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ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.
JUBILEE. A solemn season recurring every
quarter of a century in the Church of Rome, marked chiefly by the indulgences granted by the pope to all of his communion.
JURE DIVINO. “By Divine right.” An ex
pression frequently found in contro
versial writings. keys, POWER OF THE. The authority held by
the priesthood of administering the discipline of the church and granting or
withholding its privileges. KYRIE ELEISON.
· Lord have mercy on us." The name given to the minor Litany which is recited after the Introits. The only Eastern Liturgy which enjoins its recital on the priest is that of St. James.
three crosses, one in the middle and ono at each end. It is worn on the left wrist and is about two feet long and fourinches wide, and when on, langs equally on both sides, The Greeks wear two, one on each arm, anıl they are usually called Epimanikia, signifying something worn
on the hand. Mass, Missa or Missio, dismissal. The ori.
gin of the word mass is disputed, but the general opinion of Roman Catholic writers is in favor of the above. They relate to the ancient custom of a two fold dismissal—the Catechumens before the Mass and the faithful at the end. The entire service was known by the plurals
missæ or missiones. Mass, BRIDAL OR NUPTIAL. In the Missal is
found a Latin Missa pro Sponso Et. Sponsa," i. c., Mass for the Bridegroom and Bride.
LANTERN. The middle tower of a cruciform
church when it is open over the cross. LAURA. A name given to a collection of cells
in a wilderness inhabited by monks, each of whom provided for his own wants. Formerly the monasteries in
Ireland were called Lauras. LECTURN. The reading desk placed in the
choir of churches. It was generally made of wood, but sometimes of brass, the shape being an eagle with extended
wings. LENT. A movable fast coming in the spring
of the year, and lasting from Ash Wednesday to Easter Sunday. It commemorates the fasting of the Saviour for forty days and also his passion, death and resurrection. Lent is observed in the Catholic and some Protestant churches, and Good Friday is, in England and other countries observed by a general suspension of business. In the Greek church the fast of Lent is rigorously observed and there are several repeti
tions throughout the year. LITURGIA. Formerly the name most fre
quently applied to the mass and now in
use through the East. Logos. The Word. One of the titles of our
Lord. As men make known their senti. ments to each other by speech, so God reveals His signs by His Son, the
Word. LYCHNOSCOPE. A narrow window near the
ground, generally found at one end of the chancel, but sometimes in other parts of the church. There have been various opinions as to their use, but now they are supposed to have been confes
sionals. MANIPLE. A small strip of precious cloth,
of the same substance as the Stole and chasuble, on which are embroidered
Mass, GOLDEN. MISSA AUREA.
Out of use, but formerly celebrated on the Wednesnesdays of the quarter tenses of Advent in honor of the Mother of God; the bishops and all his canons assisting, at which time it was customary to distribute very costly gifts to those who took part.
a splendid and Solemn High Mass, often lasting thres or four hours. It is celebrated yearly in Brussels, at the Church of St. Gudule, on Dec. 230.
Mass, MIGNIGHT. Also called Nocturnal.
Was frequently celebrated during the persecution of Christians because they were forbidden to meet during the day. It is yet celebrated in many places at Christmas.
MASS OF JUDGMENT. An ancient custom used
to prove or disprove the innocence of accused persons; unknown in the church at the present time, and condemned as early as A. D. 592.
Mass OF REQUIEM. A mass said in behalf of
Mass OF THE PRESANCTIFIED. The mass so
called because celebrated with a previously consecrated Host, and without the consecration of either element.
ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.
PALL. A stiff piece of linen, abont fre
inches square, with a worked cross in the centre. It is used as a cover for the
mouth of the chalice. PARCLOSE. Screens which separate the chapel
from the body of the church, especially those at the east end of the aisles.
Jass, PRIVATE. The mass when quietly
celebrated in some oratory or chapel,
not accessible to all. Mass, SHOES WORN AT. While bishops are
not limited as to color, for the lower order of the clergy black is always pre
cribed. Mass, SIMPLE HIGH, OR MISSA CANTATA. The
mass where there is neither deacon or
sub-deacon ministering. Mass, SOLEMN High. So called when muss
is solemnized with deacon and subdeacon and a full corps of inferior ministers. It is sometimes called grund, because of its ritualistic display. Also high, on account of the greater part of it
being chanted in a high tone of voice. Mass, SOLITARY. Mass said by a priest alone,
without the attendance of the people or
PARVISE. The room over a church porch. It
is used as a private room by soine officer of the church, and sometimes as a tempo
rary lodging for a priest. PATEN. A small snucer-like dish, used to
cover the mouth of the chalice, And made of the same material, on which is placed the large bread for consecration.
even a server.
Mass, VOTIVE. Mass said by a priest, either
to satisfy his own wishes or some mem
ber of his congregation. MATINS. The ancient name for those prayers
offered about day-break.
