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king into the chamber: and the king was 1'into the king's presence, and stood before very old; and Abishag the Shunammite the king. ministered unto the king.

29 And the king sware, and said, As the 16 And Bath-sheba bowed, and did obei- Lord liveth, that hath redeemed my soul sance unto the king. And the king said, out of all distress, What wouldest thou ?

30 Even as I sware unto thee by the 17 And she said unto him, My lord, thou Lord God of Israel, saying, Assuredly Soswarest by the LORD thy God unto thine lomon thy son shall reign after me, and he handmaid, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy shall sit upon my throne in my stead; even son shall reign after me, and he shall sit so will I certainly do this day. upon my throne.

31 Then Bath-sheba bowed with her face 18 And now, behold, Adonijah reigneth; to the earth, and did reverence to the king, and now, my lord the king, thou knowest it and said, Let my lord king David live for ever. not:

32 | And king David said, Call me Za19 And he hath slain oxen and fat cattle dok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and and sheep in abundance, and hath called all Benaiah the son of Jehoiada. And they the sons of the king, and Abiathar the came before the king. priest, and Joab the captain of the host: but 33 The king also said unto them, Take Solomon thy servant hath he not called.

the servants of your lord, and 20 And thou, my lord, O king, the eyes cause Solomon my son to ride upon 8mine of all Israel are upon thee, that thou should- own mule, and bring him down to Gihon: est tell them who shall sit on the throne of 34 And let Zadok the priest and Nathan my lord the king after him.

the prophet anoint him there king over 21 Otherwise it shall come to pass, when Israel: and blow ye with the trumpet, and my lord the king shall sleep with his fathers, say, God save king Solomon. that I and my son Solomon shall be counted 35 Then ye shall come up after him, that offenders.

he
may come

and sit

upon my throne; for 22 | And, lo, while she yet talked with he shall be king in my stead: and I have the king, Nathan the prophet also came appointed him to be ruler over Israel and in.

over Judah. 23 And they told the king, saying, Be- 36 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada anhold Nathan the prophet. And when he swered the king, and said, Amen: the LORD as come in before the king, he bowed God of my lord the king say so too. himself before the king with his face to the 37 As the LORD hath been with

my

lord ground.

the king, even so be he with Solomon, and 24 And Nathan said, My lord, O king, make his throne greater than the throne of hast thou said, Adonijah shall reign after my lord king David. me, and he shall sit upon my throne ?

38 So Zadok the priest, and Nathan the 25 For he is gone down this day, and prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, hath slain oxen and fat cattle and sheep in and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, abundance, and hath called all the king's went down, and caused Solomon to ride upon sons, and the captains of the host, and Abi- king David's mule, and brought him to athar the priest; and, behold, they eat and Gihon. drink before him, and say, "God save king 39 And Zadok the priest took an horn of Adonijah.

oil out of the tabernacle, and anointed Solo26 But me, even me thy servant, and Za. mon. And they blew the trumpet; and all dok the priest, and Benaiah the son of Je- the people said, God save king Solomon. hoiada, and thy servant Solomon, hath he 40 And all the people came up after him, not called.

and the people piped with "pipes, and re27 Is this thing done by my lord the king, joiced with great joy, so that the earth rent and thou hast not shewed it unto thy ser- with the sound of them. vant, who should sit on the throne of my 41 | And Adonijah and all the guests lord the king after him?

that were with him heard it as they had 28 ? Then king David answered and made an end of eating. And when Joab said, Call me Bath-sheba. And she came heard the sound of the trumpet, he said, 1 Heb. W hal to thee)

11 Heb. Let king Adonijah live, 15 Heb, before the king. 1 Heb, which belongeth to me. 17 Or, flutes.

18 Heb. sinners.

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Procession of a Pasia or EGYPT AND HIS GREAT OFFICERS OF STATE, TU ILLUSTRATE THE PROCLAMATION OF

SOLOMON.-Cassas.

