silk, but

at the time of ministration is of linen. ALTAR PIECE. A picture placed over the altar. ALTAR Rails. By the order of Archbishop

Laud the position of the holy table was changed from the middle to the east end of the chancel and was there protected

by rails. ALTAR SCREEN. A screen placed back of the

altar bounding the presbytery on the east. In larger churches it separates it from the parts left free for processions between the presbytery and the Lady chapel when the latter is at the east end.

AISE. A linen napkin used for covering the

chalice.

ALB. Lat. Albus. The second vestment

worn by the priest; a large, loose garment of white linen entirely covering the body and secured at the neck by means of strings. It was formerly made of colored silk, and on festival occasions

of cloth of gold. ALLELUIA OR HALLELU-JAH. “ Praise the

Lord” or · Praise to the Lord.” This was sung by the Jews on solemn days of rejoicing, and is also used in the Roman Catholic church during Easter season, but never in times of mourning, except in masses for the dead.

All Saints' Day. In 610 Pope Boniface III.

ordered that the heathen temple Pantheon should be made a Christian church, which was done and it was dedicated to All Martyrs and so came to be called All Saints. The day then celebrated was May 1st, but in 834 was changed to November 1st. It was often called Allhallows day and Hallow E'en in Scotland, and Holy Eve in Ireland is the Eve of

All Saints' Day. ALL Souls. A festival in the Roman Catholic

church when special prayers are offered for All Souls departed. The day set apart is November 2nd.

AMBO, THE. An elevated lectern or pulpit

used in the early church for chanting the Epistle. Many churches possessed two, one for chanting the Epistle and one for chanting the Gospel; still one

served for both purposes in most cases. AMICE. Lat. Amicire. A rectangular piece of

linen about three feet long and two feet wide, having a string at each of its two upper corners by which it is fastened on the shoulders of the wearer. There is a cross in the centre of the upper edge, which the priest kisses when vesting. 11 was used as a covering for the neck and head until about the tenth century when the ecclesiastical cap or berretta sup. plied its place.

ANABATA. The garment covering the back

and shoulders of the priest.

ALUS-CHEST. A chest placed in the church

for the reception of alms.

ANAPHORA. The mass, so-called in ancient

times because it raises the thonghts to Heaven, anaphora meaning a mounting or rising up.

ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.

625

ANGELUS DOMINE. Short prayers which Cath

olics are called upon to use three times each day at the ringing of the church bell. In some places the times are sunrise, noon and sunset, but the general castom is to ring the angelus at 6 o'clock morning and evening and at noon. It is thought by some that this custom originated during the Crusades, in order to establish uniformity in_hours of prayer, but others credit it to Pope John

XXII in 1327. AYNATES. Called “First Fruits." These were

the profits of one year of every unoccupied bishopric in England. They were first claimed by the pope for defending Christians from infidels, and were paid by each bishop on his accession, and till that was done he could not receive his investiture from Rome. Now it is pay

able by the clergy in general. ANTHEM. A hymn sung in parts, alternately.

It is often applied to a short sentence sung before and after one of the Psalms

of the day. ANTIDORON. The name given to a large quan

tity of bread which is blessed before the Mass and placed on one of the side altars for distribution to those who for some valid reason, cannot approach the regu

ular communion. ANTIMENS. Also written ANTIMINS. Pieces

of stuff, generally silk, about sixteen inches square and having a figure of the burial of our Lord by Joseph of Arimathea stamped upon them. They are held in great veneration and are consecrated with much ceremony, also having the Office of the Holy Eucharist celebrated

on them for seven consecutive days. ANTIPENDIUM. An appendage to be hung

before the altar when it is made of any

material but stone. ANTIPHON. Alternate singing of a choir and

congregation, the most ancient form of

church music. ANTIPHONAR. The book containing all that is

sung by the choir, except the hymns devoted to the Communion service, which are contained in the Gradual or

Grail. ANTIPHONARY. A book composed of the In

troit, Graduals, Offertories, Commu

nions, etc. APSE. Also called APIs. A semi-circular ter

mination of the choir or any other part

of the church. AZCADE. A series of arches, supported by

pillars either belonging to the building or used in relieving large surfaces of

masonry ARCHBISHOP. The chief of the clergy in a whole provirce, and having the care of

the bishops and inferior officers of that province and also the right tɔ deprive

them for flagrant offences. ARCHDEACON. A priest who presides over an

archdeaconry or a division of a diocese. ARCHES, COURT OF. An ancient court of ap

peal belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury, the judge of which was called the Dean of Arches, as the court was held in the church of St. Mary de

Arcubus. ASPERGILLUM. An implement resembling a

brush used for sprinkling holy water

over objects to be blessed. AUDIENCE, COURT OF. A court belonging to

the Archbishop of Canterbury where le disposed of those matters which he re

served for his own hearing. AUMBRIE. A small closet. BAND. A linen ornament worn about the

neck by clergymen. It is also worn by the scholars at Winchester, etc., and was formerly worn with the surplice by singing men, lay vicars and occasionally by

parish clerks. BASIN. “Whilst the sentences for the Offer.

tory are in reading, the deacons, churchwardens, and other fit persons appointed for that purpose, shall receive the alms for the poor and other devotions of the people, in a decent basin, to be provided by the parish for that purpose.

