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house.

CHAPTER VIII.

that Solomon had, and all the chariot cities,

and the cities of the horsemen, and 'all that 1 Solomon's buildings. 7 The Gentiles which were ieft Solomon made tributaries; but the Israelites

Solomon desired to build in Jerusalem, and pulers. 11 Pharaoh's daughter removeth to her in Lebanon, and throughout all the land of

12 Solomon's yearly solemn sacrifices. his dominion. 14 He appointeth the priests und Levites to their places. 17 The navy fetcheth gold from Ophir.

7 | As for all the people that were left of

the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the PeAND 'it came to pass at the end of twenty rizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, years, wherein Solomon had built the house which were not of Israel, of the LORD, and his own house,

8 But of their children, who were left after 2 That the cities which Huram had re- them in the land, whom the children of Isstored to Solomon, Solomon built them, and rael consumed not, them did Solomon make caused the children of Israel to dwell there. to pay tribute until this day.

3 And Solomon went to Hamath-zobah, 9 But of the children of Israel did Soloand prevailed against it.

mon make no servants for his work; but 4 And he built Tadmor in the wilderness, they were men of war, and chief of his capand all the store cities, which he built in tains, and captains of his chariots and horse

men. 5 Also he built Beth-horon the upper, 10 And these were the chief of king Soloand Beth-horon the nether, fenced cities, mon's officers, even two hundred and fifty, with walls, gates, and bars ;

that bare rule over the people. 6 And Baalath, and all the store cities 11 9 And Solomon brought up the daugh

1 Kings9, 10, &c. * Heb. all the desire of Solomon, which he desired to build. ' | Kings 3. 1, and 7.8.

Hamath.

come.

4 Heb. holiness.

71 Chron 24.1.

ter of Pharaoh out of the city of David unto | required: the ®porters also by their courses the house that he had built for her: for he at every gate: for "so had David the man of said, My wife shall not dwell in the house of God commanded. David king of Israel, because the places are 15 And they departed not from the com*holy, whereunto the ark of the Lord hath mandment of the king unto the priests and

Levites concerning any matter, or concern 12 | Then Solomon offered burnt offer- ing the treasures. ings unto the Lord on the altar of the LORD, 16 Now all the work of Solomon was which he had built before the porch, prepared unto the day of the foundation

13 Even after a certain rate every day of the house of the Lord, and until it wa offering according to the commandment of finished. So the house of the LORD was Moses, on the sabbaths, and on the new perfected. moons, and on the solemn feast, three times 17 9 Then went Solomon to Ezion-geber in the year, even in the feast of unleavened and to l'Eloth, at the sea side in the land o bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the Edom. feast of tabernacles.

18 And Huram sent him by the hands o 14 | And he appointed, according to the his servants ships, and servants that hai order of David his father, the "courses of knowledge of the sca; and they went wit] the priests to their service, and the Levites the servants of Solomon to Ophir, and tool to their charges, to praise and minister be- thence four hundred and fifty talents of gold fore the priests, as the duty of every day I and brought them to king Solomon. Exod. 29. 38. 6 Exod. 23. 14. Deut. 16. 16.

81 Chron. 9. 17. 9 Heb. so was the commandment.of David the man of God. 10 Or, Elath, Deut. 2.8. Verse 4. “ Tadmor in the wililerness.”—In the Syrian desert there are the magnificent ruins of an ancient city, whie made a conspicuous figure in ancient times under the name of Palmyra. This is not doubted to occupy the site of th Tadmor built by Solomon. The names “Tadmor” and “ Palmyra” equally refer to the palm-trees which grew there and the former is at this day the only name by which the spot is known to the natives, although the palms have no disappeared.