PATER NOSTER. “Our Father.” The Lori's
prayer, having this preface : “ Being admonished by salutary przcepts, and taught by divine institution, we pro
sume to say." Pax, PEACE. An elaborately ornamented
metal tablet used in the mediæral church to receive the kiss of peace by
priests and people. PAX VOBISCUM. “Peace be with you." A
form of greeting used in the offices of
the ancient Christian church. · PORCH. A part of the church where formerly
marriage and baptismal services were partly performed and then completed in the church.
MISERERE. 1st. The psalm usually selected for
penitential acts, being the 51st psalm. 2d. The seat of a stall made to turn up or down, so that it might be used for a seat or in long standing for a support. They are generally carved, and sometimes very handsomely.
POSTILS. The ancient name for sermons or
MISSAL. Lat. LIBER MISSALES. Book of the
mass. The Greeks use eighteen books in the service of the altar.
MONSTRANCE. The large appurtenance in
which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed at Benediction ; sometimes carried in solemn procession. It has a large stem, the upper part resenabling the rays of the sun. In its centre there is a circular aperture in which the lunette with the Blessed Sacrament enclosed is placed during the exposition. The material is the same as that of other vessels. None but the clergy are allowed to touch the sacred vessels.
PRIORY. A house occupied by an order of
monks or nuns, the chief of whom was
called a prior or prioress. PROSPHORA. The mass so called from the fact
that through it we eventually obtain
eternal happiness. PROTHESIS. Also called CREDENCE. It is that
place in a church on which the Euchar. istic elements are put before being col
secrated on the altar. PULPIT. An elevated desk, generally placed
in the nave of the church, from which the preacher addresses his congregation. Formerly sermons were delivered from
the steps of the altar. PURIFICATOR. Also called the Mandatory, is
a piece of linen about twenty inches long, and when folded in three, four inches wide. In the centre there is a small cross, and it is kept wrapped in
the Amice when not used. Pyx. A small box of gold or silver about the
size and shape of a watch. It is used for carrying the Blessed Sacrament to the sick.
MYSTERION. The mass of mysteries. MYSTAGOGIA. The mass, so called by St.
Dyonysius from its being a participation
of the sacred mysteries. Nave. The central portion of a church ex
tending from the choir to the principal
entrance. NIPTER. Lat. PEDILUVIUM. The ceremony of
washing the feet. It is performed by Greek Christians on Good Friday, in imitation of our Lord.
ROOD LOFT. A gallery extending along the
top of the rood screen, which in parish churches generally crosses the chancel arch. On this was placed the rood or figure of our Lord on the Cross, and on either side the Blessed Virgin and St. John. The rood loft in large cross churches was usually of stone and occasionally contained a chapel and an
altar. Rood SCREEN. That which separates the
chancel from the nave and formerly supported the rood loft.
STOLE. A band of precious cloth four inches
wide and six feet long, worn around the neck and crossed on the breast, being kept in place by the cincture. A deacon is privileged to wear the stole from the time of bis ordination, but only over the left shoulder and fastened at the right side, the priest wearing it around both and crossed, while the hishop wears it pendant on both sides without crossing. In the Greek Church this is generally known as the Epitrachelion and differs from the others in being made in one piece with a seam worked along the middle, and having an opening at the top wide enough to allow the priest's head to pass through.
RUBRICS. Rules and orders formerly printed
in red characters but now in Italics, directing the time, place and manner in which all things in the Divine service should be performed. The English clergy solemnly pledge themselves to observe these rubrics.
SACRISTAN. The person in whose care are
the sacred vestments. The name is now changed to sexton.
STOUP. A basin for holy water generally
placed near the entrance of a church, and on the right hand of the one who enters.
SACRISTY. Now called vestry. The place
where the sacred vestments are kept.
SUNDAY, Low. Upon the octave of the first
Sunday after Easter day, it was the custom of the ancients to repeat some part of the solemnity which was used upon Easter day whence this Sunday took the name of Low Sunday, being celebrated as a feast, though of a lower degree than Easter day itself.
Hook's Church Dictionary.
SANCTE BELL. A small bell which is rung
when the “Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus, Deus Sabaoth was said, to prepare the people for the elevation of the Host.
Hook's Church Dictionary. SEDILIA. Seats near to and generally on the
south side of the altar for the ministers officiating at the Holy Eucharist, of which there are generally three, the celebrant, epistoler and gospeller, although the number varies from one to five.
SURCINGLE, A belt used for fastening the
cassock around the waist.
SURPLICE. A white linen garment worn by
the clergy in celebrating the Divine services and on certain days by members of colleges, whether clerical or not
ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS:
SYNAXIS. The mass so called by the Fathers
as being the means of union with Christ.
