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among three.

among three.

3 The God of Israel said. the Rock of one would give me drink of the water of Israel spake to me, 'He that ruleth over men the well of Beth-lehem, which is by the must be just, ruling in the fear of God.

gate! 4 And he shall be as the light of the morn- 16 And the three mighty men brake ing, when the sun riseth, even a morning through the host of the Philistines, and without clouds; as the tender grass springing drew water out of the well of Beth-lehem, out of the earth by clear shining after rain. that was by the gate, and took it, and brought

5 Although my house be not so with God; it to David: nevertheless he would not drink yet he hath made with me an everlasting thereof, but poured it out unto the LORD. covenant, ordered in all things, and sure: 17 And he said, Be it far from me, O for this is all my salvation, and all my desire, LORD, that I should do this: is not this the although he make it not to grow.

blood of the men that went in jeopardy of 6 | But the sons of Belial shall be all of their lives? therefore he would not drink it. them as thorns thrust away, because they These things did these three mighty men. cannot be taken with hands:

18 And 10 Abishai, the brother of Joab, 7 But the man that shall touch them must the son of Zeruiah, was chief be fenced with iron and the staff of a spear; And he lifted up his spear against three and they shall be utterly burned with fire in hundred, "and slew them, and had the name the same place.

8 T These be the names of the mighty 19 Was he not most honourable of three? men whom David had: The 3Tachmonite therefore he was their captain: howbeit he that sat in the seat, chief among the cap- attained not unto the first three. tains; the same was Adino the Eznite: the 20 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the lift up his spear against eight hundred, son of a valiant man, of Kabzeel, ''who had swhom he slew at one time.

done many acts, he slew two 18lionlike men 9 And after him was "Eleazar the son of of Moab: he went down also and slew a lion Dodo the Ahohite, one of the three mighty in the midst of a pit in time of snow : men with David, when they defied the Phi- 21 And he slew an Egyptian, "a goodly listines that were there gathered together man: and the Egyptian had a spear in his to battle, and the men of Israel were gone

hand; but he went down to him with a staff, away:

and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian's 10 He arose, and smote the Philistines hand, and slew him with his own spear. until his hand was weary, and his hand clave

22 These things did Benaiah the son of unto the sword : and the LORD wrought a

Jehoiada, and had the name among three great victory that day; and the people re-mighty men. turned after him only to spoil.

23 He was more honourable than the 11 And after him was 'Shammah the son thirty, but he attained not to the first three. of Agee the Hararite. And the Philistines And David set him over his 16 17 guard. were gathered together Sinto a troop, where 24 18 Asahel the brother of Joab was one was a piece of ground full of lentiles : and of the thirty; Elhanan the son of Dodo of the people fled from the Philistines.

Beth-lehem. 12 But he stood in the midst of the 25 Shammah the Harodite, Elika the ground, and defended it, and slew the Phi- Harodite, , listines: and the LORD wrought a great vic

26 Helez the Paltite, Ira the son of Iktory.

kesh the Tekoite, 13 And 'three of the thirty chief went 27 Abiezer the Anethothite, Mebunnai down, and came to David in the harvest the Hushathite, time unto the cave of Adullam: and the 28 Zalmon the Ahohite, Maharai the Netroop of the Philistines pitched in the valley tophathite, of Rephaim.

29 Heleb the son of Baanah, a Neto14 And David was then in an hold, and phathite, Ittai the son of Ribai out of Gibeah the garrison of the Philistines was then in of the children of Benjamin, Beth-lehem.

30 Benaiah the Pirathonite, Hiddai of 15 And David longed, and said, Oh that the brooks of Gaash,

9 Heb. filled. 3 Or, Josheb-bassebet the Tachmonite head of the three.

8 Or, for foraging. 9 Or, the three captains over the thirty. 12 Heb.great of acts.

13 Heb. lions of God. 1+ Heb. a man of countenance, or sight: called, i Chron. 11. 23, a man of great stature. 15 Or, honourable among the thirty. 16 Or, council.

18 Chap 9 18.

10r, Be thou ruler, &c. 61 Chron. 11, 12. 71 Chron. 11. 27.

* See 1 Chron. 11. 11.

10 1 Chron. 11. 20.

3 Heb. slain.
11 Heb. slais.

17 Heb, at his command,

19 ; Chron. 11, 27.