Rubric. BELLS. The use of bells in religious services

is very ancient, dating back to the time of the writing of the book of Exodus. They were used by the Jews to summon the priests to the service, the Levites to sing, and the men to bring the unclean to the gate called Micanor. Before bells came into general use in the church, sounding boards struck with a mallet of hard wood and called semantrous supplied their place, and these are still in use in some of the Oriental churches, Bells are not rung during the last days of Holy Week, and hence it is sometimes called Still Week. During this time

small wooden clappers are used. BENEDICITE. A canticle so named because it

so commences in the Latin version. It is also called the Song of the Threo Children as Hananiah, Mishæland Abednego are said to have sung it in the fiery furnace. It is used at Morning Prayer,

after the first lesson. BERRETTA. A square cap with three corners

rising from the crown and having a tassel hanging. It was worn as early as tho ninth century, when it had no corners, but resembled an ordinary cap; but its pliability making it difficult to place properly on the head, the shape was changed to the present one, the three

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corners being symbolical of the Blessed Trinity. It is of two colors, red and blaok: red being worn by cardinals and without a tassel, and black by all inferior officers, a bishop's having a green lining. The berretta beside daily use, can bo worn in the sanctuary during the less solemn portions of the mass.

As worn by the Greeks it is round and close fitting and is generally of a violet color. Fastened to the back is a triangular piece called teplotepx or the dove, from its resemblance to the tail of that bird. The Greek bishops never wear a mitre, but use a low liat without a peak, over which

is thrown a large veil. BREVIARY. A compilation in an abbreviated

form of the different books anciently used in the service of the Roman

Catholic church. BURSE. The receptacle for the Corporal and

Pall when not in use, corresponding in color and material with the vestments

and having a cross worked in the centre. CANDLES. On every altar for the celebration

of Mass there are placed near the crucifix two candle-sticks containing candles of pure wax, which are kept burning during the service. At Solemn High Mass, six are required, at Low Mass,

four. An ordinary priest uses only two. CANON. A law of the church. The deriva

tion of the word, which is Greek, signi

fies a rule or measure. CARDS, ALTAR. Three cards placed on the

altar to assist the memory of the priest, The first contains the Gloria in Excelsis and Credo, the prayers said at the offertory, the Qui Pridie, the form of consecration and the Placeat. The others contain minor prayers used in the ser

vice. CASSOCK. Lat. Vestis talaris. A long outer

garment, the ordinary dress of priests, the color of which varies. Cardinals wear red, except in times of penance and mourning, when they wear violet. The bishop's Cassock is violet, excepton the occasions mentioned, when it is black, but priests of no particular order wear black. The pope's cassock is

always white silk. CATHEDRAL. Lat. Cathedra, a chair. The

principal church in a diocese, and so called becanse there the bishop has his

seat or throne. CENSER. The modern designation of the

Thurible. CHALICE. The Eucharistic cup in which is

placed the wine for consecration, and generally in shape resembling a lily. It is usually made of silver or gold ; wood, brass and glass being forbidden, except

where the need is very great. The o:namentation is generally some scena

taken from our Lord's life. CHANCEL. Lat. Cancelli. That part of the

church which contains the holy table

and stalls for the clergy. CHANT. Ecclesiastical music. The most

solemn chants in the Catholic churc'i are attributed to St. Ambrose and Si.

