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22 And the whole house he overlaid with 31 | And for the entering of the oracle gold, until he had finished all the house: he made doors of olive tree : the lintel and also the whole altar that was by the oracle side posts were la fifth part of the wall. he overlaid with gold.

32 The two doors also were of olive tree; 23 | And within the oracle he made two and he carved upon them carvings of checherubims of 15 16olive tree, each ten cubits rubims and palm trees and sopen flowers, high.

and overlaid them with gold, and spread 24 And five cubits was the one wing of gold upon the cherubims, and upon the the cherub, and five cubits the other wing of palm trees. the cherub: from the uttermost part of the 33 So also made he for the door of the one wing unto the uttermost part of the temple posts of olive tree, "a fourth part of other were ten cubits.

the wall. 25 And the other cherub was ten cubits: 34 And the two doors were of fir tree : both the cherubims were of one measure and the two leaves of the one door were folding,

and the two leaves of the other door were 26 The height of the one cherub was ten folding. cubits, and so was it of the other cherub. 35 And he carved thereon cherubims and

27 And he set the cherubims within the palm trees and open flowers: and covered inner house: and "7 18they stretched forth the ihem with gold fitted upon the carved wings of the cherubims, so that the wing of work. the one touched the one wall, and the wing 36 And he built the inner court with of the other cherub touched the other wall; three rows of hewed stone, and a row of cedar and their wings touched one another in the beams. midst of the house.

37 | In the fourth year was the founda28 And he overlaid the cherubims with tion of the house of the LORD laid, in the gold.

month Zif: 29 And he carved all the walls of the 38 And in the cleventh year, in the house round about with carved figures of month Bul, which is the eighth month, was cherubims and palm trees and open flowers, the house finished "throughout all the within and without.

parts thereof, and according to all the 30 And the floor of the house he overlaid | fashion of it. So was he seven years in with gold, within and without.

building it. 16 Heb. trees of oil. 17 Exod. 25. 20. 18 Or, the cherubims' stretched forth their wings. 19 Heb. openings of Aowers. 20 Or, fivesquare. 21 Or, lerves of the doors Heb. openings of flowers. 23 Or, fuursquare.

24 Or, with all the appurtenances thereof, and with all the ordinances thereof. Verse 2. The house which king Solomon built for the Lord.”—There have been many most elaborate treatises on the Temple; but the difficulty of the subject—the mistaken reference to classical ideas and models-with a comparative ignorance of the ancient and modern Oriental architecture, have prevented any satisfactory result from being obtained. Modern commentators and illustrators of Scripture have been so conscious of this that they have generally shrunk from the subject. Horne says, “ Various attempts have been made to describe the proportions and several parts of this structure; but as scarcely any two writers agree on this subject, a minute description of it is designedly omitted." Others decline entering into the subject on the ground that the details would be unintelligible without plates. Of this excuse we cannot avail ourselves, having at all times given whatever cuts we judged necessary for the illustration of the various subjects which have required our attention. But we feel that very little can be done, even with plates, on the present subject. We have therefore confined ourselves to a ground-plan of Solomon's Temple according to the ideas of Lamy, which, although not unexceptionable, seems to harmonize better with the Scriptural accounts than any other which has been offered. We give no elevation of the building, because we have seen wone which we do not think calculated to mislead the reader: and we think we have taken a better course in giving an elevation of the Egyptian temple at Edfou. We do not indeed suppose that Solomon's Temple was like this; but it is at least something better than bare conjecture. As indicating tlie principle of arrangement and general aspect of temples in a near country well known to the Hebrews, and with which they had at this time much intercourse, and the daughiter of whose king was the wife of Solomon ;--and as, moreover, all the neighbouring nations borrowed their earliest ideas concerning temples from the Egyptians,--we cannot be mistaken in our estimate of the value of such an illustration. And to render it complete, we have given a ground-plan of the same structure, to enable the reader to observe in how many respects the independent investigations of Lamy have brought out such analogies to the arrangement of an Egyptian temple as never entered into his consideration. We have seen other conjectural plans of the Jerusalem Temple, in which the analogy is still more marked than in that of Lamy; and the reader, if he see fit tu compare the authentic descriptions of the Temple, will hesitate to decide wliether that of the temple of Edfou does not offer a better analogy than even that of Lamy, or than that exhibited in any other conjectural plan.

