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15 And this is the reason of the levy
22 But of the children of Israel did Solowhich king Solomon raised; for to build the mon "make no bondmen: but they were men house of the LORD, and his own house, and of war, and his servants, and his princes, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, his captains, and rulers of his chariots, and and Megiddo, and Gezer.
his horsemen. 16 For Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone 23 These were the chief of the officers up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, that were over Solomon's work, five hundred and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the and fifty, which bare rule over the people city, and given it for a present unto his that wrought in the work. daughter, Solomon's wife.
24 1 But "Pharaoh's daughter came up 17 And Solomon built Gezer, and Beth- out of the city of David unto her house which horon the nether,
Solomon had built for her: then did he build 18 And Baalath, and Tadmor in the wil. Millo. derness, in the land,
25 | And three times in a year did Solo19 And all the cities of store that Solo- mon offer burnt offerings and peace offerings mon had, and cities for his chariots, and cities upon the altar which he built unto the LORD, for his horsemen, and that which Solomon and he burnt incense 'Supon the altar that was desired to build in Jerusalem, and in Leba- before the LORD. So he finished the house. non, and in all the land of his dominion. 26 | And king Solomon made a navy of
20 And all the people that were left of the ships in Ezion-geber, which is beside Eloth, Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and on the 'shore of the Red sea, in the land of Jebusites, which were not of the children of Edom. Israel,
27 And Hiram sent in the
his 21 Their children that were left after vants, shipmen that had knowledge of the them in the land, whom the children of Is- sea, with the servants of Solomon. rael also were not able utterly to destroy, 28 And they came to Ophir, and fetched upon those did Solomon levy a tribute of from thence gold, four hundred and twenty bondservice unto this day.
talents, and brought it to king Solomon. 1 Heb. the desire of Solomon which he desired. 11 Levit, 25. 39. 19 2 Chron. 8. 11.
13 Heb. upon it. Verse 13. “He called them the land of Cabul.”—There has been a considerable variety of opinion concerning the situ• ation of this district, and the name which Hiram gave to it. We do not intend to enter into this unprofitable discussion. Josephus says that the towns lay not far from 'Tyre, and that, as Hiram did not like them, he gave the district the Dame of Cabul, which in the Phænician language signifies unpleasing. It is easier to reject this account than to find a better. There is a town of this name mentioned in Josh. xix. 27 as in the tribe of Zebulun, and as this was in Galikre, and might be within a reasonable distance from Tyre, it may have been one of the twenty towns, and perhaps Hiram applied to the whole district the obnoxious name which this town bore. We do not know the cause of his dislike to what Solomon doubtless considered a liberal offering. Probably, as the Phænicians were a maritime and commercial people, Hiram wished rather for a part of the coast, which was now in the hands of Solomon, and was not there. fore prepared to approve of a district which might have been of considerable value in the eyes of an agricultural people like the Hebrews. Perhaps the towns were in part payment of what Solomon owed Hiram for his various services and contributions,
14. “ Hiram sent...sirscore talents of gold.”—“Had sent” would be better. It is probably the gold mentioned in verse 1, and seems to have been lent to enable Solomon to complete his various undertakings. Notwithstanding the immense income of Solomon, his expensive establishments and magnificent undertakings may at times have caused him to feel the need of such assistance as Hiram seems to have afforded.
6. " Pharaoh... had taken Gezer."-See the note on Josh. xii. 12. It is not very clear how the king of Egypt came to be engaged in this undertaking. Perhaps he had a quarrel of his own with the Canaanites who continued in occupation of this little territory; or perhaps Solomon, who does not appear to have been himself engaged in any military undertakings, requested his father-in-law to render him this service. This transaction probably took place in the early part of Solomon's reign.
1 Heb. lip.
LORD, she came to prove him with hard 1 The queen of Sheba admireth the wisdom of Solo questions. 14 Solomon's gold. 16 His targets. 18
2 And she came to Jerusalem with a very The throne of ivory. 21 His vessels. 24 His great train, with camels that bare spices, presents. 26 His chariots and horse. 28 His
and very much gold, and precious stones: tribute.
and when she was come to Solomon, she And when the 'queen of Sheba heard of the communed with him of all that was in her fame of Solomon concerning the name of the heart.