Wherefore is this noise of the city being in thy throne. And the king bowed himself an uproar?

upon the bed. 42 And while he yet spake, behold, Jo- 48 And also thus said the king, Blessed nathan the son of Abiathar the priest came: be the Lord God of Israel, which hath given and Adonijah said unto him, Come in; for one to sit on my throne this day, mine eyes thou art a valiant man, and bringest good even seeing it. tidings.

49 And all the guests that were with 43° And Jonathan answered and said to Adonijah were afraid, and rose up, and went Adonijah, Verily our lord king David hath every man his way. made Solomon king.

50 | And Adonijah feared because of 44 And the king hath sent with him Za Solomon, and arose, and went, and caught dok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and hold on the horns of the altar. Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Che- 51 And it was told Solomon, saying, Berethites, and the Pelethites, and they have hold, Adonijah feareth king Solomon : for, caused him to ride upon the king's mule: lo, he hath caught hold on the horns of the

45 And Zadok the priest and Nathan the altar, saying, Let king Solomon swear unto prophet have anointed him king in Gihon: me to day that he will not slay his servant and they are come up from thence rejoicing, with the sword. so that the city rang again. This is the

52 And Solomon said, If he will shew noise that ye have heard.

himself a worthy man, there shall not an 46 And also Solomon sitteth on the throne hair of him fall to the earth: but if wickedof the kingdom.

ness shall be found in him, he shall die. 47 And moreover the king's servants came 53 So king Solomon sent, and they brought to bless our lord king David, saying, God him down from the altar. And he came and make the name of Solomon better than thy bowed himself to king Solomon: and Soloname, and make his throne greater than | mon said unto him, Go to thine house,

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1 Kings. This book is a continuation of the preceding, and is, in the Septuagint and the Vulgate, called the third took of reigns or kingdoms in the former, and of kings in the latter. In the Arabic it is called the Book of Solomon," from the name of the most conspicuous of the kings whose history it relates. In the ancient Hebrew Bibles it formed but eze book with the following, which together bore, as usual, various titles, the most common being taken from the initial words (717 752.71), “ Now king David.” The two books, considered as one, comprehend the history of the Hebrews from the closing scenes of David's life to the thirty-seventh year of the captivity of king Jehoiachin (2 Kings xxv. 27); that is, according to Hales, a period of 469 years; but of only 444 years, if we exclude the somewhat extraneous notice at the end, and count only to the destruction of Jerusalem. The present book comprehends about a hundred years of this period

, and comprises the history of the concluding portion of David's reign, the glories of Solomon's reign, and the reigns of four kings of Judah, and eight of Israel. It will be seen that the common chronology makes the period

longer than as here stated after Dr. Ilales. Concerning the authorship of the books of Kings, there is as much division of opinion as with reference to any other of the historical books. The Jews commonly ascribe the authorship to Jeremiah. Some suppose that David, Solomon, and Hezekiah wrote the history of their respective reigns. But the most probable opinion appears to be that which states that the books were written piecemeal by the prophets who lived in the several successive reigns, as Nathan, Ahijah the Shilonite, Iddo, Isaiah, and Jeremiah ; and that the whole was afterwards put together, in its present form, by some inspired person-probably Ezra. He is certainly the most likely person to have written the concluding portion, which extends into the captivity, and from the uniformity of tone and style, the whole seems to have been composed by one person from the original documents, to which he frequently refers. The documents referred to in these books, and in the Chronicles, are thus discriminated by the Rev. T. H. Hurne :—“In 1 Kings ti . 41, we read of the acts of Solomon, which acts were recorded in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Iddo the seer (2 Chron. xii. 15); which Iddo

was employed, in conjunctiga with Shemaiah the prophet, in writing the acts of Rehoboam (1 Chron. xii

. 15). We also read of the book of Jehu the prophet relating the transactions of Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. xx. 34 ; 1 Kings xvi. 1); and Isaiah the prophet wrote the acts of king Uiziah (2 Chron. xxvi. 22), and also of Hezekiah (2 Chron. xxxii

. 32); and it is highly probable that he wrote the history of the two intermediate kings,

Jotham and Ahaz, in whose reigns he lived (Isa. 1. 1). This writer also adopts the opinion that Ezra was the compiler of the book from these original sources, and he indicates various circumstances which concur in supporting this conclusion.