But besides the general analogy which may appear from such comparison, and which becomes more than probable from the common derivation of the early ecclesiastical structures froin Egypt, there is another point to which our attention is directed by the author of Egyptian Antiquities,' to whose researches we have on several other occasions been indebted. He observes, “ It is rather remarkable that Solomon, who was connected with the Egyptians both by marriage, alliance, and commercial exchange, should have borrowed artificers and cunning worknuen solely from his

15 Or, oily.

friend Hiram, king of Tyre, and not ttom his father-in-law, the king of Egypt. Even the house which Solomon built for his Egyptian wife appears to have been altogether the work of Tyrian architects ; yet we have undoubted evidence, in the buildings and sculptured decorations of the Egyptian temples, that they possessed at that time the arts, in at least as high a state of perfection as anything that Tyre wis likely to produce. It may be remarked, however, that many of the ornamental parts of Solomon's buildings resembled the decorations of an Egyptian edifice ; and it is therefore by no means improbable that Egyptian artisans were employed by him, though there is no distinct mention of the faet." ( Library of Entertaining Knowledge,' vol. i. po 20.)

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GROUND-PLAN OF Tue TEMPLE at Eprou, (The dimensions are in feet, and lenths c? a 1001,

Calmet, in his excellent Dissertation sur les Temples des Anciens, prefaces the description of Solomon's Temple, with which it concludes, by inquiring into the form and situation of ancient temples in order to compare them with that of Jerusalem. After describing those of Egypt from ancient authors, he observes that those of the Syrians and Arabians were built on the same principles ; and having proved this, he begins his account of Solomon's Temple with remarking. " If we now compare the structure of the ancient Egyptian and Syrian temples, with that erected at Jerusalem by Solomon, we shall not fail to observe a great number of resembling circumstances.” This is our argument. We shall not, however, follow Calmet in his accounts of temples, as more distinct ideas have been furnished by modern travellers from the inspection of existing remains than can be obtained from the statement of ancient writers. We cannot however omit Strabo's general account of Egyptian temples, which deserves the best attention of those who feel interested in the subject. We quote, with some abridgment, the translation given in the 'Egyptian Antiquities:-—“The arrangement of the parts of an Egyptian temple is as follows: in a line with the entrance into the sacred enclosure, is a paved road or avenue about a hundred feet in breadth, or sometimes less, and in length from three to four hundred feet, or even more. This is called the dromos. Through the whole length of this dromos, and on each side of it, sphinxes are placed, at the distance of thirty feet from one another, or somewhat more, forming a double row, one on each side. After the sphinxes you come to a large propylon, and as you advance you come to another, and to a third after that; for no definite number either of propyla or sphinxes is required in the plan, but they vary in different temples as to their number, as well as to the length and brea.lth of the dromi. After the propyla we come to the temple itself, which has always a large and handsome pronaos or portico, and a srkos or cell of only moderate dimensions, with no image in it, at least not one of human shape, but some representation of a brute animal. On each side of the pronacs, and in front of it, are what they call wings. There are two walls of equal height (with the temple?), but their width at the base is somewhat more than the breadth of the temple measured along its basement line. The width of the wings, however, gradually diminishes from the bottom to the top, owing to the sides leaning inward towards one another, up to the height of seventy-five or ninety feet. These walls have sculptured forms on them of a large size." This account, though not in itself very, satisfactory, forms a good text for illustration from modern research. The author of the work from which we have taken the translation, has, like ourselves, taken the temple at Edfou as a fair average specimen of the sacred structures of Egypt; and from his work the following description of it is, with considerable abridgment, derived.