19 Chrun. 9. 1. Matth. 12, 42. Luke ll. 31.
3 And Solomon told her all her questions: | chants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and there was not any thing hid from the king, of the governors of the country: which he told her not.
16 And king Solomon made two hun4 And when the queen of Sheba had seen dred targets of beaten gold: six hundred all Solomon's wisdom, and the house that he shekels of gold went to one target. had built,
17 And he made three hundred shields
of 5 And the meat of his table, and the sit- beaten gold; three pound of gold went to ting of his servants, and the 'attendance of one shield: and the king put them in the his ministers, and their apparel, and his *cup-house of the forest of Lebanon. bearers, and his ascent by which he went up 18 | Moreover the king made a great unto the house of the LORD; there was no throne of ivory, and overlaid it with the best more spirit in her.
gold. 6 And she said to the king, It was a true 19 The throne had six steps, and the top øreport that I heard in mine own land of thy of the throne was round behind: and there acts and of thy wisdom.
were 'stays on either side on the place of the 7 Howbeit, I believed not the words, until seat, and two lions stood beside the stays. I came, and mine eyes had seen it: and, be- 20 And twelve lions stood there on the hold, the half was not told me: 'thy wisdom one side and on the other upon the six steps: and prosperity exceedeth the fame which I there was not 16the like made in any king. heard.
dom. 8 Happy are thy men, happy are these 21 q And all king Solomon's drinking thy servants, which stand continually before vessels were of gold, and all the vessels of thee, and that hear thy wisdom.
the house of the forest of Lebanon were 9 Blessed be the Lord thy God, which of pure gold; "none were of silver: it delighted in thee, to set thee on the throne was nothing accounted of in the days of Soof Israel: because the LORD loved Israel for lomon. ever, therefore made he thee king, to do 22 For the king had at sea a navy of judgment and justice.
Tharshish with the navy of Hiram : once in 10 And she gave the king an hundred and three years came the navy of Tharshish, twenty talents of gold, and of spices very bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, great store, and precious stones: there came and peacocks. no more such abundance of spices as these 23 So king Solomon exceeded all the kings which the queen of Sheba gave to king Solo- of the earth for riches and for wisdom.
24 | And all the earth sought to Solo11 And the navy also of Hiram, that mon, to hear his wisdom, which God had brought gold from Ophir, brought in from put in his heart. Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and pre- 25 And they brought every man his precious stones.
sent, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, 12 And the king made of the almug trees and garments, and armour, and spices, horses, # 'pillars for the house of the LORD, and for and mules, a rate year by year. the king's house, harps also and psalteries 26 | "And Solomon gathered together for singers : there came no such "almug chariots and horsemen: and he had a thoutrees, nor were seen unto this day.
sand and four hundred chariots, and twelve 13 And king Solomon gave unto the thousand horsemen, whom he bestowed in queen of Sheba all her desire, whatsoever the cities for chariots, and with the king at she asked, beside that which Solomon gave Jerusalem. her "lof his royal bounty. So she turned and 27 And the king "made silver to be in Jewent to her own country, she and her ser- rusalem as stones, and cedars made he to be vants.
as the sycomore trees that are in the vale, 14 | Now the weight of gold that came
for abundance. to Solomon in one year was six hundred 28 | 22 *And Solomon had horses brought threescore and six talents of gold,
out of Egypt, and linen yarn : the king's 15 Beside that he had of the merchant- merchants received the linen yarn at a men, and of the traffick of the spice mer- price. 3 Heb, standing.
7 Heb.thiru hast added roisdom and goodness to the fams
11 Heb. accurding to the hand of king Solomon. 1% Or, captains. 18 Chap. 7. is Heb. on the hinder pirt thereof.
18 Or, elephants' teeth 19 Heb. sought the face of
23 Heb. And the going forth of the horses which was Solomon's.
8 Or, rails.
9 Het. a prof:
4 Or, bullers. 5 Heb. word. 6 Or, sayings,
17 Or, there was no silter in them. 2U 2 Chron. 1. 14.
24 I Chron. 1. 16, anu 9. 28.
21 llel gate.
