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the purpose of giving a greater capacity to the sea, and also as somewhat sanctioned by the statement that the twelve oxen faced, by threes, the cardinal points of the compass. This representation of the brazen sea is not however generally received, and we have given one which seems as fair an approximation as the statements in the text enable us to form. We need not repeat the particulars given in the text, which are sufficiently clear, as far as they go; but may add, that Josephus (a better authority in such points than the Rabbins) says that the vessel was hemi-spherical, its bottom resting on a pillar a cubit in diameter, and on the hinder parts of the twelve oxen.
The present text says that it contained 2000 baths, which is about 16,000 gallons; but in Chronicles iv. 5, which is followed by Josephus, 3000 is the number given. Some suppose one of these texts corrupted, while others endeavour to account for the discrepancy by a difference of measures, or by relative explanations such as that of some of the Rabbins, who suppose that the basin or cup could contain 3000 baths, but usually contained only 2000; or that of Calmet, who concludes that the cup held 2000, and the base or foot 1000 more, making together the three thousand. Most of the Jewish writers say that it was supplied with water by a pipe from the well Etam, which seems more probable than that, as others say, the Gibeonites performed the duty of keeping it full. It was kept continually flowing, according to the same accounts, there being spouts which discharged for use from the basin, as much water as it received from the well Etam. As most, if not all, the Jewish ablutions were performed in running water, this is highly probable ; and we may suppose that the priests performed their ablutions at these flowing streams. This, indeed, the Jews say, with respect to ordinary ablutions, but they add, that in complete ablutions of the whole person, the priests got into the basin, and to prevent their being drowned, was the reason that it never contained more than 2000 baths, according to the above-mentioned interpretation. Every one will see the absurdity of this notion. When a complete ablution was necessary, the priest could stand under the running streams, or bathe in the hollow base which received the discharged water, and which also must have had an outlet. It is not clear whence the streams were discharged; but it may have been from the mouths of the oxen, or, as some conceive, from embossed heads, in the sides of the vessel.
We give a cut of the Fountain of the Lions in the Moorish palace, the Alhambra, at Granada. It is interesting as exemplifying the same principle of construction, and may therefore be taken to explain some points in the description of the present vessel. Indeed, it is said to have been made in professed imitation of Solomon's brazen sea. It stands in a handsome square court, which is paved with marble, and surrounded with a fine colonnade of white marble pillars. This is called the Court of the Lions. The fountain from which it receives this name consists of a basin of white marble, six feet in diameter, and resting on twelve rather mis-shapen lions—or, more correctly, it rests on pillars, with which the hinder parts of the animals are connected, and through which the water enters their bodies, and is discharged from their mouths. That Solomon's oxen served the same purpose, and were connected in the same manner with the basin, is not improbable. It should be observed, that within the basin we have noticed, there is another, which is properly the fountain, and supplies water to the larger. If there were something like this in Solomon's brazen sea, we could easily reconcile the difference between 2000 and 3000 baths, by supposing that the former expressed the contents of the inner cup, and the latter the entire quantity which both the inner and outer cups contained. Speaking of this famous fountain, Swinburne says, "While the pipes were in good order, a great volume of water was thrown up that, thrown down into the basins, passed through the beasts, and issued out of their mouths into a large reservoir, where it communicated by canals with jets-d'eau in the apartments. The fountain is embellished with many festoons and Arabic distichs,”
38. “ Ten larers of brass."— For observations on these, and some other particulars, see 1 Chron. iv. 48. “ The allar of gold."— The altar of incense. 49. “ Candlesticks of pure golu.”—Concerning their form we have no information. Probably they were on the model of that which had been in the Tabernacle, and which formerly engaged our attention. Now, instead of one laver, one table, and one candlestick, there are ten of each. What became of the old ones is uncertain. The Jews think they were all preserved and occupied the places of honour in the new Temple.
tion, and all the holy vessels that were in the
tabernacle, even those did the priests and 1 The feast of the dedication of the temple. 12, 14 the Levites bring up. Solomon's blessing. 22 Solomon's prayer.
5 And king Solomon, and all the congreHis sacrifice of peace offerings.
gation of Israel, that were assembled unto Then 'Solomon assembled the elders of Is- | him, were with him before the ark, sacrirael, and all the heads of the tribes, the ficing sheep and oxen, that could not be 'chief of the fathers of the children of Israel, told nor numbered for multitude. unto king Solomon in Jerusalem, that they 6 And the priests brought in the ark of might bring up the ark of the covenant of the covenant of the Lord unto his place, the Lord out of the city of David, which is into the oracle of the house, to the most Zion.
holy place, even under the wings of the che2 And all the men of Israel assembled rubims. themselves unto king Solomon at the feast 7 For the cherubims spread forth their in the month Ethanim, which is the seventh two wings over the place of the ark, and the month.
cherubims covered the ark and the staves 3 And all the elders of Israel came, and thereof above. the priests took up the ark.