“ The entrance is composed of two pyramidal moles, sometimes called propylæa by modern writers, each front of which is about 104 feet long, and 37 feet wide at the base; the moles are about 114 feet high. These dimensions of the base diminish gradually from the base to the summit, where the horizontal section is 84 feet by 20.” The walls of the moles are sculptured with immense figures, in the best style of Egyptian art; and between the moles is the grand entrance. This entrance conducts to a court (which may be partly seen in the view) surrounded with pillars. “On each of the larger sides there is a row of twelve pillars, which are placed at some distance from the side walls; and as the space between the tops of the pillars and the wall is roofed over, a covered portico is formed, which leads oa pach side to the doors of the staircases which are in the pyramidal moles. These staircases furnish access to the chambers of the propylæa. There is also a row of four pillars, including the corner one, on each side of the doorway as we enter the court, similarly covered over. From the base of these pillars to the top of the stone covering is about 37 feet 6 inches.” From the entrance of the court to the porch of the temple itself there is a gradual ascent by a kind of steps, 80 that the portico is about 56 feet above the lowest level of the court. This is common in many other temples, and appears to have been intended for the purpose of giving elevation to the facade. In the temple at Edfou, the portico, as appears in the ground-plan, consists of eighteen pillars, six in a row; the intercolumniations of the central pillars, forming the doorway, being, as usual, the largest. The intercolumniations of the front row of pillars are built up to half their height. After passing through this porch there is a doorway leading to the sekos or cell, wbich, in the Egyptian temples, is always divided into several apartments. The entrance passage has on each side a long chamber, and conducts into a large hypostyle hall, supported by twelve pillars. It has a fiat roof, composed of thick slabs of stone, resting on large stone beams which cross from each pillar to the next in the same row. “ After leaving this chamber we come to another long and narrow one, from which there are two small entrances to the side galleries, wherein we see flights of steps leading upwards to the roof of the sekos. Still further we see another small chamber. with an apartment on each side of it, probably for the use of the priests. From this last-mentioned chamber we enter the holy recess itself” (the sanctuary),"an oblong room, about 33 feet by 17, in which the figure of the deity was placed.... From the chamber which is immediately in front of the adytum, we see two galleries run down on each side of it, and leading to a doorway, by which the priests might walk into a large but perfectly retired space all round the sanctuary, or might ascend to the roof by a flight of steps, to enjoy the pure air and light on the terraced roof; for below they had no light at all, except it might be from small apertures, through which the Fellahs, who now live ou the roof, discharge all their dirt into the temple. It will be observed, that from the covered gallery, on each side of the large open area, there is a path continued all round the temple, between the outer and inner wall. Probably the vulgar were allowed to use this walk, as a thick wall was between them and the apartments devoted to the priests and the worship of the Deity; for none but the priests, and probably the kings, were admitted into the inner apartments, much less into the adytum, which contained the representation of the deity."

Now it would be difficult to establish a detailed analogy between this temple and that of Solomon, from the want of distinct information concerning the latter ; but we think that the general resemblance which we have suggested will be the more confirmed, the more carefully a comparison is made. Even taking Lamy's conjectural plan, and confining our attention to the proper Temple, exclusive of the court or courts, we see that the principal difference is in the proportions ; and that some parts which are open in the one are covered in the other, and vice versa. Thus the hypostyle hall and the room beyond, left open, would answer exactly to the "court of the priests” in the plan of Lamy; and, in both. all between the open court and the sanctuary is the domain of the priests. Other analogies will occur to those who wish to pursue the comparison we have suggested, but into the minute details of which it is not our design to enter. All that remains for us to do is to indicate the amount of the information which the Scriptures furish concerning the Temple of Solomon itself. The sacred text has, however, been so differently understood, that we feel disinclined to add to the number of uncertain conjectures. We shall therefore take, as the basis of our account, that which Professor Jahn has given in his · Archæologia Biblica ;' incorporating therewith such remarks of our own, or from Calmet's • Dissertation,' as we may judge necessary.