29 And a chariot came up and went out so for all the kings of the Hittites, and for of Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver, the kings of Syria, did they bring them out and an horse for an hundred and fifty: and by their means.
24 Heb. by their hand. Verse 1. “The queen of Sheba."-See 2 Chron. ix. With a few exceptions, we refer the observations on the various topies of this chapter, and the latter part of the preceding, to the parallel passages in 2 Chronicles, which, with
other similar postponements, will enable us to effect à more equal distribution of illustrative cuts and notes than would ; be otherwise practicable.
* She came to prove him with hard questions."-See the note on Judges xiv. 12. Josephus gives an extract from the archives of Tyre, from which it would seem that Solomon and Hiram amused themselves by the interchange of such hard questions. The extract purports that Solomon sent riddles to Hiram, and desired to receive the like from him, on condition that he who could not solve those of the other, should forfeit a certain sum of money. Hiram, being unable to solve Solomon's enigmas, paid large sums according to agreement. He afterwards solved them, however, by means of a youth called Abdemon; and (probably with the same assistance) proposed others himself; and Solomon, being unable to interpret them, paid back the sums he had received from Hiram. Perhaps this may be the money which the king of Tyre is represented, in chap. ix. 14, as having sent to Solomon. Whether the above statement from Josephus be correet or not, it certainly does furnish a good illustration of the character which was, in those early times, given to the intercourse of minds, and which it has not yet ceased to bear in the East. The Scripture does not condescend to preserve any such “hard questions,” except in the case of Samson, where the connection of the history required its introduction. Those now mentioned were probably of a similar character, or perhaps like the famous riddle which @dipus solved. The question being: "What animal is that which goes upon four feet in the morning, upon two at noon, and upon three in the evening. The answer being: "Man: who in infancy goes upon all fours, walks erect in manhood, and in age requires the aid of a staff.”
27. “ Sycamore Trees, that are in the vale.”—The Hebrew name of this tree is D'ap (shikmım, or, to show the analogy, sykmim). On account of its appearing to partake of the qualities of the fig and mulberry-trees, the Greeks called it orzápagos, from ouxos, a fig-tree, and pogos, a mulberry. The species in Palestine, Egypt, and Abyssinia is the Ficus sytamerus of botanists. The resemblance noticed, is to the leaves of the mulberry and the fruit of the fig-tree. It is still a common tree in the countries named; and how common it was anciently in Palestine is attested by the present text, as well as by various passages of the Scriptures. It is a wide spreading tree, attaining a considerable height, and occasionally exhibiting a trunk of great thickness. It is not uncommon to find some the trunks of which hree men cannot embrace, and others of still larger dimensions sometimes occur. Our wood-cut exhibits a noble Abyssinian specimen of this tree, copied from Salt and Valentia's Views. Probably our Saviour had such a tree beforu bim when he said, “ If ye had faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye might say unto this sycamore tree, Be thou plucked up by the roots, and be thou planted in the sea; and it should obey you." (Luke xvii: 6.) The fruit grows from the trunk itself, which throws out small sprigs, not unlike grape-stalks ; at the end of which grow the fruits, clustered together after the manner of grapes. To ripen them properly, it is necessary that, as the season approaches, they should be scraped or rubbed about the middle. A man ascends the tree for this purpose ; and this, rather than that (as in our version) of “a gatherer of sycamore fruit,” seems to have been the employment of Amos (vii. 14). The Septuagint thus understood it (xvíÇws ouxe uisce), as do both Parkhurst and Gesenius. The fruit is bitter and useless without this process, but when properly ripened is good and palatable, though some Europeans pronounce a contrary opinion of sycamore figs. That this fruit was esteemed by the Hebrews appears from the passage just cited; and its importance to the Egyptians is noticed in Ps. lxxviii. 47. “He destroyed their vines with hail, and their sycamore trees with frost,” which is obviously mentioned as a very heavy calamity to them. This would still be the case; for it forms a prominent article in the consuinption of the lower classes, who, according to Norden, think themselves well regaled when they have a piece of bread, a couple of sycamore-figs, and a jug of water from the Nile. The tree furnished almost the only wood the Egyptians had for general purposes ; and though light and porous, the coffins or cases of this wood, in which they inclosed their mum...ts two or three thousand years ago, still remain in perfect preservation. These facts, with the texts we have cited, and others of similar import, enable us to see that the tree was common among the Hebrews, and must have been considered valuable both for its wood and its fruit, though not in the same degree as among the Egyptians.