20 Or, vallcys.

31 Abi-albon the Arbathite, Azmaveth 35 Hezrai the Carmelite, Paaraithe Arbite, the Barhumite,

36 Igal the son of Nathan of Zobah, 32 Eliahba the Shaalbonite, of the sons Bani the Gadite, of Jashen, Jonathan,

37 Zelek the Ammonite, Nahari the Bee33 Shammah the Hararite, Ahiam the rothite, armourbearer to Joab the son of Ze. son of Sharar the Hararite,

ruiah, 34 Eliphelet the son of Ahasbai, the son 38 Ira an Ithrite, Gareb an Ithrite, of the Maachathite, Eliam the son of Ahi- 39 Uriah the Hittite: thirty and seven in thophel the Gilonite,

all. Verse I. “ These be the last words of David.—The last of his poetical compositions, probably; or the original may he understood to mean merely, that it was a later composition than the preceding: The Hebrew Scriptures not being divided into chapters, a few words to this effect might be necessary, to prevent this from being read as a continuation of the preceding Psalm.– The first verse is the title given by the compiler of the book. The title of “sweet psalmist vi Israel” is applied with great propriety to David—the great lyric poet of the Hebrew nation. “Sweet,” however, lias somewhat changed its use since our version was made, and now “ pleasant,” or “agreeable,” would better convey the sense of the Hebrew (J'y). The literal expression is, “Pleasant in the songs of Israel.”

& "These be the names of the mighty men.”—This account is repeated, with some variation, in 1 Chron. xi., in the Dotes to which some remarks will be found on the exploits of these distinguished men.

CHAPTER XXIV.

‘land of Tahtim-hodshi; and they came to David, tempted by Satan, forceth Joab to number Dan-jaan, and about to Zidon, the people. 5 The captains, in nine months and 7 And came to the strong hold of Tyre, twenty days, bring the muster of thirteen hundred and to all the cities of the Hivites, and of thousand fighting men. 10 David, having three the Canaanites: and they went out to the plagues propounded by Gad, repenteth, and choos

south of Judah, even to Beer-sheba. eth the three days' pestilence. 15 After the death of threescore and ten thousand, David by repent

8 So when they had gone through all the ence preventeth the destruction of Jerusalem. 18 | land, they came to Jerusalem at the end of Darid, by Gad's direction, purchaseth Arau- nine months and twenty days. rah's threshingfloor; where having sacrificed, the plague stayeth.

9 And Joab gave up the sum of the num

ber of the people unto the king: and there And again the anger of the LORD was kin- were in Israel eight hundred thousand vadled against Israel, and 'he moved David liant men that drew the sword; and the against them to say, Go, number Israel and men of Judah were five hundred thousand Judah.

men. 2 For the king said to Joab the captain 10 And David's heart smote him after of the host, which was with him, 'Go now that he had numbered the people. And through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan David said unto the Lord, I have sinned eren to Beer-sheba, and number ye the greatly in that I have done: and now, I bepeople, that I may know the number of the seech thee, O LORD, take away the iniquity people.

of thy servant; for I have done very fool3 And Joab said unto the king, Now the ishly. LORD thy God add unto the people, how 11 For when David was up in the mornmany soever they be, an hundredfold, and ing, the word of the Lord came unto the that the eyes of my lord the king may see prophet Gad, David's seer, saying, it: but why doth my lord the king delight 12 Go and say unto David, Thus saith in this thing?

the LORD, I offer thee three things; choose 4 Notwithstanding the king's word pre- thee one of them, that I may do it unto vailed against Joab, and against the cap. thee. tains of the host. And Joab and the cap- 13 So Gad came to David, and told him, tains of the host went out from the presence and said unto him, Shall seven years of faof the king, to number the people of Israel. mine come unto thee in thy land ? or wilt

5. And they passed over Jordan, and thou flee three months before thine enemies, pitched in Aroer, on the right side of the while they pursue thee? or that there be city that lieth in the midst of the Sriver of three days' pestilence in thy land ? now adGad, and toward Jazer:

vise, and see what answer I shall return to 6 Then they came to Gilead, and to the him that sent me. 1 Satan, See 1 Chron. 21. 1.

8 OT, valley.
• Or, nether land newly inhabited.

9 Or, compass,

men.

14 And David said unto Gad, I am in a him: and Araunah went out, and bowed great strait : let us fall now into the hand of himself before the king on his face upon the LORD; for his mercies are bgreat: and the ground. let me not fall into the hand of man.

21 And Araunah said, Wherefore is my 15 1 So the LORD sent a pestilence upon lord the king come to his servant? And Israel from the morning even to the time David said, To buy the threshingfloor of appointed: and there died of the people from thee, to build an altar unto the LORD, that Dan even to Beer-sheba seventy thousand the plague may be stayed from the people.

