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note to 1 Sam. iv. 18; where we have stated, that a mode of sitting on the heels is in the East highly respectful, is used on ceremonial occasions, and is even one of the postures of devotion. The cut represents the late king of Persia seated in this fashion. He wears his state-dress, and on his arms appear those celebrated regal armlets which we noticed under chap. i. 10.

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PORTRAIT OF FUTTEH ALI SHAH, LATE KING OF PERSIA.

CHAPTER VIII.

2 And he smote Moab, and measured i David subdueth the Philistines and the Moabites.

them with a line, casting them down to the 3. He smiteth Hadudezer, and the Syrians. 9 ground; even with two lines measured he to Toi sendeth Joram with presents to bless him. put to death, and with one full line to keep 11 The presents and the spoil David dedicateth alive. And so the Moabites became David's to God. 14 He putteth garrisons in Edom. 16 servants, and brought gifts. David's officers.

3 | David smote also Hadadezer, the son And 'after this it came to pass, that David of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to resmote the Philistines, and subdued them : cover his border at the river Euphrates. and David took 'Metheg-ammah out of the 4 And David took from him a thousand hand of the Philistines.

"chariots, and seven hundred horsemen, and "1 Chron. 18. 1, &c, ? Or, the bridle of Ammah. 3 Psalm 60.2, • Or, of his. > Asl (bron. . . .

twenty thousand footmen: and David hough- unto the LORD, with the silver and gold that ed all the chariot horses, but reserved of them he had dedicated of all nations which he for an hundred chariots.

subdued; 5 And when the Syrians of Damascus 12 Of Syria, and of Moab, and of the came to succour Hadadezer king of Zobah, children of Ammon, and of the Philistines, David slew of the Syrians two and twenty and of Amalek, and of the spoil of Hadadthousand men.

ezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah. 6 Then David put garrisons in Syria of 13 And David gat him a name when he Damascus : and the Syrians became ser- returned from ‘smiting of the Syrians in vants to David, and brought gifts. And the valley of salt, being eighteen thousand the Lord preserved David whithersoever he men. went.

14 | And he put garrisons in Edom; 7 And David took the shields of gold that throughout all Edom put he garrisons, and were on the servants of Hadadezer, and all they of Edom became David's servants. brought them to Jerusalem.

And the Lord preserved David whither8 And from Betah, and from Berothai, soever he went. cities of Hadadezer, king David took ex- 15 And David reigned over all Israel; ceeding much brass.

and David executed judgment and justice 9 F When Toi king of Hamath heard unto all his people. that David had smitten all the host of Ha- 16 And Joab the son of Zeruiah was over dadezer,

the host; and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahi

lud was ; king David

, to "salute him, and to bless him, | 417 And Zadok the son of Ahitub, and because he had fought against Hadadezer, Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, were the and smitten him : for Hadadezer 'had wars priests; and Seraiah was the ''scribe; with Toi. And Joram brought with him 18 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and was over both the Cherethites and the PeTessels of brass :

lethites; and David's sons

were 13chief 11 Which also king David did dedicate rulers. Heb. ask him of peace. 7 Heb. was a man of wars with.

? Heb. his smiting. 10 Or, remembrancer, or, writer of chronicles. 11 Or, secretary. Verse l. “ Metheg-ammah.”—There has been some speculation about the signification of this name. It seems suffi. cient to know that it denotes “Gath and her towns;" as in the parallel passage, 1 Chron. xviii. 1.

