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day he departed,” says the historian, “ to Derbe ; and when they had preached the Gospel to that city, and had taught many, they returned again to Lystra.” The epistle, therefore, in the names of the cities, in the order in which they are enumerated, and in the place at which the enumeration stops, corresponds exactly with the history.
But a second question remains, namely, how these persecutions were “ known” to Timothy, or why the apostle should recall these in particular to his remembrance, rather than many other persecutions with which his ministry had been attended. When some time, probably three
years, afterwards (vide Pearson's Annales Paulinas), “St. Paul made a second journey through the same country, “ in order to go again and visit the brethren in every city wbere he had preached the word of the Lord,” we read, Acts, chap. xvi.l., that, “ when he came to Derbe and Lystra, behold a certain disciple was there named Timotheus.” One or other, therefore, of these cities was the place of Timothy's abode. We read moreover that he was well reported of by the brethren that were at Lystra and Iconium ; so that he must have been well acquainted with these places. Also again, when Paul came to Derbe and Lystra, Timothy was already a disciple : Behold, a certain disciple was there named Timotheus.” He must therefore have been converted before. But since it is expressly stated in the epistle, that Timothy was converted by St. Paul himself, that he was “ his own son in the faith ;" it follows that he must have been converted by him upon
his former journey into those parts: which was the very time when the apostle underwent the persecutions referred to in the epistle. Upon the whole, then, persecutions at the several cities named in the epistle are expressly recorded in the Acts: and Timothy's knowledge of this part of St. Paul's history, which knowledge is appealed to in the epistle, is fairly deduced from the place of his abode, and the time of his conversion. It may
farther be observed, that it is probable from this account, that St. Paul was in the midst of those persecutions when Timothy became known to him. No wonder then that the apostle, though in a letter written long afterwards, should remind his favourite convert of those scenes of affliction and distress under which they first met.
Although this coincidence, as to the names of the cities, be more specific and direct than
many which we have pointed out, yet I apprehend there is no just reason for thinking it to be artificial: for had the writer of the epistle sought a coincidence with the history upon this head, and searched the Acts of the Apostles for the
I conceive he would have sent us at once to Philippi and Thessalonica, where Paul suffered persecution, and where, from what is stated, it may easily be gathered that Timothy accompanied him, rather than have appealed to persecutions as known to Timothy, in the account of which persecutions Timothy's presence is not mentioned; it not being till after one entire chapter, and in the history of a journey three years future to this, that Timothy's name occurs in the Acts of the Apostles for the first time.
THE EPISTLE TO TITUS.
A very characteristic circumstance in this epistle, is the quotation from Epimenides chap. i. 12: “ One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.” Κρητες αει ψευσται, κακα θηρια, γαστερες αργαι.
I call this quotation characteristic, because no writer in the New Testament, except St. Paul, appealed to heathen testimony; and because St. Paul repeatedly did so. In his celebrated speech at Athens, preserved in the seventeenth chapter of the Acts, he tells his audience, that “in God we live, and move, and have our being; as certain also of
your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring."
-Τ8 γας και γενος εσμεν. . The reader will perceive much similarity of manner in these two passages. The re
ference in the speech is to a heathen poet ; it is the same in the epistle. In the speech the apostle urges his hearers with the authority of a poet of their own ; in the epistle he avails himself of the same advantage. Yet there is a variation, which shows that the hint of inserting a quotation in the epistle was not, as it may be suspected, borrowed from seeing the like practice attributed to St. Paul in the history; and it is this, that in the epistle the author cited is called a prophet, “one of themselves, even a prophet of their own.” Whatever might be the reason for calling Epimenides a prophet: whether the names of poet and prophet were occasionally convertible; whether Epimenides in particular had obtained that title, as Grotius seems to have proved ; or whether the appellation was given to him, in this instance, as having delivered a description of the Cretan character, which the future state of morals among
them verified : whatever was the reason (and any of these reasons will account for the variation, supposing St. Paul to have been the author), one point is plain, namely, if the epistle had been forged, and the author had inserted a quotation in it merely from having seen an example of the same kind in