Gregory. CHASUBLE. This garment is the last in the

catalogue of sacred vestinents. It is open at both sides, reaching to the knees in front of the priest and extending a few inches longer at the back. It is composed of precious cloth, and the colors are the five mentioned in the rubrics, viz: white, red, violet, green

and black. CHIMERE. The outer garment worn by a

bishop, to which the lawn sleeves af

generally fastened. CHRISTE ELEISON. Christ have mercy on 15. CIBORIUM. A cup resembling the chalice,

only moru shallow and wide, and used when the number of communicants is

great. CINCTURE, A linen girdle sufficiently long

to encircle, when doubled, the body of the priest, and worn to keep the Alb in place. Formerly it was made of costly ma terials, studded with gems and was broad like a sash. That worn by the Oriental priest is much broader and fastened around the waist by a gilt book, shaped

like an S. CENOBITES. Gr. Koivo Biov. Monks having

a fixed habitation and forming an association under a chief called Father or

Abbot. COLLAR. A strip of thin linen two inches in

width and long enough to encircle the neck of the wearer. This is folded over a circular band of partially stit material and to this is sewed a piece of cloth about large enough to cover the chest It is kept in position by being button-d in the back or fastened to the neck by strings. It is three colors: red for Cardinals, violet for bishops, and black

for priests. COLLECTS. Short prayers found in all litur

gies and public devotional offices. COLOBION. A garment worn by the Greek

priests corresponding to the Dalmatic of the Catholic church, but different in be ing without sleeves and covered with

small crosses. CONCLAVE. The cardinals' place of meeting

for the choosing of a new pope. For some time the Vatican has been the place selected.

ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.

627

signifying that He died only for the

good, Cross, TRIPLE. A cross having three trans

verse bars.

CRUCIFIX, There are six variations of the

cross: 1. The Latin cross most commonls in use, the transverse beam being near the top, t 2. The Greek cross, where two equal beams cut each other in the centre, t. 3. St. Andrew's, the form of cross on which that saint was crucified, X. 4. The Egyptian, T. 5. The Maltese. 6. The Russian.

CONFESSIONAL. An enclosed recess where

penitents make confession to the priest. CONFITEOR. The confession which the priest

recites with great humility, saying, “I confess to Almighty God, to blessed Mary ever Virgin, to blessed John the Baptist, to the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and to all the Saints and to you brethren, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fanlt, through my most grievous fault. Therefore I do beseech the blessed Mary, ever Virgin, the blessed Michael the archangel, the blessed John the Baptist, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul and all the Saints, and you, brethren, to pray to the Lord

our God for me." COPE. A cloak worn during service by Cath

olic priests. It reaches from the shoulders nearly to the feet and is open only in front, where it is fastened at the neck by

a clasp. CORPORAL. A square of linen the size of a

handkerchief, folded in four parts, with a small black cross worked in the centre of its anterior edge. It is spread on the altar at the commencement of mass, the

Chalice being placed upon it. CREED. A summary of Christian belief. The

Apostles' Creed is so called because each one is said to have contributed one of

its twelve articles. Cross, SiGN OF THE. The Greek priest first

crosses his thumb on the fourth finger, and bends his little finger so that it resembles the curve of a crescent; the index finger stands erect, and having bent the middle one in the same way as the little, lifts his hand and traces the sign of the Cross. The meaning of this is as follows: The outstretched finger stands for the Greek letter I, the bending of the middle finger for the letter C-an old way of writing Sigma or the English S the letters I and C or S thus standing for Jesus. The thumb crossed upon the fourth finger is the Greek X, equivalent to our ch, and this with the little finger representing Sor C, stands for Christ; so that the interpretation is Jesus Christ. The Roman Catholic sign of the cross is made by touching the forehead, breast, left and righit shoulder, the priest saying: "In nomine Patris, et Fili, et Spiritus Sancte, Amen ”-in the name of the Father, an l of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, amen; the last invocation being uttered as the hand passes from the left

to the right shoulder. Cross, DOUBLE. A cross having at the head

two transverse beams differing in length.

It is also called Archiepiscopal. Cross, JANSENISTIC.

A cross in which the Lord's arms are not fully extended, this

CRUETS. The glasses in which the wine and

water for the Holy sacrifice are kept. They are generally of glass, but are some

times gold or silver. DALMATIC. The garment worn by the deacon

in administering the Holy Eucharist, and also worn at stated times by the bishops. It reaches below the knees, and is open at each side for a distance

varying at different periods. DATOR. An officer in the pope's court com

missioned by him to receive petitions respecting the provision of benefices. He is empowered, without conferring with the pope, to grant to all benefices that do not produce more than twentyfour ducats yearly, but for the others, he must have the signature of the pope. He can also, where there are several condidates for a benefice, decide on whom

it shall be bestowed. DEDICATION, FEAST OF. The wake or festival

for the dedication of churches. DEIPNON. The mass as being the means of

giving to our souls the Bread of Life. DEO GRATIÆ. “ Thanks be to God." An

exclamation used at the conclusion of the Epistle, or an expression of grati

tude for the sacred words. DIAPER. In church architecture a decora.

tion of large surfaces with a constant re. curring pattern either carved or painted.