? Measured them with a line.”—Some apply this to the country of Moab; but the plain meaning of the text seems to be, that David (in conformity, doubtless, with a known usage of Oriental warfare) caus all his captives to lie down, sed instead of destroying the whole, as the law authorised, and as they all probably expected, marked off a certain proportion to be spared. What that proportion was is not very clear. Our version seems to make those who were destroyed two-thirds of the whole ; but we prefer the reading of the Septuagint and Vulgate, which, although they differ in terms, concur in the sense of making the proportion one half. The former says there were two lines for pretrying alive, and two for putting to death: and the latter, that there were two lines, one for each purpose ; and this is the clearest interpretation. As to the principle of the measure, all comment has been anticipated in the remarks on he ancient war-law of the Hebrews and their neighbours, in the notes to Deut. xx. Of these, the note on verse 13 is particularly applicable to the illustration of the present text; as it will serve to show that the procedure here described coad scarcely at that time have been considered as a severe measure, but rather as an act of lenity, with the intention of sparing a part of the male captives, whom the law and the general custom of war doomed to death. 3. " Zobah."-See the notes on 1 Chron. xviii. 4. Houghed all the chariot horses.”—See the notes on Deut. xvii. 16, Josh. xi. 6. The neighbouring nations, with SC De exceptions, continue strong in cavalry; while the Hebrews, according to the intentions of their lawgiver, remain without horses. In David's own Psalms there are frequent references to this, chiefly as contrasting their own confidetzee in Jehovah with the reliance which their enemies placed on their strong bodies of cavalry (Ps. viii. 8, xxxiii. 17, lari

, 7, cxlvii. 10); and such expressions occurring in hymns, were well calculated to foster in the minds of the Hebrews

, those feelings of contempt towards cavalry which they unquestionably entertained. The direction to hough the horses of the enemy is not in the Law; but was given to Joshua on occasion of his war with the northern Canaanites: but whether David'in the present instance acted with reference to that direction, or according to the common practice of the time, is not very clear. The practice of thus treating the horses of the adverse party, when they cannot be trought off, has been continued in modern warfare, for the purpose of disabling the animals and rendering them unserFeeable to the enemy. The Hebrews had more reason for such a proceeding than any modern European nation ; for they were forbidden to employ horses in war, and did not employ them for travelling or agriculture : and it is therefore difficult to see what they could have done with these animals, if they had preserved them. It is true they might bare sold them ; but then their enemies might have contrived to buy them back again, and employed them anew against their conquerors. The policy therefore was to diminish, as far as possible, the race of these animals, as possented by their neighbours; and the importance of this we cannot estimate without recollecting that the immediate taighbours of the Hebrews do not appear to have had any native breed of horses, but to have obtained them by purebase from Armenia or Egypt-a circumstance which rendered it not easy to repair the loss which the destruction of

8 Heb. in his hand were.

21 | Chron. 18. 17.

13 Or, priuccs.

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DOMESTIC AND ORNAMENTAL Vessels of the EGYPTIANS, COLLECTED FROM VARIOUS Egyprian SCULPTURES. their horses involved. The same course was adopted by the Romans towards elephants, which they killed,-because, on the one hand, they had no desire themselves to obtain the assistance of such auxiliaries, and knew, on the other, that these creatures were sometimes dangerous to the troops in which they were employed.

To hough” a horse is to “hamstring” it; that is, to cut its thigh-sinew. Michaelis, who has devoted an article to this subject, and to whom we acknowledge great obligation for various illustrative information about horses, eksenes, that most expositors, from ignorance of military affairs and of the veterinary art, suppose the command in Josk. si. to mean, not that the horses should be killed, but merely lamed in the hind legs, and then let go. But, as he observes, “ a horse so treated, must, instead of running off, fall instantly back, and writhe about miserably till he die; which generally happens from loss of blood, from the severance of the artery of the thigh. The hamstringing can be done in an instant, and the animals generally bleed to death; and if they should survive, the wound never heals ; so that if even the enemy recover them alive, he is ultimately obliged to destroy them.” He adds, that he does not see the superior humanity of the supposed intention to lame the horses without putting them to death. The permanent laming of a horse that would still live, would rather have been extreme cruelty ; for being then useless, no one would be likely to care for it, or supply it with food.