8 And they drew out the staves, that the 4 And they brought up the ark of the ends of the staves were seen out in the holy LORD, and the tabernacle of the congrega-place before the oracle, and they were not 19 Chron, 5. 2.
* Heb, heads. * Or, ark, as 8 Chron, 5. .
& Heb. princes.
seen without: and there they are unto this congregation of Israel, and spread forth his day.
hands toward heaven: ỹ There was nothing in the ark 'save the 23 And he said, "Lord God of Israel, two tables of stone, which Moses put there there is no God like thee, in heaven above, at Horeb, 'when the LORD made a covenant or on earth beneath, who keepest covenant with the children of Israel, when they came and mercy with thy servants that walk beout of the land of Egypt.
fore thee with all their heart: 10 And it came to pass, when the priests 24 Who hast kept with thy servant Dawere come out of the holy place, that the vid my father that thou promisedst him: cloud filled the house of the LORD,
thou spakest also with thy mouth, and hast 11 So that the priest could not stand to fulfilled it with thine hand, as it is this day. minister because of the cloud: for the glory 25 Therefore now, Lord God of Israel, of the Lord had filled the house of the keep with thy servant David my father that Lord.
thou promisedst him, saying, 12 is There shall 12. Then spake Solomon, The LORD not fail thee a man in my sight to sit on 'said that he would dwell in the thick dark the throne of Israel: so that thy children
take heed to their way, that they walk be13 I have surely built thee an house to forc me as thou hast walked before me. dwell in, a settled place for thee to abide in 26 And now, O God of Israel, let thy
word, I pray thee, be verified, which thou 14 And the king turned his face about, spakest unto thy servant David my father. and blessed all the congregation of Israel: 27 But will God indeed dwell on the (and all the congregation of Israel stood :) earth? behold, the heaven and heaven of
15 And he said, Blessed be the Lord God heavens cannot contain thee; how much less of Israel, which spake with his mouth unto this house that I have builded ? David my father, and hath with his hand 28 Yet have thou respect unto the prayer fulfilled it, saying,
of thy servant, and to his supplication, o 16 Since the day that I brought forth my LORD my God, to hearken unto the cry and people Israel out of Egypt, I chose no city to the prayer, which thy servant prayeth out of all the tribes of Israel to build an before thee to day: house, that my name might be therein; but 29 That thine eyes may be open toward I chose 'David to be over my people Israel. this house night and day, even toward the
17 And it was in the heart of David my place of which thou hast said, 'My name father to build an house for the name of the shall be there: that thou mayest hearken Lord God of Israel.
unto the prayer which thy servant shall 18 And the LORD said unto David my make lotoward this place. father, Whereas it was in thine heart to 30 And hearken thou to the supplication build an house unto my name, thou didst of thy servant, and of thy people Israel, well that it was in thine hcart.
when they shall pray toward this place: 19 Nevertheless thou shalt not build the and hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place : house; but thy son that shall come forth out and when thou hearest, forgive. of thy loins, he shall build the house unto 31 If any man trespass against his my name.
neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him 20 And the LORD hath performed his to cause him to swear, and the oath come word that he spake, and I am risen up in before thine altar in this house : the room of David
father, and sit on the 32 Then hear thou in heaven, and do, throne of Israel, as the Lord promised, and and judge thy servants, condemning the have built an house for the name of the Lord wicked, to bring his way upon his head; and God of Israel.
justifying the righteous, to give him accord21 And I have set there a place for the ing to his righteousness. ark, wherein is the covenant of the Lord, 33 | When thy people Israel be smitten which he made with our fathers, when he down before the enemy, because they have brought them out of the land of Egypt. sinned against thee, and shall turn again to
22 And Solomon stood before the thee, and confess thy name, and pray, and altar of the Lord in the presence of all the make supplication unto thee in this house:
* Deut. 10.5. & Or, where. 7 Exod. 40. 34. 8 2 Chron. 6. I. 92 Sam. 7.8. 10 2 Chron 6.12. 11 Mac. 2 8. # Chap. 2. 4. 2 Sam. 7. 12. 13 Heb. There shallinot be cut off unto thee a man from my sight.
14 Heb. only if. 15 Deut, 12 l.. 16 Or, in this place. 17. Or, in this place. 18 Heb, and he require an ontk of him. 19 Or, towards.
