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pieces of stone and rock, which two hours, as the moon was very sorely tried the patience of the bright, and that he would take them travellers. Hundreds of carcasses into Cairo by breakfast-time in the of camels lie in the way; the flesh is morning. But it was suspected that soon eaten by the wolves and rats, this haste was in order that the paswhile the bones bleach in the sun. sengers waiting at Cairo to go by the Little troops of Arabs were met from India steamer should be conveyed time to time, sometimes on camels across the desert by himself, so they and sometimes on horses. They were declined his offer, and enjoyed their armed to the teeth, as black as ne- night's rest. On rising in the morgroes, and looked ferocious enough to ning, they felt that they had reason to make any party of pacific travellers congratulate themselves on their retremble for their goods and chattels. fusal of the night's journey ; for they But they were the patrols of Moham- found even the morning air bitter, and med Ali, and guardians of the goods the atmosphere a wet fog. The aspect which in other days they would have of the country had now changed. delighted to plunder. There are eight Chains of hills disappeared, and all stations on this road through the was level sand. On the way they desert, all built by that man of won- saw the mirage, sometimes assuming ders, the Pasha. Of these, four are the appearance of a distant harbour, only stables ; but four are houses for at others, of an inland lake reflecting the reception of travellers. They are the surrounding objects on its surface; generally from twelve to sixteen and they met one of the picturesque miles apart.

The station No. 6, displays of Arabia, a wealthy Bey though by no means possessing the going on a pilgrimage to Mecca. He comforts of an English hotel, must be had a train of twenty or thirty camels. a miracle to the old travellers of the Those carrying himself and his harem desert. It consists of two chambers, had superb trappings. The women a kitchen, and servants' room, with were seated in large open boxes, a large public saloon occupying the hanging on each side as paniers. whole of one end, and completing a There were red silk embroidered curlittle centre court. Three sides of tains hung round, like those on a bedthe saloon were furnished with divans. stead, and an awning over all. The There was a long table in the centre, a

bey was smoking his splendid pipe, with several chairs, and a glass win- and behind came a crowd of slaves dow at each end of the room. But with provisions. The road on apthis was unluckily the season of flies, proaching Cairo grew rougher than and they were the torment of the ever; it was often over ridges of rock travellers ; table, wall, ceiling, and just appearing above the sand. The floors swarmed with them. They Pasha's “commissioners of paving." flew into the face, the eyes, and the seem to have slumbered on their mouth. Thousands of musquittoes posts as much as if they had been were also buzzing round and biting metropolitan. At last a silvery every thing. The breakfast was no stream” was seen winding in the hosooner laid on the table than it was rizon—the “glorious Nile!” The blackened with flies. The beds were country Dow grew picturesque; a hiving, and intolerable. No. 4, the forest of domes and minarets arose in halfway - house, was rather better. the distance; and the Pyramids beIt is the largest of them all, and has came visible.