Verse 6. “ His mother bare him after Absalom.”—The words “ his mother” are not in the original, and they involve an error, for the mother of Absalom was Maacah, whereas Adonijah was the son of Haggith. °The sense is, that he was born next after Absalom, but not by the same mother.

8. ^ Skimei.” – It does not seem likely that the notorious Shimei of Bahurim should be thus conspicuously men. tioned, or that he took any part in public affairs. This was therefore most probably another Shimei. Accordingly, Josephus distinguishes him as the king's friend ;” and we may conceive him to have been the same person whom we fond, in chap. iv. 18, as one of Solomon's twelve great officers. It is remarkable, however, that both this Shimei and the other were Benjamites.

9. “Slone of Zuheleth, which is by En-rogel.” — Without following the Rabbins in their speculations about this stone, we may observe, that its situation is marked by the proximity to En-rogel. We have mentioned this fountain in the note to Josh. xv. 7, with a further reference to John ix. 7, it being considered the same as the “pool of Siloam.". In this case, it lay to the east of the city, at the foot of Mount Zion. Josephus says that it was a fountain in the king's garden, or perhaps we should say near the garden. From this proximity to the city, it appears that Adonijah's party were too confident of success and safety to affect secrecy in the first instance, or to consider distance necessary_differing in this from Absalom, who, when his conspiracy was ripe, went to Hebron and declared himself king there. This consideration elucidates the ensuing circumstances. It will be observed that Adonijah's entertainment was a sort of fête champêtre—such as Orientals still delight in--by a fountain, and in a pleasant part of a valley. The refreshments were not, however, cold; but the “sheep and oxen and fat cattle” were killed and dressed on the spot; which is also a peculiarity of Oriental entertainments of this description.

20. Tell them who shall sit on the throne.”—It appears, throughout the history of David, that his right to rominate which of his sons he pleased to succeed him, was, at least formally, distinctly recognised by his subjects. Michaelis thinks that David had secured this right by the terms of the covenant which he made with the people when he received the crown. We are not inclined to concur in this opinion. To us it rather seems that it was a right which needed no stipulation. but was sanctioned by the general usage which we see exemplified in the case of Jacob, who deprived his eldest son Reuben of that priority which would otherwise have belonged to him. It was therefore natural to give that power to a king, in regulating the succession to the throne, which the head of a family enjoyed in regulating the inheritance of his sons. The right of the eldest son was in general recognised; but with a reserved right in the father to give the preference to a younger son, if he saw occasion. Oriental kings still enjoy this power. The late king of Persia, for instance, publicly recognised his second son as his successor, to the exclusion of the eldest, who however 100k no pains to conceal his intention to put the matter to the arbitration of the sword. In fact, notwithstanding the general recognition of the royal and paternal right of selection, troubles so usually follow its exercise, in consequence of the strong feeling for the right of primogeniture, that instances of the preference of a younger son are not of frequent occurrence. These considerations will enable us to account for the stand which, first Absalom, and then Adonijah, were able to make for the right of primogeniture, and the powerful support they were enabled to secure, even when we may suppose it to have been generally known that David, in nominating Solomon, was acting under the Divine direction, and not from the mere impulse of paternal preference. As the Lord did not again direct a particular preference, the troubles occasioned in this reign by a disturbance of the usual course of succession, probably operated in preventing the future kings from following the example ; for we read of no other instance of preference of a younger son. Indeed, it is by no means certain that David himself would have nominated Solomon, had he not been aware that such was the Divine will. It is true that he loved Solomon, but he also loved Absalom and Adonijah; and it is difficult to suppose that his affection to any of his sons could exceed that which he manifested towards the former.