Mount Moriah, on which, agreeably to the last wishes of David, the Temple was erected by Solomon, 628 years (Hales) after the departure of the Hebrews from Egypt, was an abrupt ascent, the summit of which was, according to Josephus, so small that it had not sufficient base for the sacred edifice with its courts and appendages. To remedy cnvenience, by extending the base of the summit of this mount, Solomon raised a wall of squared stones along eys which encircled it, and filled up the intervening space between the wall and the acclivity of the hill with And here, although the statement be prospective, we may as well mention from the same source, that, after the y, the Hebrews, for many ages, continued gradually to increase the extent of this hill; they moved back the the north, the south, and the west ; and they also erected walls of immense square stones from the lowest parts alley, so as at last to render the top of the hill a furlong square. It will be distinctly remembered, that this : ultimate extension, as it appeared in the time of our Saviour. summit of Moriah, being thus increased by Solomon, in the manner mentioned, appears to have been enby a wall with an interior colonnade, and was divided into the great or exterior courl, and the interior court, se called the court before the Temple, and also the court of the priests. (1 Kings vi. 36 ; vii. 12; 2 Kings 2; 2 Chron. iv. 9 ; xx. 5; Ezek. xl. 28.) Whether these two courts were separated froin each other by a wall, ely by a sort of latticed fence or trellis, does not clearly appear from the descriptions of the Temple, which are n'a very concise form. It is however evident that the court called the new court, in 2 Chron. xx. 5, was not a urt, but the second or interior one newly repaired. There were various buildings and apartments which served azines for the wine, oil, corn, wood; others in which were deposited the habits and utensils employed in the e service; and some which served as lodges for the priests and Levites, while engaged in their couse of duty. loes not say where these were situated ; but, judging from the still existing practice in Oriental temples, we ot any hesitation in subscribing to the opinion of Calmet and Lamy, who, although they differ in some details, as do the Rabbins and Josephus, in considering that both the courts (or the two interior courts, if there were as some conclude) were surrounded by a colonnade, formed as in the court of the Egyptian temple, and behind or which were the cells appropriated to these several purposes. We may suppose that those of the outer court as the magazines, while those of the inner court contained the priestly cells, and whatever was needed for the iate service of the Temple. The difference about the courts consists in this-whether there were at first two or enclosing walls, and, consequently, whether the courts were two or three. Jahn seems to think that there were 0, regarding the outer wall, and the court enclosed between it and the second wall, as a subsequent addition, oth Calmet and Lamy hold that this third wall from the interior existed from the first, only the former thinks was originally a simple wall without a colonnade or cells, whereas Lamy gives it a double colonnade, but without The discrepancy of these statements is due to the want of agreement in the several passages of Josephus which o this Temple. 'Upon the whole, however, we understand him to say, that there were, from the first, three , each of which he calls a temple, and that the middle court was surrounded with cloisters, and the outer court

double cloister, supported by high pillars of native stone, roofed with cedar. This agrees with Lamy's plan. n another place, Josephus seems to say, that the outer wall was at first without a colonnade, which was after added when that wall was thrown back and the enclosed area enlarged: and this is Calmet's view. Although ud generally that the exterior wall-one of the most astonishing works of the Temple-was raised from the surrounding valley to the level of the summit of Mount Moriah, and, consequently, that all the courts were on me level ; yet it appears that this must be a general statement only; for, from what Josephus says elsewhere, ears that the inner court, with the sanctuary, had the highest level, the middle court being a few cubits lower, ie outermost lower still. This allowed all the beauty of the Temple and its several courts to be conspicuous from at; and, in a general view, must have given some unity to the several parts of this extensive series of buildings. zader will not fail to compare this with the ascent in the court of the Egyptian temple. to the sanctuary itself, it was, as a whole, of an oblong figure, sixty cubits long, twenty broad, and thirty high, he exception of the "most holy place,” the height of which was only twenty cubits, so that there remained abure om ten cubits in height. In front of the sanctuary was the vestibule or porch, which was one hundred and twenty