34 Then hear thou in heaven, and forgive
45 Then hear thou in heaven their prayer the sin of thy people Israel, and bring them and their supplication, and maintain their again unto the land which thou gavest unto 28cause. their fathers.
46 If they sin against thee, (**for there is 35 | When heaven is shut up, and there no man that sinneth not,) and thou be angry is no rain, because they have sinned against with them, and deliver them to the enemy, thee; if they pray toward this place, and so that they carry them away captives unto confess thy name, and turn from their sin, the land of the enemy, far or near; when thou afflictest them :
47 Yet if they shall abethink themselves 36 Then hear thou in heaven, and forgive in the land whither they were carried capthe sin of thy servants, and of thy people tives, and repent, and make supplication Israel, that thou teach them the good way unto thee in the land of them that carried wherein they should walk, and give rain them captives, saying, We have sinned, and upon thy land, which thou hast given to thy have done perversely, we have committed people for an inheritance.
wickedness; 37 | If there be in the land famine, if 48 And so return unto thee with all their there be pestilence, blasting, mildew, locust, heart, and with all their soul, in the land of or if there be caterpiller; if their enemy their enemies, which led them away captive, besiege them in the land of their cities; and pray unto thee toward their land, which whatsoever plague, whatsoever sickness thou gavest unto their fathers, the city which there be;
thou hast chosen, and the house which I 38 What prayer and supplication soever
have built for thy name : be made by any man, or by all thy people 49 Then hear thou their prayer and their Israel, which shall know every man the supplication in heaven thy dwelling place, plague of his own heart, and spread forth and maintain their s cause, his hands toward this house :
50 And forgive thy people that have sin39 Then hear thou in heaven thy dwell. ned against thee, and all their transgresing place, and forgive, and do, and give to sions wherein they have transgressed against every man according to his ways, whose thee, and give them compassion before them heart thou knowest; (for thou, even thou who carried them captive, that they may only, knowest the hearts of all the children have compassion on them: of men ;)
51 For they be thy people, and thine in40 That they may fear thee all the days heritance, which thou broughtest forth out that they live in the land which thou gavest of Egypt, from the midst of the furnace of unto our fathers.
iron: 41 Moreover concerning a stranger, that 52 That thine eyes may be open unto the is not of thy people Israel, but cometh out supplication of thy servant, and unto the of a far country for thy name's sake, supplication of thy people Israel, to hearken
42 (For they shall hear of thy great name, unto them in all that they call for unto and of thy strong hand, and of thy stretched thee. out arm ;) when he shall come and pray to- 53 For thou didst separate them from ward this house;
among all the people of the earth, to be 43 Hear thou in heaven thy dwelling thine inheritance, as thou spakest by the place, and do according to all that the hand of Moses thy servant, when thou stranger calleth to thee for: that all peo- broughtest our fathers out of Egypt, O ple of the earth may know thy name, to fear Lord God. thee, as do thy people Israel; and that they 54 And it was so, that when Solomon had may know that this house, which I have made an end of praying all this prayer and builded, is called by thy name.
supplication unto the Lord, he arose from 44 9 If thy people go out to battle against before the altar of the Lord, from kneeling their enemy, whithersoever thou shalt send on his knees with his hands spread up to them, and shall pray unto the Lord Stoward heaven. the city which thou hast chosen, and to- 55 And he stood, and blessed all the conward the house that I have built for thy gregation of Israel with a loud voice, say. this day.
* Or, right, % Heb, bring back to their heart,
* Ór, right.
* Exod. 19.5
* Or, jurisdiction. 21 Heb. thy name is callea upon this house.
U2 Chron. 6. 36. Eccles. 7. 20, 1 John 1. 8. 10.
56 Blessed be the LORD, that hath given 63 And Solomon offered a sacrifice of rest unto his people Israel, according to all peace offerings, which he offered unto the that he promised: there hath not failed Lord, two and twenty thousand oxen, and one word of all his good promise, which he an hundred and twenty thousand sheep. So promised by the hand of Moses his servant. the king and all the children of Israel dedi
57 The LORD our God be with us, as he cated the house of the LORD. was with our fathers : let him not leave us, 64 The same day did the king hallow nor forsake us:
the middle of the court that was before the 58 That he may incline our hearts unto house of the LORD: for there he offered him, to walk in all his ways, and to keep his burnt offerings, and meat offerings, and the commandments, and his statutes, and his fat of the peace offerings : because the brasen judgments, which he commanded our fathers. altar that was before the LORD was too
59 And let these my words, wherewith I little to receive the burnt offerings, and have made supplication before the LORD, be meat offerings, and the fat of the peace nigh unto the LORD our God day and night, offerings. that he maintain the cause of his servant, 65 And at that time Solomon held a feast, and the cause of his people Israel "at all and all Israel with him, a great congregatimes, as the matter shall require:
tion, from the entering in of Hamath unto 60 That all the people of the earth may the river of Egypt, before the LORD our know that the LORD is God, and that there God, seven days and seven days, even fouris none else.