22 And Araunah said unto David, Let 16 And when the angel stretched out his my lord the king take and offer up what hand

upon Jerusalem to destroyèt, ®the LORD seemeth good unto him: behold, here be repented him of the evil, and said to the oxen for burnt sacrifice, and threshing inangel that destroyed the people, It is enough: struments and other instruments of the oxen stay now thine hand. And the angel of the for wood. LORD was by the threshingplace of Arau- 23 All these things did Araunah, as a nah the Jebusite.

king, give unto the king. And Araunah 17 And David spake unto the Lord when said unto the king, The LORD thy God aehe saw the angel that smote the people, and cept thee. said, Lo, I have sinned, and I have done 24 And the king said unto Araunah, wickedly: but these sheep, what have they Nay; but I will surely buy it of thee at a done ? let thine hand, I pray thee, be against price: neither will I offer burnt offerings me, and against my father's house.

unto the LORD my God of that which doth 18 | And Gad came that day to David, cost me nothing: So David bought the and said unto him, Go up, rear an altar threshingfloor and the oxen for fifty shekels unto the Lord in the threshingfloor of of silver. Araunah the Jebusite.

25 And David built there an altar unto 19 And David, according to the saying the LORD, and offered burnt offerings and of Gad, went up as the LORD commanded. peace offerings. So the LORD was intreated

20 And Araunah looked, and saw the for the land, and the plague was stayed from king and his servants coming on toward Israel.

* Or, many.

6 1 Sam. 15. 11.'

a measure.

Verse 2. “ Number ye the people.”—There is another account of this transaction in 1 Chron. xxi., between which and that now before us there are some apparent discrepancies, which will be noticed under the latter chapter. We may also refer the reader to what has been already said on the subject of the Hebrew census, in the notes to Num. i. and xxvi., some of the considerations in which will contribute to the elucidation of the present chapter. There have been various inions as to the sin of David in this transaction, which must certainly have been of a most objectionable appearance, even in the general opinion of the time, as it certainly was in the eyes of God, since we see such a person as Joab-a man by no means of a very tender conscience-giving a most decided opinion as to the sin and danger of such

The common opinion seems to be, that the act of taking a census was in itself culpable, as indicating a sinful pride in the king in contemplating the probable number of his subjects; and, strange as it may seem, this opinion had at first considerable weight in rendering the people in most European countries averse to enumerations of the population, when such things first began to be seriously thought of by the different European governments. The absurdity of this opinion is shown by a simple reference to the fact that, under Moses, two enumerations of the population were taken by the express direction of God himself. The explanation given by Josephus is very little better. It is, that David directed the census, without exacting for the sanctuary the half shekel of poll-tax enjoined by the law of Moses. We have, by anticipation, shown the puerility of this, in the note to Num. i. Neither here nor' in 1 Chron. xxi. is there any mention of the half shekel, which seems only to have been required at the first census, to assist the erection of the tabernacie: and it is besides very unlikely that, if this tax ought to have been levied, David would have omitted to collect it, when he had himself laid aside for the erection of the future temple sums compared with which the result of such a collection would have been a mere trifle. Therefore, although we believe this collection did not necessarily accompany a census; yet if it did, it is impossible to prove that he did not, or to find any reason why he should not, direct it to be levied. We therefore concur in the explanation which is now usually given by the best Biblical scholars, and which is thus stated by Horne (* Introduction,' vol. ii. p. 615, edit. 1834). “At the time referred to, David probably coveted an extension of empire; and having, through the suggestion of an adversary, given way to this evil disposition, he could not well look to God for help, and therefore wished to know whether the thousands of Israel and Judah might be deemed equal to the conquest which he meditated. His design was to force all the Israelites into military service, and engage in the contests which his ambition had in view; and as the people might resist this census, soldiers were employed to make it, who might not only put down resistance, but also suppress any disturbances that might arise.” See the same view more fully exhibited in Michaelis's Commentaries,' art. clxxiv.