The road then ran a long row of bedrooms, and two through a sort of suburb, where the public saloons. It has a large court- Bedouins take up their quarters on yard, in which were turkeys, geese, their visits to buy grain, they being sheep, and goats, for the use of tra- not suffered within the walls. It then vellers. The Arab coachman here passed between walled gardens filled tried a trick of the road. He sent up with flowers, shrubs, orange and olive a message that he had observed the trees; most of the walls were also lady looked very much tired, and that surmounted with a row of pillars, he therefore advised them to get to interlaced with vines--a species of the end of their journey as quickly as ornament new to us, but which, we possible; that they had better start in should conceive, must add much to the beauty, external and internal, of when four hundred and seventy of those a garden. Cairo was entered at last; showy soldiers were murdered, and but and its lofty houses, and the general one escaped by leaping his horse from architecture of this noblest specimen the battlements. The horse was killed; of a Mahometan capital, delighted the man is now a bey in the Pasha's the eyes which had so long seen no- service. The citadel stands on a hill, thing but the sea, the rocky shore, and contains the Pasha's palace, a and the desert. Cairo is, like all the harem, a council-hall, police-offices, rest of the world, growing European, and a large square, where the masand even English. It has its hotels ; sacre was perpetrated. The view from and the traveller, except that he hears the windows of the palace is superb. more Arabic, and inhales more tobacco Cairo is seen immediately beneath, smoke, will soon begin to imagine skirted by gardens on the right. Behimself in Regent street. The “East- yond those the mosques of the caern Hotel” is a good house, where liphs, and as far as the eye can reach, Englishmen get beefsteaks, port wine, the Arabian desert. In front is the and brown stout; read the London Nile, a silver stream, covered with papers ; have waiters who at least do sails of every description, till it is lost their best to entertain them in their in the groves of the Delta. The ports own tongue; and want nothing but of Boulac and old Cairo, with numeroperas and omnibuses. But the dress ous villages, stud its banks, and from still makes a distinction, and it is its bosom rise verdant islands. To wholly in favour of the Mussulman. the left, the Nile is still visible, and All modern European dresses are beyond are seen the Pyramids, which, mean; the Oriental is the only man though twelve miles off, appear quite whose dress adds dignity to the hu- close, from the transparency of the air. man form. When Sultan Mahmoud In the citadel is also a mosque, now stripped off the turban, and turned the building by the order of the Pasha. noble dress of his people into the It is constructed of Oriental alabascaricature of the European costume, ter, is of great size, already exhibits he struck a heavier blow at his sove- fine taste, and promises to be one of reiguty than ever was inflicted by the the most beautiful structures in Egypt. Russian sabre or the Greek dagger. But the Pasha has not yet attained He smote the spirit of his nation. The the European improvement of lamps Egyptian officials wear the fez, or red in the streets. After nightfall, the nightcap- the fitting emblem of an only light is from the shops, which, empire gone to sleep. But the general when they close, leave the street in population of Egypt wear the ancient utter darkness. However, most of turban, the finest ornament of the head the pedestrians carry lamps with them. ever invented by man; that of the How does it happen that no gas comEgyptian Mahometan is white mus- pany has taken pity npon this Egyplin; that of the Shereefs, or line of tian darkness, and saved the Cairans Mahomet, is green; that of the Jews from the chance of having their throats and Copts is black. The remaining cut, or at least their bones broken; for portions of the costume are such as, during the summer a considerable porperhaps, we shall soon see only upon tion of the poorer population sleep in the stage.

The embroidered caftan, the streets ? Still the Pasha is a man the flowing gown, the full trouser of of taste, fond of living in gardens, scarlet or violet-coloured cloth, the and sensible enough to have the garyellow morocco boot, the jewelled den of his favourite palace at Shoobra dagger, and velvet-sheathed cimeter laid out by a Scotch gardener. He -all the perfection of magnificence used to reside a great deal there, but and taste in costume. The ample now chiefly lives, when at Cairo, in the beard gives completeness to the ma- house of his daughter, a widow, where jesty of the countenance, and finishes his apartments are in the European the true character of the “lord of the style. Nothing surprises a European creation."

traveller more than the people themThe citadel of Cairo has a melancho- selves; and no problem can seem more ly and memorable name, from the hor- mysterious than the means by which rid massacre of the Mamelukes in 1811, they are enabled to supply so much expensive costume. The Egyptian their face veils, the most frightful gentleman seems to want for nothing, things possible, shuffle through the wherever they find the money to pay streets like strings of spectres. Pofor it. Fine houses, fine furniture, verty and labour may by possibility fine horses, and fine clothes, seem to keep the lower ranks in health ; but be constantly at the command of a how the higher among the females crowd who have nothing to do, who can retain health, between their want produce nothing, and yet seem to have of exercise, their full feeding, their every thing. The Egyptian or Turk- hot baths, and this perpetual hot bath ish lady is an absolute bale of costly of clothing, defies all rational con'clothing—the more breadths of silk jecture. The Egyptians of all ranks they carry about them the better. are terribly afraid of what they call Before leaving her home, she puts over the evil eye, and stifle themselves and her house costume a large loose robe children in all kinds of rags to avoid called a tob, made of silk or satin, being bewitched. The peasants are and always of some gay colour, pink, a fine-looking, strong-bodied race of yellow, red, or violet. She next puts men; but many of them are met blind on her face veil, a long strip of the of an eye. This is attributed to the finest white muslin, often exquisitely reluctance to be soldiers for the glory embroidered. It is fastened just of the Pasha. But Mohammed Ali between the eyes, conceals all the was not to be thus tricked, and he other features, and reaches to the raised a regiment of one-eyed men. feet. She next envelopes herself in a In other instances they are said to large cloak of rich black silk, tied have knocked out the fore-teeth to round the head by a piece of narrow avoid biting a cartridge, or to have riband. Her costume is completed cut off a joint of the first finger to by trousers of silk gauze, and yellow prevent their drawing a trigger. Even morocco boots, which reach a consi- thus they are not able to escape the derable way up the legs. How any cunning Pasha. But this shows the human being can bear such a heap of natural horror of the conscription ; clothing, especially under the fiery and we are not surprised that men sun and hot winds of Egypt, is to us should adopt any expedient to escape inconceivable. It must melt all vi- so great a curse and scandal to sogour out of the body, and all life out ciety. It is extraordinary that in of the soul; but it is the fashion, and this 19th century, even of the Chrisfashion works its wonders in Egypt tian world, such an abomination as well as elsewhere. The veil across should be suffered to exist in Europe. the mouth, in a climate where every It is equally extraordinary that it exbreath of fresh air is precious, must ists in every country but England, be but a slower kind of strangulation, and she can have no prouder distincBut the preparative for a public ap- tion. The habeas-corpus and her free pearance is not yet complete. · Women enlistment, are two privileges without of condition never walk. They ride which no real liberty can ever exist, upon a donkey handsomely capari- and which, in any country, it would be soned, sitting astride upon a high and well worth a revolution, or ten revobroad saddle, covered with a rich lutions, to obtain. Hers is the only Turkey carpet. They ride with stir- army into which no man can be forced, rups, but they never hold the reins; and in which every man is a voluntheir hands are busy in keeping down teer. And yet she has never wanted their cloaks. A servant leads the soldiers, and her soldiers have never donkey by the bridle. Their figures, fought the worse It is true, that when when thus in motion, are the most she has a militia they are drawn by balpreposterous things imaginable. Huge lot from the population; but no militiaas they are, the wind, which has no man is ever sent out of the country ; respect for persons, gets under their and as to those who are drawn, if they cloaks, and blows them up to three feel disinclined to serve in this force, times their natural size. Those are which acts merely as a national guard, the ladies of Egypt; the lower orders ten shillings will find a substitute at imitate this absurdity and extrava- any time. It is also true that Enggance as far as they can, and with land has impressment forthe navy; but



