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deny your right to be considered as Christians ; we do not deny your title in the

promises of the Gospel, even without compliance with our law : but if

you

would have us Jews live with you as we do with one another, that is, if you would in all respects be treated by us as Jews, you must live as such yourselves." This, I think, was the compulsion which St. Peter's conduct imposed upon the Gentiles, and for which St. Paul reproved

him.

As to the part which the historian ascribes to St. Peter in the debate at Jerusalem, beside that it was a different question which was there agitated from that which produced the dispute at Antioch, there is nothing to hinder us from supposing that the dispute at Antioch was prior to the consultation at Jerusalem ; or that Peter, in consequence of this rebuke, might have afterwards maintained firmer sentiments.

186

CHAPTER VI.

THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

No. I. This epistle, and the Epistle to the Colossians, appear to have been transmitted to their respective churches by the same messenger: 66 But that

ye

also may know my affairs, and how I do, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord, shall make known to you all things ; whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that ye might know our affairs, and that he might comfort

your

hearts.” Ephes. chap. vi. 21, 22. This text, if it do not expressly declare, clearly I think intimates, that the letter was set by Tychicus. The words made use of in the Epistle to the Colossians are very similar to these, and afford the same implication that Tychicus, in conjunction with Onesimus, was the bearer of the letter to that church : “All my state shall Tychicus declare unto you, who is a beloved brother, and a faithful minister, and fellow servant in

1

the Lord; whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that he might know

your estate, and comfort

your hearts;

with One simus, a faithful and beloved brother, who is one of you. They shall make known unto you all things which are done here.” Colos. chap. iv. 7-9. Both epistles represent the writer as under imprisonment for the Gospel ; and both treat of the same general subject. The Epistle therefore to the Ephesians, and the Epistle to the Colossians, import to be two letters written by the same person, at, or nearly at, the same time, and upon the same subject, and to have been sent by the same messenger. Now, every thing in the sentiments, order, and diction of the two writings, corresponds with what might be expected from this circumstance of identity or cognation in their original. The leading doctrine of both epistles is the union of Jews and Gentiles under the Christian dispensation; and that doctrine in both is established by the same arguments, or, more properly speaking, illustrated by the same similitudes*:

* St. Paul, I am apt to believe, has been sometiines accused of inconclusive reasoning, by our mistaking that for reasoning which was only intended for illustration. He is not to be read as a man, whose own persuasion of the truth of what he

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one head," one body," one new man," “ one temple,". are in both epistles the figures under which the society of believers in Christ, and their common relation to him as such, is represented*. The ancient, and, as had been thought, the indelible distinction between Jew and Gentile, in both epistles, is declared to be “now abolished by his cross." Beside this consent in the

general tenor of the two epistles, and in the run also and warmth of thought with which they are composed, we may naturally expect in letters produced under the circumstances in which these appear to have been written, a closer resemblance of style and diction, than between other letters of the same per

taught always or solely depended upon the views under which he represents it in his writings. Taking for granted the certainty of his doctrine, as resting upon the revelation that had been imparted to him, he exhibits it frequently to the conception of his readers under images and allegories, in which if an analogy may be perceived, or even sometimes a poetic resemblance be found, it is all perhaps that is required.

Ephes, i. 22,

{

Colos. i, 18.

* Compare

with

iv. 15, ii. 15,

ii. 19.

iii. 10, 11. Colos. ij. 14.

i. 18-21. ii. 7.

Ephes. ii. 14, 15,

Also

with

ii. 16, ii. 20,

son but of distant dates, or between letters adapted to different occasions. In particular we may look for many of the same expressions, and sometimes for whole sentences being alike ; since such expressions and sentences would be repeated in the second letter (whichever that was) as yet fresh in the author's mind from the writing of the first. This repetition occurs in the following examples* :

Ephes. ch. i. 7. 66 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins f."

Colos. c. i. 14. 66 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins ..."

Besides the sameness of the words, it is farther remarkable that the sentence is, in both places, preceded by the same introduc

* When verbal comparisons are relied upon, it becomes necessary to state the original; but that the English reader may be interrupted as little as may be, I shall in general do this in the notes.

+ Ephes. ch. i. 7. Εν ω εχομεν την απολυτρωσιν δια τα αιματος αυτ8, την αφεσιν των παραπτωματων.

1 Colos. ch. 1. 14. Εν ω εχομεν την απολυτρωσιν δια τα αιματος αυτ8, την αφεσιν των αμαρτιων.-However it must be observed, that in this latter text many copies have not dia te αιματος αυτ8.

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