Major Rennel, in his work on the 'Comparative Geography of Western Asia,' enters into elaborate investigation with the view of determining the geographical site of Palmyra. His conclusions place it in N. lat. 31° 24', am E. long. 38° 20', being 90 geographical miles from the nearest point (to the north) of the Euphrates; 102 miles fren the nearest eastern point of the same river; and 109 miles E. by N. from Baalbec. It is situated on a small oasis i the midst of a vast desert of sand, in which there is no trace of any other than Arabian footsteps; and the existeve of a most glorious city, thus isolated in the inhospitable waste, is one of those wonderful circumstances which requir to be accounted for by other considerations than those which immediately appear. The spot where Palmyra stand enjoys the advantage of a good supply of wholesome water—a circumstance of such importance in a desert regici that to this doubtless we are to look for the first element of that importance and splendour at which Palmyra ulti mately arrived. Through the desert in which it lies, the caravans which conveyed by land the produce of Easter Asia, from the Persian Gulf and Babylon, to Phænicia, Syria, and Asia Minor, must of necessity pass; and as to sue caravans it is necessary to adopt the line of march in which water may be found, there can be no doubt that ta advantages, in this respect, which Tadmor offered, rendered it, at a very remote period, a resting-place to the easte! caravans, in their route westward through the desert. This brings us to the most probable reason that can be fom for the measure which Solomon took, of building a city in this remote and in hospitable region. We know that to enterprising king engrossed the maritime commerce which existed between the east and west by the channel of th Red Sea ; and we are therefore justified in supposing, that, as his sovereignty extended to the Euphrates, and the cara vans must needs therefore pass through his territories, he did not neglect the opportunity of obtaining benefit fr the land trade between Eastern and Western Asia. From what we know of his character, it is improbable that thi most profitable branch of trade should not attract his attention; and the fact of his building a city in such a plac as Palmyra seems to furnish something like actual proof that his views were really directed towards it. Tadın was doubtless a fortified city, which, while it enabled the king to hold this region in such complete occupation as provent the passage of the trade without his concurrence, afforded every accommodation and convenience which th vagt caravans could require, and every facility for those commercial transactions of which it must soon have becom the seat under such circumstances. "It would naturally soon cease to be a mere resting-place, and become an empa rium for the land trade, where the. merchants of the east and west met each other, and transacted their exchanges an sales. What precise part Solomon took we cannot tell. He may have contented himself with levying dues and cu toms upon the commodities; or he may have required the further conduct of the trade to be left to the Hebrew me chants, who, in that case, probably bought up the goods, and resold them at a profit to the Phænicians and other But judging from the analogies we have in the horse trade with Egypt, it is more probable that the king himself, by h factors, bought up the commodities of the East, and re-sold them for his own emolument. Here certainly is a sufficier motive for the foundation of a city at Tadmor. It is however not unlikely that the Phænicians were at the bottom Solomon's commercial speculations. We may conceive that, as they were on the most friendly terms with him, an bad rendered him great aid in his undertakings, they felt at liberty to suggest to him how greatly he might obli