high, twenty broad from north to south, and ten in depth. But by including the thickness of the walls, with the hambers and the porch, the length is by some made one hundred cubits and the breadth fifty cubits; and other lons are considered to make the height of the building thirty-six cubits and of the porch one hundred and twentybits. (Lewis's Origines Hebrææ.') This porch, which seems to have been the only part of the structure consily elevated, was open in front, and had near the entrance the two massive pillars called Jachin and Boaz. pillars were twelve cubits in circumference and thirty-six cubits high; the shafts being eighteen cubits, the els five, and the bases thirteen. They were profusely ornamented with representations of leaves, pomegran&c. They were of brass, hollow within, the metal being a hand's breadth in thickness. (1 Kings vii. 15—19; roa, iii. 15—17.) From this porch a door of oleaster, or wild olive, ornamented with cherubim, palins, and flowers ved work, led to the sanctuary. This door was covered with gold, and turned on hinges of the same metal. A ir door led from the sanctuary to the most holy place, and both doors were covered with a veil of linen richly oidered. The relation to each other, and the respective appropriation of the holy and the most holy places, were ame as in the tabernacle, the general plan of which may be distinctly traced in all that relates to the Temple. holy place contained the incense-altar, with ten tables and ten golden candlesticks, instead of one of each, the tabernacle, and was only entered twice a day by a priest to offer incense and attend to the lamps, while the

“ most holy place,” containing the ark, was entered only once a year by the high-priest, on the great day of tion. ong the north, south, and west sides of the sanctuary extended a gallery three stories high, constructed of beams planks, and to which there was access by means of a winding stair. These stories or stages did not altogether rise ore than half the height of the Temple, and must have given more inajesty of appearance to a structure which it have appeared naked without such accompaniments. These were in iact a sort of aisles ; and we have seen

descriptions of the Temple which fancifully compare it to some ancient churches which have in front a lufty ? (answering to the porch), and a low aisle running along each side of the main building. But such aisles, as le colonnades, were also common in the sacred structures of ancient nations. le structure of the sanctuary is distinctly described in the text as of hewn stones, covered with boards of cedar

were carved with a variety of ornamental figures, and overlaid with gold. The resulting conclusion from entire examination and comparison will probably be, that the Temple of Solomo:2 was an astonishing and nificent work for the time in which it was built, particularly remarkable for its costly materials and elabojate Tranship; but that, as a whole, its architectural etfect was not sufficiently concentrated in one pile of building to ile it to bear comparison with the cathedrals and other structures of a much later age. This is sufficiently evinced he proportions which are given in the text. From the other temples of remote antiquity it seems to have been Hy distinguished ty this sumptuousness of detail. lu other respects we recognise the general arrangement com

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mon to all—a holy place, inaccessible and inviolable, covered and shut up, and placed at the extremity of one or more courts, surrounded with peristyles and with cells or apartments for the lodging and accommodation of the officiating ministers.

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Q. Priests'

1, Holy of Holies. B, Holy

Place. C, Court round the Temple. D, Place where the knives for the sacrifices were kepil. E, Ascent to the altar. F, Vestry, or robing-room. G, Place where the sacrificial cakes were made. HH, Apartments for the singers. 1, Place where the priests assembled. L, Salt store. M, Brasen-sea. N, Place for washing the burnt-offerings. 0, The wells, or places in which were kept the machines used in drawing water for the Tempie services. P, Gates. kitchens. R, King's throne, s Hall of the Great Sanhedrim. T, Court of the kitchens. a, Ark of the Covenant. b, Altar of Inceuse. C, Golden candlestick. d, Table of shewbread. ee, The pillars, Jachin and Boaz. 9. Place for the shewbread. h, Place for the stones used about the altar. i, Place for the lambs for the daily sacrifice for the priests. m, Kitchens.

m, Halls or synagogues. 0, Different apartments for lodgings, and the furniture of the Temple. PPP, Porters' lodges. q, Wood piles. T, Magazine of perfumes. 8, Second Sanhedrim. t, Apartment for the Nazarites. u, Apartment of ihe lepers. X, Place for alms. y, Space before the porters' lodges. 2, Engraved pillars, prohibiting the entrance of Gentiles and unclean persons.

f, Porch.

1, Bath

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