10. Vessels of silver, and ressels of gold, and vessels of brass.”—If what Denon says be true, that the arts of other Dations are only spoils of those of the Egyptians, it will be right to consider that the vases and other vessels, whether of pottery or metal, in use among that most ingenious people, furnished the models for the style, fashion, and material d these possessed by, at least, their more immediate neighbours—including the Hebrews, Syrians, and others. We bare therefore given a small collection of Egyptian vessels; and our conviction that they may be taken as examples of one of the vessels mentioned in Scripture, is founded on stronger reasons than the alleged derivation of all the arts from Egypt—and that is, on their ancient universality and their existing prevalence. Wherever they originated, certain it s, that we everywhere recognise the same essential forms in the ancient vases and domestic vessels. The Greek vases do not more certainly resemble those of Egypt, from which they are confessedly derived, than do those of ancient Persia and Babylonia. But then, also, they are modern European and modern Oriental. We may well derive the farmer from the Egyptians, or indirectly from the Greeks, and we see them preserved, more or less, in our water pichers, jars, evers, bowls, ale and wine glasses, goblets, flower-glasses, tea-pots, and many other examples. But then again we recognise the same forms-or at least many of them-in China, India, Persia, Mesopotamia, SyriaEterywhere in the East. In Bagdad, or in any other town in that most ancient of historical regions in which Bagdad o situated, we see in the shop of an ordinary potter a variety of forms of common vessels, which we do not hesitate at eee to recognise as “classical,” or as “ Egyptian.” If we dig in the neighbouring primitive soil of Babylunia, or Cadza, or the “plain of Shinar," we there find precisely the same forms as are exhibited in the shop of the potter, vuose vares we hesitate any longer to call classical or Egyptian. They are universal : and therefore they are Lyptian, and Syrian, and Hebrew: although of course, we must make some allowance for occasional peculiarities, resulting from the individual wants or tastes of a particular nation. Now, of these ancient universal forms, the remains di Ezypt certainly furnish the most complete and various specimens; and it is almost impossible to be much mistaken in referring to them for the purpose of Scriptural illustration: it being only necessary to recollect that in such speciDies we sometimes discover a tendency to the grotesque in style and ornament, which we may reject as a general Lustration, regarding it as a peculiarity of Egyptian taste.

Concerning the paintings of Egyptian metallic vases, the following is the observation of the author of · Egyptian Antiquities in the · Library of Entertaining Knowledge:'-—" The art of working in the precious metals, such as the makiaz of golden ornaments on gold vases of large size and beautiful workmanship, might be inferred from a variety si incidental nutices in ancient writers, but is confirmed by the representations given in Rosellini. Here we see nuDet jus vases, painted yellow, which no doubt is intended to represent gold. Many of these, though exceedingly groteine in some of their details, are often very finely formed, and indicate not only a high state of manual skill, but auch taste and imagination. Other plates in the same work contain drawings of a great variety of vases and vessels, More of which, for the lightness and beauty of their form, are not to be surpassed by any specimens of ancient or modan art," (Vol. ii. p. 329.) 13. Palley of Salt.”—See 1 Kings xiv. 7. Not the Syrians, as here, but the Edomites, are always mentioned in tensection with this valley. That the Edomites are intended is evident from the following verse, and is clearly expressed in 1 Chron. xviii. 12, where we doubtless have the correct reading.

18. * Cherethites... Pelethites.”_See 1 Chron. xviii. 17. In the notes on the same chapter will be found some rebarks on other particulars mentioned in this chapter.

3 And the king said, Is there not yet any CHAPTER IX.

of the house of Saul, that I may shew the 1 Dmid by Zibu sendeth for Mephibosheth. 7 For kindness of God unto him? And Ziba said Jonathan's sake he entertaineth him at his table,

unto the king, Jonathan hath yet a son, and restoreth him all that was Saul's. 9 He maaketh Ziba his farmer.

which is 'lame on his feet.

4 And the king said unto him, Where is And David said, Is there yet any that is he? And Ziba said unto the king, Behold, left of the house of Saul, that I may shew he is in the house of Machir, the son of bin kindness for Jonathan's sake?

Ammiel, in Lo-debar. 2 And there was of the house of Saul a 5 | Then king David sent, and fetched kerrant whose name was Ziba. And when him out of the house of Machir, the son of they had called him unto David, the king Ammiel, from Lo-debar.

unto him, Art thou Ziba ? And he 6 Now when Mephibosheth, the son of said, Thy servant is he.

Jonathan, the son of Saul, was come unto 1 Chap. 4. A.