, them and enrich himself, by promoting and sharing in that Oriental commerce which they could not carry on witho his assistance. The caravans of the East were probably principally directed to Tyre; and Hiram might easily sho Solomon the benefit they might mutually derive from the establishment of a fortified town at Tadmor, for the prote tion of his own frontier, and for the safeguard of the caravans across the desert, in which they were then, as now, e: posed to the assaults of the Bedouins. To this he might also be induced by the prospect of an intermediate particip fion in the trade, or of a right of custom on the goods carried across the desert. “A most important evidence for tt of these conjectures is, that all our information of Palmyra from heathen writers describes it as a city of mers—the factors of the Oriental trade-who sold to the Romans and others the merchandise of India and Arabia, vere so enriched by the traffic that the place was proverbial for its luxury and wealth, and the expensive habits 111 citizens. It was then to its trade that Palmyra owed that splendour of which its noble ruins still furnish most e evidence; and in our opinion, as already explained, it is only in the circumstances to which it thus owed its erous condition, in an age so much later than that of Solomon, that we can find a probable explanation of the as which led to its original foundation by that monarch. do not again read of Tadmor, in the Scriptures, nor is it likely that the Hebrews retained possession of it long after eath of Solomon. The internal divisions and weakness which ensued, the loss of external territory, and the rise e kingdom of Damascus, sufficiently account for this. John of Antioch, probably from some tradition now lost, it was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. It doubtless fell under the power of that conqueror whether he destroyed not. The first notice which we have in profane antiquity is that which states that Palmyra attracted the notice arc Antony when in Syria. He promised himself rich spoil from it, but was disappointed, as the inhabitants ported their wealth beyond the Euphrates. In the time of Pliny, it was the intermediate emporium of the eastern , as we have mentioned, and in that character absorbed the wealth of the Romans and Parthians, who, however le to each other, agreed in coveting the luxuries of India, which then seem to have come exclusively by the way abia to the Palmyrenes, who dispersed them to the nations subject to the Romans on the one hand, and the Pars on the other. The friendship of Palmyra is said to have been courted by both the contending powers, whence ifer that, protected by its deserts, it still maintained its independence: but it was united soon after to the Roman re as a free city. It was greatly favoured by the emperors; and under Adrian and the Antonines attained the it of its glory, from which it fatally fell when Zenobia, throwing off the connection with Rome, proclaimed herself ess of Palmyra and the East, and, after a brief interval of splendour, was taken captive, and her city desolated by lian. The latest fact concerning the town in Roman history is that the emperor Justinian, in the sixth cenfortified it, and placed a garrison in it, after it had been for some time deserted. To the blank in its history h follows, we are only able to supply one fact, which is, that it was one of the very first conquests of the Arabians ria, in the time of Abubekr; for we find its name as one of the four towns which Serjabil told the governor of a, that the Moslems had already taken (Ockley, p. 31). The next notice of it as an inhabited place is by the ish Jew, Benjamin of Tudela, who was there in the twelfth century. This notice is curivus. « There is also mur seated in the midst of the desert, built also by commandment of Solomon, after the same manner of building greatness of the stones (as at Baalbec): and it is compassed with a wall, solitary, as I said, far removed from other ation, and some days' journey distant from Baghala (Baalbec). But in this city, Thadmur, there are four thouJews, valiant, and ready and prepared for the battle : who make war with the children of Edom, and with the ren of Garah, or the Arabians, commonly called, subject unto the kingdom of Noraldinus: and they help the borg Ishmaelites. Among them Isaac, surnamed Græcus, and Nathan, and Uziel have the pre-eminence.” (Purchas," ix. ch. v.) It is not clear whether he means to say that the 4000 Jews were the sole inhabitants of the town. nnection with this statement it is interesting to observe, that the existing inscriptions of Palmyra attest the prena of Jews there in its most flourishing period ; and that they, in common with the other inhabitants, shared in the sal trade, and were objects of public honours. One inscription intimates the erection of a statue to Julius Schalt, a Jew, for having, at his own expense, conducted a caravan to Palmyra. This was A.D. 258, not long before the of Zenobia, who, according to some accounts, was of the Jewish religion. Irby and Mangles also noticed a Heinscription on an architrave in the great colonnade, but give no copy of it, nor say what it expressed. The latest ical notice of Tadmor we can find is, that it was plundered in 1400 by the army of Timur Beg (Tamerlane), when +00 sheep were taken. At present and for a long time past the spot has had no other inhabitants than a clan of s, who claim the property of the district, and whose miserable hovels, established in the peristyle court of the temple, furnish the most striking possible contrast of meanness and magnificence. ese Arabs, who make travellers pay heavily for permission to visit the place, are firmly of opinion that the present belong to the original city founded by Solomon; and, as is usual with them, their denominations of the more picuous remains are all founded on this very erroneous notion. The fact is, that all the ruins which now engage ttention of the spectator are in the style of architecture which the Greeks and Romans introduced into Asia ; and the uniformity of style compared with the evidence offered by inscriptions, it is supposed that they were mostly ed during the three first centuries of the Christian era. If there be any thing now belonging to the Tadmor of non, it may perhaps be found in the ruins and rubbish of more ancient buildings which are observed in several and now form ridges of shapeless hillocks covered with soil and herbage, such as now alone mark the sites of the ancient cities in Mesopotamia and Babylonia. . there is no circumstance, beyond the site which they occupy, attaching a Scriptural interest to the present ruins ulmyra, we shall not enter into any detailed description of them; but leave it to our cuts to convey that general ession which is alone in this case necessary. "e may add, however, that the site of Palmyra is not to be understood as quite open to the desert in every direction. he west and north-west there are hills, through which a narrow valley, about two miles in length, leads to the