TABERNACLE. A small structure resembling
a church placed in the centre of the altar. It is generally made of wood but sometimes of marble and is then lined with wood, and in it is kept the Holy Eucharist under lock and key.
used at the special feasts of our Lord and the Blessed Virgin, and at those of the angels, virgins and confessors. Red, symbolic of fortitude is used at Pentecost and the feasts of the apostles and martyrs and the Lord's Passion. Green, the symbol of hope is used from the octave of the Epiphany to Septuagesima and from the octave of Pentecost to Advent. Violet, the symbol of penitence is used in times of public sorrow, fasting and penance, and in those processions which do not immediately relate to the Blessed Sacrament. Also nt the feast of the Holy Innocents, except when it comes on Sunday, when it is changeil to red, as is also the color of the octave. Black is used in Masses and Offices of the dead and on Good Friday. In the Greek church there are but two colors, red and white, the latter being the general, while red is used in all masses for the dead and through Leut.
TARGUM. A book of hymns used by the Nes
torians. It is derived from the Syriac word turgno-interpretation.
TELEION. The mass signifying the perfect
Atonement made by the sacrifice of the
THURIBLE. The vessel in which the incense
is burned. This is kept in a small boatshaped vessel and conveyed to the thurible by means of a small spoon.
TIARA. The pope's triple crown. That and
the keys are the badges of his dignity: the tiara of his civil rank, and the keys of his jurisdiction,
VIRGIN MARY, ANNUNCIATION OF THE BLESSED.
A lestival appointed by the church for the 25th of March to commemorate the appearance of the angel to Mary with the announcement that she should be the Mother of the Messiah.
ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.
AARON-HAKADISH. The holy ark used in the
Synagogue as a depository of the scrolls
of the law. ATONEMENT, DAY OF. Celebrated on the ninth
and tenth days of Tishri. It was instituted by Moses, as a general day of ex
piation and sacrifice for sins. BENSHEN. A corruption of the Latin word
benedicto. The prayer after meals recited by Israelites.
Broch. BLESSING. A grace recited before
partaking of food. CHANUKKAH. DEDICATION. A day of celebra
tion on the ninth day of Kisley to rejoice in the victory of the Hasmoneans, or Maccabees over Antiochus, King of
Syria. EPHOD, from Aphad, to put on. garment worn by Hebrew priests. There
two kinds; that worn by the priests, of plain linen, and that by the high priests, of embroidered linen. It was a sort of girdle, which brought from the back of the neck over the shonlders, hung down in front, and was crossed at the waist and carried back and used as a girdle to the tunic.
Mishna. The oral law consisting of tradi
tions handed down respecting the law of
Moses. Months --JEWISH.
Nisan, March 20 to April 16. Iyar, April 19 to May 17. Sivan, May 18 to June 16. Tamuz, June 17 to July 15. Ab, July 16 to August 14. Elul, August 16 to September 13. Tishri, September 14 to October 13. Marchesvan, October 14 to November 13. Kisley, November 14 to December 13. Tebeth, December 14 to January 12. Shebat, January 13 to February 12. Adar, February 13 to March 15. The Jewish months have 29 and 30 days, and Leap year has 13 months, the last being known as 20 Adar. NEBIM. PROPHETS. Containing that portion
of the Bible from the Book of Joshua to
the end of the Prophets. PAROCHES. The curtain before the holy
shrine in the Synagogue. PESACH. PASSOVER. The feast of Spring, be
ginning on the fourteenth day of the month Nisan and lasting seven days. It is the celebration of the Passover and commemorates the delivery of the Jews from Egyptian bondage, and the passing over of the last plague from the houses of the Israelites.
PHYLACTERY. In Hebrew, tephelin. Strips of
parchment on which were inscribed passages from the Pentateuch. They were enclosed in a small box and worn on the forehead between the eyes, or on the arm near the heart, in accordance with the command in Exodus xiii, 16.
GEMARA. A commentary on the Mishna. KADDI3H. A prayer recited in the Synagogue
for the souls of departed parents, KELAI KADESH. HOLY VESSELS. Silver orna
ments used in the Synagogue to adorn
the scrolls of the law. KETAUBIM. WRITINGS, Containing the Psalms,
Proverbs and the remaining books of the
Bible. KIDDUSH and HABDALLA. Prayers recited in
Jewish houses; the first at the beginning, the latter at the close of Sabbaths and festivals. They are recited by the chief of the house, holding a glass of wine in his hand, at the conclusion of which he drinks and passes it around
the table. MESUSA. DOORPOST. A little scroll of parch
ment containing this passage of Scripture: - Thou shalt write them on the doorposts of thy house, and upon thy gates." It is enclosed in a tin box, and fastened to the right doorpost of Jewish houses.
PURIM. Lor. A feast day, on the fourteenth
of the month Adar, in remembrance of God's providence in saving the Israelites from the destruction, through Mordecai and Esther, planned by Haman, accord
ing to the book of Esther. Rosh HASHANAH. NEW YEAR. Kept on the
first day of the seventh month, Tishri, the Jewish civil New Year, Nisan being the religious. The biblical name of the
feast is “Day of the Trumpet.” SEPTUAGINT. SEVENTY, The Old Testament,
so called, from the number of translators engaged on the original Greek version. It was commenced by the Alexandrian