teen days. 61 Let your heart therefore be perfect 66 On the eighth day he sent the people with the LORD our God, to walk in his sta- away: and they ssblessed the king, and went tutes, and to keep his commandments, as at unto their tents joyful and glad of heart for
all the goodness that the Lord had done 62 And 39the king, and all Israel with for David his servant, and for Israel his him, offered sacrifice before the LORD. people. B Heb. fallen. 2 Heb. the thing of a day in his day.
80 2 Chron. 7. 4. 81 2 Chron. 7. 7. 32 Or, thanked. Verse 2. “ Al the feast in the month Ethanim."-There was therefore an interval of eleven months between the completion of the Temple and its dedication. This interval may have been required for the finishing of the utensils, the drying of the walls, clearing away the rubbish, &c. Solomon also probably waited for the suitable opportunity which vas offered in this month by the feast of tabernacles, when vast numbers of people resorted to Jerusalem from all parts of the kingdom. Indeed many commentators and chronologists think that the jubilee year now opened, and that the kiug waited for that most joyous and appropriate occasion. This view is that under which the jubilee year is conceived to be the seventh sahbatical year, not the year ensuing; and according to this, the year was the seventy-third sabbatieal and the ninth jubilee year. Hales's chronology does not, however, make it either a sabbatic or a jubilee yeai, nor is there in the text any indication that it was such.
31. “ The oath come before thine allar in this house." —Hence it would seem to have been a custom for solemn oaths to ke taken at the altar; whence, in after times, also arose the practice of swearing by the altar, to which our Saviour adverts in Matt. xxiii. 20. This practice has been exceedingly general. We may suppose it a custom of the Tyrians, as we see that it was with the Carthaginians, among whom the young Hannibal was made by his father to swear enmity to Rome at the altar. It was certainly the custom among the Greeks and Romans for oaths to be taken before, or with the hand laid on the altar; and so far was this idea carried, that, when there was occasion for taking an oath where no temple was near, an altar was raised up in haste, or portable altars were immediately set up. (See Banier's
Mythology, vol. i. p. 425.) The same notions were preserved in the middle ages, when the most solemn oaths were those taken (with sundry variations enumerated by Du Cange) with one or both hands resting on the altar.
14. "Pray unto the Lord toward the city which thou hast chosen, and toward the house which I have built for thy name.”— This refers to a very ancient custom for the worshippers, under different systems of religion, to direct their faces, when at prayer, towards some particular point where the presence of their deity was supposed to be more particularly manifested, or which was, otherwise, the holiest place which the religion recognised. This point is called the kebla' among the eastern nations. Jerusalem and its Temple was the kebla of the Jews-the point to which they directed their prayers wherever they might be. In like manner the meridian was the kebla of the Sabians, the east of the Magians, aad, at present, Mecca and its temple to the Mohammedans. There is an allusion in Ezek. viii. 16 to the kebla of the Mayians in the east, the point of the rising sun. There twenty-five elders are represented as adoring, with their backs towards their own kebla, the sanctuary, and their faces directed to the east, worshipping the sun. Perhaps it was with a view to prevent the identification of the worship of Jehovah with that of the sun, that the kebla was fixed at the opposite point-that is, the sanctuary fronted the east, so that none could, at the Temple itself, or in any direction eastward from it, properly direct their attention to it, without turning their backs on the Magian kebla. There must be a decided alternative, to reject the one or the other; and this gives point to the sin of the elders, who being precluded, by this opposition, from identifying the two keblas and the ideas connected with them, were not deterred from that bold iniquity which was shown to the prophet as the last and the greatest of four very great abominations. We discover the continuance of the custom of worshipping towards Jerusalem and its Temple in the order issued by Adrian, by which the Jews were forbidden not only to enter Jerusalem (then called Ælia), but to look towards it. The custom is not yet relinquished. The Jews still, in all their wide dispersions, turn their faces in prayer towards their lost Canaan: aud for this reason it is that, in all Hebrew synagogues, we observe the door (or the principal door, if there be more than one) is placed at or near the opposite point of the compass. The Mohammedans also take much care to turn themselves in prayer towards their kebia at Mecca. For this purpose, they have, in the wall of their mosques, a niche to indicate the point to which their attention should be directed. The doors leading to the galleries of the minarets of the mosques are likewise so placed, or other circumstances are so arranged, as to afford an external indication for the same purpose. Compasses are also used by some individuals, on the dial of which the point towards Mecca is distinguished by a particular mark; but as this mark is adapted to the place where the compass was made, its continued use by the owner in other places, and on journeys, is of course attended often with very absurd mistakes. The necessity of praying towards the kebla, and the difficulty, to a people wholly ignorant of geography, of determining the direction in which it lies, when separated from their accustomed associations, renders Moslems, when on a journey, thankful even to an European who can indicate the true point of their kebla ; and still more so to a brother Mohammedan who possesses the same knowledge, and undertakes to lead their devotions.