On each side of this valley occur what seem to have been the sepulchres of the ancient inhabitants. They are ced by square towers, and are found to contain mummies, resembling those of Egypt. Beyond this valley the city f bursts upon the view with wonderful effect. The thousands of Corinthian columns of white marble, erect and A, and covering an extent of about a mile and a half, offer an appearance which travellers compare to that of a t;-a comparison suggested in a great degree by the general absence of the connecting walls which anciently ciated these pillars to the distinct piles of building to which they belonged, and the want of which often leaves the tator at a loss to arrange the columns in any order which might enable him to discover the original purpose of c erection. The site on which the city stands is slightly elevated above the level of the surrounding desert, for a imference of about ten miles; which the Arabs believe to coincide with the extent of the ancient city, as they find ent remains wherever they dig within this space. There are indeed traces of an old wall, not more than three s in circumference ; but this was probably built by Justinian, at a time when Palmyra had lost its ancient importance become a desolate place; and it was consequently desirable to contract its bounds, so as to include only the more able portion. A French traveller, whose views, as such, are good when not distorted by hostility' to Divine th, well describes the general aspect which these ruins offer:-"In the space covered by these ruins we sometimes a palace, of which nothing remains but the court and walls ; sometimes a temple whose peristyle is half thrown

o; and now a portico, a gallery, or triumphal arch. Here stand groups of columns, whose symmetry is destroyed I be fall of many of them; there, we see them ranged in rows of such length that, similar to rows of trees, they deceive the sight and assume the appearance of continued walls. If from this striking scene we cast our eyes upon the ground, another, almost as varied, presents itself: on all sides we behold nothing but subverted shafts, some whole

, others shattered to pieces, or dislocated in their joints: and on which side so ever we look, the earth is strewed with vast stones, half-buried ; with broken entablatures, mutilated friezes, disfigured reliefs, effaced sculptures, violated tombs, and altars defiled by dust.” (Volney's Travels through Syria,' ii. 237.)

It may be right to add, that the account which has been more recently given of these ruins, by Captains Irby and Mangles, is of a much less glowing tone than of other travellers, English and French. They speak indeed with admi. ration of the general view, which exceeded anything they had ever seen. But they add, “Great, however, was our disappointment when, on a minute examination, we found that there was not a single column, pediment, architrave, portal, frieze, or any architectural remnant worthy of admiration.” They inform us that none of the pillars exceed four feet in diameter, or forty feet in height; that the stone scarcely deserves the name of marble, though striking from its suowy whiteness; that no part of the ruins taken separately excite any interest, and are altogether much inferior to those of Baalbec; and that the plates in the magnificent work of Messrs. Wood and Dawkins do far more than justice to Palmyra. Perhaps this difference of estimate may arise from the fact that earlier travellers found more wonderful and finished works at Palmyra than their information had prepared them to expect; whereas, in the later instance, the finished representations in the plates of Wood's great work raised the expectations so highly, that their disappointment inclined the mind to rather a detractive estimate of the claims of this ruined city—“Tadmor in the wilderness,"