the man who makes the sea his live- standing, The trees are now lying lihood, adopts his profession volunta- on the ground, many of the trunks rily, and with the knowledge that at forty feet long, with their branches some time or other he may be called beside them, all of stone, and eviupon to serve in the royal navy. And dently shattered by the fall. Cairo, even impressment is never adopted too, has its hospital for lunatics ; but but on those extreme emergencies this is a terrible scene. The unforwhich can seldom happen, and which tunate inmates are chained and caged, may never happen again in the life of and look like wild beasts, with just

But on the Continent, every enough of the human aspect left to man except the clergy, and those in make the scene terrible. A reform the employment of the state, is liable here would be well worth the interto be dragged to the field, let his pro- ference of European humanity. We spects or his propensities be what wish that the Hanwell Asylum would they may. In every instance of war, send a deputation with Dr Connolly parents look to their children with at its head to the Pasha. No man is terror as they grow up to the military more open to reason than Mohammed age. The army is a national curse, Ali, and the European treatment of and parental feelings are a perpetual lunatics, transferred to an Egyptian source of affliction. If the great body dungeon, would be one of the best of the people in Europe, instead of triumphs of active humanity. clamouring for imaginary rights, and The travellers at length left Cairo, talking nonsense about constitutions, and embarked on board Mills and Comwhich they have neither the skill to pany's steamboat, named the Jack o' construct, nor would find worth the Lantern. It seemed to be merely one possession if they had them, would of the common boats that ply on the concentrate their claims in a demand river, with the addition of a boiler and for the habeas-corpus, and the aboli- paddles, and is probably the smallest tion of the conscription, they would steamer extant. However, when they relieve themselves from the two heavi- entered the cabin upon the deck, they est burdens of despotism, and obtain found every thing nicely arranged, for themselves the two highest advan- and began to think better of their tages of genuine liberty.

little vessel. They had another adOne of the curiosities of Cairo is the vantage in its smallness, as the Nile hair-oil bazar. The Egyptian women was now so low that numbers of vesare prodigious hairdressers, and the sels lay aground, and a large steamer variety of perfumes which they lavish would probably have been unable to upon their hair and persons, exceed make the passage. The river seemed all European custom and calculation. quite alive with many-formed and This bazar is all scents, oil, and gold many-coloured boats.