20.Bowed himself before the king on his face upon the ground.”—The latter clause clearly denotes that absolute and humiliating prostration at the feet which Oriental kings are still in the habit of exacting, and which is often mentioned in Scripture as a manifestation of the most profound respect, or earnest supplication. This posture, as still in use, is exhibited in the figure of the prostrate Arab in our woodcut. He is at his devotions ; this being also one of the postures of Mohammedan prayer. In this posture the weight of the body is supported on the knees and arms, and the face placed upon the ground, as the text expresses. It is also the attitude of á person who throws himself at the

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feet of another, to kiss his feet or the hem of his garment. Next to this, in intensity of reverence, is the bowing with the face “ towards" (not " upon ") the ground. In this posture, as still exhibited in the East, the saluting person remains on his legs, but bends his body very low, usually so as to form a right angle, so that the face is of course Sterally "lowards the ground.In this posture the hands are either crossed upon the breast, or rest upon or near the knees, as exhibited in two figures of our cut. We believe that the hands on the knees is rather the more abased posture of the two; it has been mentioned, in the note to Gen. xviii. 2, as the ordinary posture of respect in the presence of the Persian king, and as being the third of the Mohammedan attitudes of devotion. Another posture is, with the body more slightly inclined, and the hands crossed on the bosom ; this too is an attitude of devotion with the leading sect of Mohammedans ; aud it is also the posture of a slave in the presence of his master. The more common bow, as an expression of courtesy, or a general indication of respect, consists in a gentle inclination of the body, the right hand being laid upon the heart. To one, or to both, of the last-described postures, we may probably refer the “ bowingstooping – the obeisance," and other more simple indications of respect, which the Scriptures mention. Bending the knee is also mentioned in the Bible, among the attitudes of respect and age; but kneeling, as a posture of leterence and supplication, is too well known among ourselves to require pictorial illustration.

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PERSIAN BOWING BEFORE THE KING.–From Morier's SECOND JOURNEY TO PER&IA.

OF THE

KINGS

COMMONLY CALLED,

THE THIRD BOOK OF THE KINGS.

CHAPTER I.

he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and | Abishag cherisheth David in his extreme age.

fifty men to run before him. Adonijah, David's darling, usurpeth the king

Ā And his father had not displeased him dom. U By the counsel of Nathan, 15 Bath-sheba 'at any time in saying, Why hast thou donc moveth the king, 22 and Nathan secondeth her. 28 David reneweth his oath to Bath-sheba. 32 So- his mother bare him after Absalom.

so ? and he also was a very goodly man ; and lomon, by David's appointment, being anointed king by Zadok and Nathan, the people triumph.

7 And The conferred with Joab the son 41 Jonathan bringing these news, Adonijah's of Zeruiah, and with Abiathar the priest: guests fly. 50 Adonijah, fiying to the horns of and they #following Adonijah helped him. the altar, upon his good behaviour is dismissed by 8 But Zadok the priest, and Benaiah the Solomon.

son of Jehoiada, and Nathan the prophet, OW king Da- and Shimei, and Rei, and the mighty men. vid was old which belonged to David, were not with Ado. * and 'stricken nijah. in years; and 9 And Adonijah slew sheep and oxen and they covered fat cattle by the stone of Zoheleth, which is him

with by 'En-rogel, and called all his brethren the clothes, but | king's sons, and all the men of Judah the he gat no king's servants : heat.

10 But Nathan the prophet, and Be2 Where-naiah, and the mighty men, and Solomon fore his ser- | his brother, he called not. vants

11 | Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bathunto himsaid

sheba the mother of Solomon, saying, Hast ? Let there be thou not heard that Adonijah the son of sought for "Haggith doth reign, and David our lord my lord the knoweth it not? kinga young 12 Now therefore come, let me,

I pray virgin: and let her stand before the king, thee, give thee counsel, that thou mayest and let her cherish him, and let her lie in save thine own life, and the life of thy son thy bosom, that my lord the king may get Solomon. heat.

13 Go and get thee in unto king David, 3 So they sought for a fair damsel through and say unto him, Didst not thou, my

lord, out all the coasts of Israel, and found Abi- O king, swear unto thine handmaid, saying, shag a Shunammite, and brought her to the Assuredly Solomon thy son shall reign after king.

me, and he shall sit upon my throne? why 4 And the damsel was very fair, and che- then doth Adonijah reign? rished the king, and ministered to him: but 14 Behold, while thou yet talkest there the king knew her not.

with the king, I also will come in after thee, 5.9 Then Adonijah the son of Haggith and "confirm thy words. exalted himself, saying, I will 'be king: and 15 | And Bath-sheba went in unto the

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8 Heb. a damsel, a virgin. * Həb. from his days. 9 Heb. his words were with Joab. 8 Heb. helped after Adonijak, Or, the well Rogel

1 Heb. entered into days.

? Heb. Let them seek.

+ Heb. be a cherisher unto kim.

Heb. reign.

10 2 Sam. 34

11 Heb. fill up.

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