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6. Baalath.”—The ruins of Baalbec, which were mentioned incidentally in the preceding note, are situated in the great valley (anciently called Cæle Syria) which separates the parallel ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, and near one of the sources of the river Leontes, which proceeds southward and enters the Mediterranean near Tyre. Major Rennel fixes its position in N. lat. 34° 1' 30", and E. long. 36° 11'; distant 36 miles N.N.W. from Damascus, and nearly at the same distance from Tripoli and Beirout on the Mediterranean coast-the former to the north-west and the latter to the south-west. The traditions of the inhabitants of the country, whether Jews, Christians, or Mahommedans, affirm with confidence that this city was founded by Solomon; and, all things considered, there is more probability in this tradition than Wood, in his account of these ruins, seems disposed to allow. That Solomon's dominion did include this vale, there is every reason to suppose ; and the distance northward does not form any objection, for Tadmor is more to the north, and twice as distant from Jerusalem. In the present text are named the cities of Tadmor in the wilderness, upper and lower Beth-horon, and Baalath; and the account then goes on to say, that Solomon built whatever he desired in Jerusalem, in Lebanon, and in all the land of his dominion. This renders it likely that, being thus classed, one of the principal cities named in the text was in Lebanon ; and this could only be Baalath, for Tadmor was in the wilderness, and the Beth-horons in the heart of Palestine: and if Baalath was in Lebanon, the analogy of name, concurring with the local tradition, would refer us to the present Baalbec as the only probable site. Further, the name Baalath means the city of Baal, or of the sun-for Baal was the sun ; and it is agreed that Baalbec is the city which was known to the ancients by the name of Heliopolis, the city of the sun-being merely a translation of the ancient native name of Baalath. The present name Baalbec has but a slight shade of different meaning, being the valley of Bunl, or of the sun. Thus all these names seem to refer to the same place --- Baalath being the ancient native Dame, Bralbes the slight modern variation, and Heliopolis the classical translation. Wood, who does not seem to have known that the name of a city called Baalath occurs in Scripture in the same verse with that of Lebanon, may stand escused for doubting the local traditions which associate the name of Baalbec with that of Solomon. These traditions are of no further consequence than as assisting to identify the site. We may or not believe the natives, when they state that it was founded by the great Hebrew king, as a pleasant retreat during the summer heats. The facts that most of the ancient and modern Oriental monarchs change their residence with the season, might seem to warrant this notion: and Wood observes, that “an eastern monarch could not enjoy his favourite pleasures in a more luxurious retirement than amidst the streams and shades of Baalbec.” Benjamin of Tudela, whom we quoted in the preceding note, speaking of Baalbec, which he calls Baghal-Beik, observes that its ancient name was Baghala, by which he clearly means the Baalath of the present text, Baghala being merely a different pronunciation of the same Hebrew word 792). He fully believes that it was built by Solomon; and reports as facts the local traditions on the subject.

Baalbec is situated very pleasantly, at the foot of Anti-Lebanon, on the last rising ground where the mountain terminates in the plain. it is still the site of a small town, the habitations composing which adjoin to, or are dispersed among, the ruins—the whole being mostly enclosed within the same wall; which walls, says Wood, "like those of the other ancient cities of Asia, seem the confused patchwork of different ages." We suppose that Burckhardt has in view no other walls when he says, “ The walls of the ancient city may still be traced, and include a larger space than the modern town ever occupied, even in its most flourishing state.' Its circuit may be between three and four miles.”

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The ruins of Baalbec make a very different impression from those of Tadmor. The distant view of the latter, in its widespread desolation and dispersed grandeur, is far more impressive than that of Baalbec ; but there are no single muins at Palmyra so worthy of admiration as the ruined temples at Baalbec. Wood says, “When we compare the ruins of Baalbec with those of many ancient cities we have visited in Greece, Egypt, and other parts of Asia, we cannot help thinking them the remains of the boldest plan that appears to have been ever attempted in architecture.”. These remains consist of the grand temple of the sun, with its courts and most magnificent portico ; another temple, near the former, but on lower ground, and which, although of smaller dimensions, is still very large, and in a less ruined condition; a third temple, being that most beautiful octagonal or circular temple which our cut represents. This cut supersedes the necessity of a description of this fine work of ancient art—which description indeed it is not our plan to give in detail, on any occasion, of ruins with which no Scriptural interest is immediately

connected. This small temple is in the inhabited part of the town, and is or was used by the Christians as a church. Burckhardt, who did

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