David, he fell on his face, and did reverence. I shalt bring in the fruits, that thy master's And David said, Mephibosheth. And he

son may

have food to eat: but Mephibosheth answered, Behold thy servant!

thy master's son shall eat bread alway at my 7. And David said unto him, Fear not: table. Now Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty for I will surely shew thee kindness for Jona- servants. than thy father's sake, and will restore thee 11 Then said Ziba unto the king, Accordall the land of Saul thy father; and thou ing to all that my lord the king hath comshalt eat bread at my table continually. manded his servant, so shall thy servant do. 8 And he bowed himself

, and said, 'What As for Mephibosheth, said the king, he shall is thy servant, that thou shouldest look upon eat at my table, as one of the king's sons. such a dead dog as I am ?

12 And Mephibosheth had a young son, 9 9 Then the king called to Ziba, Saul's whose name was Micha. And all that dwelt servant, and said unto him, I have given in the house of Ziba were servants unto Meunto thy master's son all that pertained to phibosheth. Saul and to all his house.

13 So Mephibosheth dwelt in Jerusalem : 10 Thou therefore, and thy sons, and thy for he did eat continually at the king's table; servants, shall till the land for him, and thou and was lame on both his feet.

Verse 11. " He shall eat at my table, as one of the king's sons.”—The general reader may be perplexed to know why, when David intended Mephibosheth to eat at his own table, he yet directed Ziba to bring to Jerusalem the produce of his estate, that he might have food to eat (verse 10). The fact seems to be, that David by no means intended that Mephibosheth, or any one else, should eat constantly with him; but only that he should have a right to the honourable distinction of a place at his table, on those public occasions and festivals when the king was accustomed to dine with the princes of his own family, and, perhaps, with the chief officers of state. This is still customary in the East; where the king usually eats alone, but on certain occasions admits his relations and great functionaries to his table. This is a very great privilege ; but of course, it does not affect the favoured person's ordinary means of subsistence. The situation of Jonathan's son in David's court seems to have been analogous to that of David himself in the court of Saul. He, as the king's son-in-law, had an assigned place at the royal table, but was not expected to occupy it till the new moon. (See the note on 1 Sam. xxv. 5.)

CHAPTER X.

to meet them, because the men were greatly 1 David's messengers, sent to comfort Hanun the ashamed: and the king said, Tarry at Jerison of Nahash, are villainously entreated. 6 The cho until your beards be grown, and then Ammonites, strengthened by the Syrians, are overcome by Joab and Abishai. 15 Shobach, making return. a new supply of the Syrians at Helam, is slain by 6 And when the children of Ammon David.

saw that they stank before David, the chilAnd it came to pass after this, that the 'king dren of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of the children of Ammon died, and Hanun of Beth-rehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, his son reigned in his stead.

twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maa2 Then said David, I will shew kindness cah a thousand men, and of Ish-tob twelve unto Hanun the son of Nahash, as his father thousand men. shewed kindness unto me. And David sent 7 And when David heard of it, he sent to comfort him by the hand of his servants Joab, and all the host of the mighty men. for his father. And David's servants came 8 And the children of Ammon came out, into the land of the children of Ammon. and put the battle in array at the entering

3 And the princes of the children of Am- in of the gate: and the Syrians of Zoba, and mon said unto Hanun their lord, 'Thinkest of Rehob, and Ish-tob, and Maacah, were thou that David doth honour thy father, by themselves in the field. that ne hath sent comforters unto thee? 9 When Joab saw that the front of the hath not David rather sent his servants unto battle was against him before and behind, he thee, to search the city, and to spy it out, chose of all the choice men of Israel, and put and to overthrow it?

them in array against the Syrians : 4 Wherefore Hanun took David's ser- 10 And the rest of the people he delivants, and shaved off the one half of their vered into the hand of Abishai his brother, beards, and cut off their garments in the that he might put them in array against the mid lle, even to their buttocks, and sent children of Ammon.

11 And he said, If the Syrians be too 5 When they told it unto David, he sent I strong for me, then thou shalt help me: but

them away.

1 | Chron, 19.1.

2 Heb. In thine eyes doth David.

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