28. “ Linen yarn.”—The word Tip (koh or koa) bears no where else the meaning here given to it. The Septuagint and the Vulgate give it as a proper name; and after them Boothroyd renders: “And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and from Coa; the king's merchants received them from Coa at a stated price.” It is true we know no such couutry as Coa; but this being made an Egyptian affair, the authority of the Septuagint is important, ia at least proving that “linen yarn” is not intended. The word, when translated, has no other meaning in Scripture than that of a collection or a gathering together, as in Gen. i. 9; Jer. iii. 17; and we are not sure that it ought not to be here so understood, and referred to the collection of horses obtained from time to time from Egypt. Might we not understand that, a price being fixed, the king's merchants were allowed, from a large number of horses, to select such as they preferred ? The text will certainly bear this interpretation. Mr. Taylor, the editor of Calmet, conjectures that, horses being taken to market attached to each other by cords, "strings of horses” are here intended.
the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for
Molech, the abomination of the children of 1 Solomon's wives and concubines. 4 In his old
Ammon. age they draw him to idolatry. 9 God threateneth him. 14 Solomon's adversaries were Hadad, who
8 And likewise did he for all his strange was entertained in Egypt, 23 Rezon, who reigned wives, which burnt incense and sacrificed in Damascus, 26 and Jeroboam, to whom Ahijah unto their gods. prophesied. 41 Solomon's acts, reign, and death :
9 4 And the LORD was angry with SoloRehoboam succeedeth him.
mon, because his heart was turned from the But king Solomon loved 'many strange wo- Lord God of Israel, 'which had appeared men, 'together with the daughter of Pharaoh, unto him twice, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edom- 10 And 'had commanded him concerning ites, Zidonians, and Hittites;
this thing, that he should go after other 2 of the nations concerning which the gods: but he kept not that which the LORD Lord said unto the children of Israel, Ye commanded. shall not go in to them, neither shall they 11 Wherefore the LORD said unto Solocome in unto you: for surely they will turn mon, Forasmuch as this ®is done of thee, and away your heart after their gods : Solomon thou hast not kept my covenant and my staclave unto these in love.
tutes, which I have commanded thee, I will 3 And he had seven hundred wives, prin- surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will cesses, and three hundred concubines : and
give it to thy servant. his wives turned away his heart.
12 Notwithstanding in thy days I will not 4 For it came to pass, when Solomon was do it for David thy father's sake: but I will old, that his wives turned away his heart rend it out of the hand of thy son. after other gods: and his heart was not per- 13 Howbeit I will not rend away all the fect with the Lord his God, as was the heart kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son of David his father.
for David my servant's sake, and for Jeru5 For Solomon went after *Ashtoreth the salem's sake which I have chosen. goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom 14 | And the LORD stirred up an adverthe abomination of the Ammonites.
sary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite: he 6 And Solomon did evil in the sight of was of the king's seed in Edom. the Lord, and 'went not fully after the LORD, 15 "For it came to pass, when David was as did David his father.
in Edom, and Joab the captain of the host 7 Then did Solomon build an high place was gone up to bury the slain, after he had for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in smitten every male in Edom; 1 Deut. 17. 17. Ecclus. 47. 19.
* Judges 2. 13.
* Heb. fulfilled not after, 6 Chap. 3.5, and 9.2. 1 Chap. 6. 12
9 Chap 12. 15.
* Or, besides.