Hook's Church Dictionary. DRIPSTONE. The projecting moulding which

crowns doors, windows and other arches in the exterior of a building.

Hook's Church Dictionary. EAST, PRAYING TOWARDS THE. This is an an

cient custom, and in early times most of the churches were built with a view to this practice. A number of reasons ar given, of which the most important is this : At the Saviour's crucifixion His face wis towards the west, hence by praying turned to the East, is signified

looking in His face. EMBER DAYS. The Wednesday, Friday an'l

Saturday after the first Sunday in Leat,

628

ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.

Carthusians stand at the centre of the altar, the initial words only being said from that place, the remainder being finished at the missal. At the conclu. sion thereof the priest stoops and kisses the altar, when he salutes the congregation with “Dominus vobiscum"_"The

Loril be with you."
GLORIA PATRI. “Glory be to the Father."

The doxology reads, “Glory be to th:
Father, and to the Son and to the Holy

Ghost, &c."
Host. The altar bread, which is circular in

shape and has been since the third century. It is differently stamped, some bearing the letters I. H. S., others & cross, &c. The Greek Host has a squaro projection rising from the surface which is called the Holy Lamb and cut off, is used for the sacrificial Host. The remainder of the loat is divided and the particles grouped and dedicated to the Virgin, apostles, saints and martyrs. The Coptic Host has on one side ? Aytos Αγιος, Αγιος, Κνριος Σαβεωε” Hols, Holy, Holy Lord of Hosts, and on the other side Ay105 loxupos Holy, strong

one.

the feast of Whitsunday, the fourteenth of September, and the thirteenth of December, all being fast days. The week in which these days fall is called Ember Week, and the Sunday in December which begins it is always the third Sun

day in Advent. ENTHRONISATION. The placing of a bishop in his stallo: on the throne in his cathedral.

Hook's Church Dictionary. EPIGONATON. A lozenge-shaped appendage

hung from the girdle and worn on the right side. It represents the napkin with which our Lord girded himself at the last supper and has either His head or a cross embroiderell on it. In the Catholic church, none but the pope is allowed to use it, but in the Greek church permission is granted to all the

bishops. EXARCH. An officer in the Greek church

whose business it is to visit the provinces in his charge to acquaint himself with lives and manners of the clergy, the manner of celebrating Divine service, and administering the sacraments, confession in particular; also monastic discipline, affairs of marriage, divorces,

etc. FALDISTORY. Lat. Faldistorium. The bishop's

chair near the altar, which he occupies when addressing the candidates for orders. This name is also given to the

episcopal chair within the chancel. FLAGON. A vessel for holding the wine be

fore and at the consecration in the Holy Eucharist. It differs from the chalice in being the vessel in which some of the wine is placed for consecration, if more

than one vessel is used. Font. The baptismal vaso or basin. It

supplies the place of rivers, etc., where the rite of Baptism was formerly admin

istered. FORMULARY. A book containing the cere

monies, rites and forms of the Church. In the Church of England it is the Book

of Common Prayer. FRIDAY, GOOD. The Friday in Passion Week,

and so called from the good effects on us of our Lord's sufferings. It was called

Long Friday by the Saxons. GIRDLE. A cincture fastening the alb around

the waist. It was formerly broad and flat, but is now a cord with tassels at the ends.

HYMN, ANGELIC. The Doxology beginning,

“Glory be to God on high.” It is so named from having been sung by the angels when they appeared to the Beth.

lehem shepherds. I. H. S. Formerly written 1. H. C. The first

three letters of the Lord's name in the Greek language ΙΗΣΟΥΣ which were often used, during the age of persecution, on the tombs of Christians. The interpretation, Jesus, the Saviour of men, originated with St. Bernardine in 443. He disapproved of devices on some cards which were being sold by a peddler anl induced him to change tijem, substita. ting the letters I. H. S., which he said

stood for Jesus Hominum Salvator. INQUISITION. A court of justice in Roman

Catholic countries for the trial and pole

ishment of heretics. INTERDICT. An ecclesiastical censure by

which the Church of Rome forbids the performance of Divine service and the administration of the sacraments to a

kingdom, town, etc. INTROIT. The beginning of the Mass for the

day, principally passages taken from the Psalms, followed by the minor dos.

ology. INVESTITURE. The act of conferring a bish.

opric by giving a pastoral staff or ring. JUBILATE Deo. “O be joyful in God." One

of the Psalms used after the second les. son in the morning service.

GLORIA IN EXCELSIS. “Glory to God in the

highest.” As this is a hymn of joy it is not sung during seasons of penance and mourning, consequently is never heard during Lent or Masses for the Dead. It is recited while the Dominicans and

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