33. Ride upon mine oun mule."-See note on 2 Kings xiii. 29. Bring him down to Gihon.”- It will be recollected that Adonijah's party were by a fountain in the valley east of Jerusalem ; now this Gihon is agreed to have been a fountain or spring in the opposite or western valley. This simple fact explains, better than all the recondite reasons of the Rabbins, the motive of this precise direction. It was an opposite site, similarly circumstanced and equally public, selected for an opposition proclamation, made with all that authority and solemnity which the royal sanction only could give. If Adonijah's party had been in the western valley, Solomon would probably have been anointed and proclaimed in that to the eastern. It is stated, by several good topographers, that this Gihon was the Siloah, Siloe, and Siloam of the later Scriptures; while others, as above-stated, fiad Siloam in the eastern valley, at En-rogel, where Adonijah at this time was. This apparent discrepancy we shall endeavour to reconcile in the note to 2 Kings xx. 20.

35. " That he may come and sit upon my throne.”—The ancient and modern customs of the East, and indeed of the west, afford many instances of kings securing, or endeavouring to secure, the throne to the destined successor, by causing him to be proclaimed, crowned, or publicly recognised in his own lifetime. It was a regular practice for the ancient monarchs of Persia to have the heir solemnly inaugurated and acknowledged when they went on any dangerous expeditions. On the same principle, the late king of Persia presented his second son to his court, as the future king. and caused him to be publicly acknowledged ; nor was the required acknowledgment and homage refused by any except the eldest son, who, even on that solemn occasion, alleged his claim to the rights of the first-born, and his determination to refer the result to the decision of the sword.

CHAPTER II.

3 And keep the charge of the LORD thy

God, to walk in his ways, to keep his sta1 David, having given a charge to Solomon, 3 of religiousness

, 5 of Joab, 7 of Barzillai, 8 of Shimei, tutes, and his commandments, and his judg10 dieth. 12 Solomon succeedeth. '13 Adonijah ments, and his testimonies, as it is written moving Bath-sheba to sue unto Solomon for Abi- in the law of Moses, that thou ''mayest shag, is put to death. 26 Abiathar, having his prosper in all that thou doest, and whitherlife given him, is deprived of the priesthood. 28 Joab fleeing to the horns of the altar is there

soever thou turnest thyself: slain. 33 Benaiah is put in Joab's room, and

4 That the Lord may continue his word Zadok in Abiathar's. 36 Shimei, confined to which he spake concerning me, saying, If Jerusalem, by occasion of going thence to Gath, thy children take heed to their way, to walk is put to death.

before me in truth with all their heart and Now the days of David drew nigh that he with all their soul, $there shall not fail thee should die; and he charged Solomon his (said he) a man on the throne of Israel. son, saying,

5 Moreover thou knowest also what Joab 2 I go the way of all the earth: be thou

of all the earth: be thou the son of Zeruiah did to me, and what he strong therefore, and shew thyself a man; did to the two captains of the hosts of Israel,

1 Dent, 29.9. Josh, 1.7. * Or, do wisery. 2 Sam. 7. 12. • Heb.be cut of from thee from the throne,

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unto 'Abner the son of Ner, and unto Amasa mei the son of Gera, a Benjamite of Bahuthe son of Jether, whom he slew, and 'shed rim, which cursed me with a grievous curse the blood of war in peace, and put the blood in the day when I went to Mahanaim: but of war upon his girdle that was about his he came down to meet me at Jordan, and I loins, and in his shoes that were on his feet. sware to him by the LORD, saying, "I will

6 Do therefore according to thy wisdom, not put thee to death with the sword. and let not his hoar head go down to the

9 Now therefore hold him not guiltless :

for thou art a wise man, and knowest what ? But shew kindness unto the sons of thou oughtest to do unto him; but his hoar "Barzillai the Gileadite, and let them be of head bring thou down to the grave with those that eat at thy table: for so they came

blood. to me when I fled because of Absalom thy 10 So "David slept with his fathers, and

was buried in the city of David. 8 And, behold, thou hast with thee 'Shi- 11 And the days that David "reigned

grave in peace.

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brother.

S9 Sam. 3. 97.

8 2 Sam, 20. 10.

7 Heb. put.
82 Sam, 19. 31. 92 Sam. 16. 5.

10 Heb. strong.
18 Acts 2. 29, and 13. 36. 13 2 Sam. 5. 4. I Chron, 29. 26, 27.

11 2 Sam. 19. 23.

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