3 Exod. 34. 16.
103 Sam, S 14.
16 For six months did Joab remain there young man that he was industrious, he with all Israel, until he had cut off every made him ruler over all the charge of the male in Edom :)
house of Joseph. 17 That Hadad fled, he and certain 29 And it came to pass at that time when Edomites of his father's servants with him, Jeroboam went out of Jerusalem, that the to go into Egypt; Hadad being yet a little prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him in child.
the way; and he had clad himself with a 18 And they arose out of Midian, and new garment; and they two were alone in came to Paran: and they took men with the field: them out of Paran, and they came to Egypt, 30 And: Ahijah caught the new garment unto Pharaoh king of Egypt; which gave that was on him, and rent it in twelve him an house, and appointed him victuals, pieces: and gave him land.
31 And he said to Jeroboam, Take thee 19 And Hadad found great favour in the ten pieces:
for thus saith the LORD, the God sight of Pharaoh, so that he gave him to of Israel, Behold, I will rend the kingdom wife the sister of his own wife, the sister of out of the hand of Solomon, and will give Tahpenes the queen.
ten tribes to thce : 20 And the sister of Tahpenes bare him 32 (But he shall have one tribe for my Genubath his son, whom Tahpenes weaned servant David's sake, and for Jerusalem's in Pharaoh's house: and Genubath was in sake, the city which I have chosen out of all Pharaoh's houshold among the sons of Pha- the tribes of Israel:) raoh.
33 Because that they have forsaken me, 21 And when Hadad heard in Egypt that and have worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess David slept with his fathers, and that Joah of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of the the captain of the host was dead, Hadad Moabites, and Milcom the god of the children said to Pharaoh, "Let me depart, that I may of Ammon, and have not walked in my ways, go to mine own country.
to do that which is right in mine eyes, and 22 Then Pharaoh said unto him, But to keep my statutes and my judgments, as what hast thou lacked with me, that, behold, did David his father. thou seekest to go to thine own country?
34 Howbeit I will not take the whole And he answered, "Nothing: howbeit set kingdom out of his hand: but I will make me go in any wise.
him prince all the days of his life for David 23 | And God stirred him up another ad- my servant's sake, whom I chose, because he versary, Rezon the son of Eliadah, which kept my commandments and my statutes: fled from his lord Hadadezer king of Zobah : 35 But 11 will take the kingdom out of
24 And he gathered men unto him, and his son's hand, and will give it unto thec, became captain over a band, when David even ten tribes. slew them of Zobah: and they went to Da- 36 And unto his son will I give one tribe, mascus, and dwelt therein, and reigned in that David my servant may have a "light Damascus.
alway before me in Jerusalem, the city which 25 And he was an adversary to Israel all I have chosen me to put my name there. the days of Solomon, beside the mischief that 37 And I will take thee, and thou shalt Hadad did : and he abhorred Israel, and reign according to all that thy soul desireth, reigned over Syria.
and shalt be king over Israel. 26 And Jeroboam the son of Nebat, 38 And it shall be, if thou wilt hearken an Ephrathite of Zercda, Solomon's servant, unto all that I command thee, and wilt walk whose mother's name was Zeruah, a widow in my ways, and do that is right in my sight, woman, even he lifted up his hand against to keep my statutes and my commandments, the king
as David my servant did; that I will be with 27 And this was the cause that he lifted thee, and build thee a sure house, as I built up his hand against the king: Solomon built for David, and will give Israel unto thee. Millo, and repaired the breaches of the city 39 And I will for this afflict the sced of of David his father.
David, but not for ever. 28 And the man Jeroboam was a mighty 40 Solomon sought therefore to kill Jeroman of valour : and Solomon seeing the boam. And Jeroboam se, and fled into 11 Seb. Send me away. 18 Chap 12. 15. 19 Heb. lamp, or candle.
19 Heb. Not. 13 9 Sam. 8. 3, and 10. 18.
17 Heb. burden,
14 2 Chron. 13. 6.
15 Heb. closed
16 IIeb. did work.