We may here add, that the Greeks and Romans had the same kebla as the Magians; they prayed facing the east; and, in order to afford the facility which Solomon's Temple exhibits an apparent intention to prevent, the front of the temples was placed to the west, with the image of the god facing the west, that the sacrificers and worshippers might be able at the same time to direct their faces towards the image and the eastern quarter of the heavens.
63. “ Two and twenty thousand oxen, and an hundred and twenty thousand sheep.”—Not at once, but during the whole festival, which, from verse 65, seems to have lasted for a fortnight, apparently including the period for the feast of tabernacles. The ancient pagans, in acknowledgment of great victories, or as a propitiatory offering under public calamities, sometimes offered at once as many as a hundred oxen or other animals. This they called a hecatomb; sometimes, but very rarely, the number was a thousand, when it was called a chilomb. We also read of intermediate num. bers of three or five hundred ; but all this seems very insignificant compared with this great sacrifice by Solomon. A considerable proportion appears to have consisted of peace-offerings, the flesh of which was no doubt distributed among the multitudes then assembled at Jerusalem.
7 Then will I cut off Israel out of the
land which I have given them; and this God's covenant in a vision with Solomon. 10 The mutual presents of Solomon and Hiram. 15 In house, which I have hallowed 'for my name, Solomon's works the Gentiles were his bondmen, will I cast out of my sight; and Israel shall the Israelites honourable servants. 24 Pharaoh's be a proverb and a byword among all daughter removeth to her house. 25 Solomon's
people: yearly solemn sacrifices. 26 His navy fetcheth
8° And at this house, which is high, crery gold from Ophir.
one that passeth by it shall be astonished, AND 'it came to pass, when Solomon had and shall hiss; and they shall say, Why finished the building of the house of the hath the Lord done thus unto this land, Lord, and the king's house, and all Solo- and to this house? mon's desire which he was pleased to do, 9 And they shall answer, Because they
2 That the Lord appeared to Solomon forsook the Lord their God, who brought the second time, 'as he had appeared unto i forth their fathers out of the land of Egypt, him at Gibeon.
and have taken hold upon other gods, and 3 And the LORD said unto him, I have have worshipped them, and served them: heard thy prayer and thy supplication, that therefore hath the Lord brought upon them thou hast made before me: I have hallowed all this evil. this house, which thou hast built, éto put my 10 | And 'it came to pass at the end of name there for ever; and mine eyes and twenty years, when Solomon had built the mine heart shall be there perpetually. two houses, the house of the LORD, and the
4 And if thou wilt walk before me, as king's house, David thy father walked, in integrity of 11 (Now Hiram the king of Tyre had heart, and in uprightness, to do according furnished Solomon with cedar trees and fir to all that I have commanded thee, and wilt trees, and with gold according to all his dekeep my statutes and my judgments: sire,) that then king Solomon gave Hiram
5 Then I will establish the throne of thy twenty cities in the land of Galilee. kingdom upon Israel for ever, as I pro- 12 And Hiram came out from Tyre to sce mised to David thy father, saying, There the cities which Solomon had given him; shall not fail thee a man upon the throne of and they Spleased him not. Israel.
13 And he said, What cities are these 6 But if ye shall at all turn from follow- which thou hast given me, my brother? And ing me, ye or your children, and will not he called them the land of Cabul unto this kecp my commandments and my statutes day. which I have set before you, but go and 14 And Hiram sent to the king sixscore serve other gods, and worship them:
talents of gold. il Chron. 7. 11, 8 Chap. 8. 29.
& Deut. 29. 24, Jer, 22.8. 8 Heb, were not right in his eyes 9 That is, displeasing, or dirty
* Chap. 3. 5.
7'2 Chron. 8. 1.
* 2 Sam. 7. 12. i Chron. 22. 10.
5 Jer. 7. 14.