Their picbraids for the hair. It is nearly half turesque sails, crossing each other, a mile long. The odour, or the mix- made them at a distance look almost ture of odours, may well be presumed like butterflies skimming over the to be overpowering, when every other water. The little steamer drew only shop is devoted to scented bottles- two feet and a half of water. She is the intervening ones, containing per- jestingly described as of two and a fumed head-dresses, formed of braids half Cairo donkey power. About six of ribands and gold lace, which de- miles from Boulac, they passed under scend to the ground. A warehouse the walls of Shoobra palace and garof Turkish tables exhibited the luxu- dens. Its groves form a striking obrious ingenuity of the workers in ject, and its interior, cultivated by mother-of-pearl. They were richly Greek gardeners, is an earthly Mawrought in gold and silver ornaments. hometan paradise. It has bowerWithin seven miles of Cairo, there covered walks, gardens carpeted with still exists a wonder of the old time, flowers, ever-flowing fountains, and a which must have made a great figure lake on which the luxurious Pasha is in the Arab legends-a petrified forest rowed by the ladies of his harem. lying in the desert, and which, to The Nile winds in the most extraorcomplete the wonder, it is evident dinary manner across the tongues of must have been petrified while still land; boats and sails are seen close,

which are in reality a mile further very dirty, and swarming with cock down the stream. The banks were roaches. They were towed by three high above the boat, through the pre- horses, ridden by three men. In Engsent shallowness of the river. They land one would have answered the were chiefly of brown clay, and were purpose. The Canal itself is an exfrequently cut into chasms for the traordinary work, worthy of the counpurposes of irrigation. As they shot try of the Pyramids, and one of the along, they saw large tracts covered prodigies which despotism sometimes with cotton, wheat, Indian corn, and exhibits when the iron sceptre is comother crops.

Date-trees in abun- bined with a vigorous intellect. It is dance, the leaves large and like those ninety feet wide and forty-eight miles of the cocoa, the fruit hanging in long, and yet was completed in six large clusters, when ripe of a bright weeks. But it took the labour of red. Water-melons cultivated every 250,000 men, who worked, if the story where, often on the sandy banks of be true, night and day. Along the the river itself, three or four times the canal were seen several large encampsize of a man's head, and absolutely ments of troops, rather rough instruloading the beds. Numbers of the ments, it is true, for polishing African Egyptian villages. were seen in the savagery into usefulness, but perhaps navigation of the river. The houses are the only means by which great things huddled together, are of unbaked claycould have been done in so short a period and look like so many bee-hives. as the reign of Mohammed Ali. An ItaEvery village has its date-trees, and lian fellow-passenger, who had resided every hut has pigeons. The peasants in Egypt twenty-five years, gave it as in general seem intolerably indolent, the result of his experience, that withand groups of them are every where out the strong hand of power, the lying under the trees. Herds of fine population would do nothing. Bread buffaloes, twice the size of those in and onions being their food, when Ceylon, were seen along the shore, and those were obtained they had got all sometimes swimming the river. Groups that they asked for. They would of magnificent cattle, larger and finer leave their fruitful land to barrenness, than even our best English breed, and would prefer sleeping under their were driven occasionally to water at trees, to the simplest operation of the river side. The Egyptian boats agriculture in a soil that never recome to an anchor every night; but quires the plough. Yet they are sinthe Jack o' Lantern dashed on, and gularly tenacious of their money, and by daybreak reached the entrance of often bury it, keeping their secret to the Mahoudiah Canal, on which a the last. The Italian told them that track-boat carries passengers to Alex- he was once witness to a scene exactly andria. A high mound of earth here in point. He accompanied the taxseparates the canal from the Nile, gatherer to a miserable village, where which flows on towards Rosetta. This they entered one of the most miserable embankment is about forty feet wide. huts. The tax-gatherer demanded Some of Mrs Griffith's observations his due, the Egyptian fell at his feet, are at least sufficiently ex ssive; for protesting that his family were starvexample:-“ All the children, and ing, and that he had not a single coin some past the age of what are usually to buy bread. The tax-gatherer, findstyled little children, were running ing him impracticable, ordered some about entirely devoid of clothing. We of his followers to give him a certain observed a great deal of this in Egypt. number of stripes.

The peasant Men are often seen in the same condi- writhed under the stripes, but contition; and the women of the lower nued his tale. The beating was reorders, having concealed their heads newed on two days more, when the and faces, appear to think they have Italian interfered and implored mercy. done all that is necessary." This is But the officer said that he must coneertainly telling a good deal; nothing tinue to flog, as he was certain that more explicit could be required. The the money would come forth at last. track-boats are odious conveyances, After six days' castigation, the pealong and narrow, and the present one sant's patience could hold out" no ., VOL. LVII. NO. CCCLII.


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