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of the authority of Herodotus, whose statement on the subject is very remarkable. He states Africa to be circumnavigable, except where it is bounded by Asia ; and explains that the first who ascertained this fact were the Phænicians, acting under the orders of Necho (Pharaoh Necho), king of Egypt, who sent them on a voyage of discovery, direeting them to proceed down the Red Sea and along the coast of Africa, and endeavour to return by the Pillars of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar) and the Mediterranean. This, he says, they accomplished, returning in the third year. He subjoins, that these persons affirmed what to himself seemed incredible-namely, that as they sailed round Africa, they had the sun on their right hand. Now it so happens that this very fact which Herodotus states, serves more than anything else to authenticate the whole story. It is a truth which no mere inventor could have imagined; and even the incredulity which so well-informed a man as Herodotus expresses, serves to give but the more intensity to the conviction which it brings. It may also be asked, how but by actual observation it could be known that Africa was nearly circumnavigable? Other circumstances are striking; the voyage was performed by Phænicians, under the patronage of a foreign king-as was the voyage of Solomon's feet; and in both instances the voyagers did not return till the third year. Unquestionably, also, if this voyage was ever performed, the navigators did not fail to touch at their own great settlement of Tartessus, before they entered the Straits of Gibraltar. In both instances, also, the voyage began from the Red Sea: and if we assume that Africa was really circumnavigated, there is sufficient reason for this preference; for even those who believe that the continent of Africa was circumnavigated in ancient times, allow that the Cape of Good Hope could not be doubled from the Atlantic till the use of the compass enabled ships to stand off to sea, and that it never was doubled from the west till the time of Vasco de Gama. Antiquity only records two attempts in this direction, and both of them failed.
But while we are disposed to contend for the abstract possibility of this voyage having been made, we certainly do not suppose that it was made by the Hebrew-Phænician feet. It will be observed that Herodotus describes that which he mentions, as the first which was kuown to have been effected; and this was 400 years later than the voyages of Solomon's feet; and as the Phænicians were the real navigators and mariners of that fleet, it is by no means likely that, in the time of Necho, they, who, as we learn from Josephus, preserved in their public records much less important circumstances, should have been ignorant that such a voyage had been repeatedly made by their ancestors in the time of king Hiram. Besides, even Rennel and others, who contend strongly for the Cape having been doubled, and the peninsula of Africa rounded, in ancient times, allow that no such voyages were ever regular commercial undertakings, but voyages of discovery. But the voyages of the Hebrew fleet were commercial ones, the object being to go to a certain place for certain commodities. And being such, if Tarshish were Tartessus, and Ophir on the western coast of Africa, none but madmen would have gone any other way than through the Mediterranean to the Atlantic; and if Tarshish were still Tartessus, and Ophir anywhere on the African or Asiatic shores, gulfs, or islands of the Indian Ocean, it is unimaginable that any other course would be taken than to despatch one fleet through the Mediterranean to Tarshish, and another through the Red Sea to Ophir. But there were not two voyages; and therefore the Tarshish of Chronicles could not be the Tartessus of Spain.
The reader who is acquainted with the subject will be aware that, in the above considerations, we have had a view to various theories which we consider untenable, and have endeavoured to narrow the ground to which inquiry should be directed. The effect of these considerations is to bring us to the result, that the Tarshish to which the fleet of Solomon went, and to which that of Jehoshaphat intended to go, is not the Atlantic Tartessus; and that neither it nor Ophir is to be sought anywhere in the Atlantic or Mediterranean. What now remains is to seek for Tarshish and Ophir on either the African or Asiatic shores or islands of the Indian Ocean. But here the determinate result at which we have arrived, gives an opportunity for deferring the remainder of the inquiry to a note on chap. xx.
16. “ The house of the forest of Lebanon.”—This structure is particularly described in 1 Kings vii. We take this opportunity of introducing the ground-plan of Lamy, which we had occasion to mention with approbation in the note to that chapter.
1.21. “Gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.”—None of these products furnish any strong evidence as to the direction of the voyage, since there is not one of them which might not have been equally found on the coasts of Africa and India. We may touch on this point again under chap. xx. Meanwhile we may observe, with respect to the “apes, that there is no means of determining the species, the original word (9717, koph) being as indefinite as that by which it is rendered. And with respect to the “ peacocks," the question is not about the species, but the genus, for many doubt whether the word "sin, thukijim, ought not rather to be rendered "parrots.” Some, indeed, give other interpretatiot:s, as pheasants, sun-birds, &c., while others conceive no birds at all, but a species of monkey, to be intended. The majority, however, are for either peacocks or parrots, and these are found both in India and Africa. The more general opinion in favour of the peacock is probably correct, and is sanctioned by the ancient versions and the Hebrew interpreters. The apes and peacocks were doubtless not the only curious animals collected for Solomon, but are mentioned as
being the most remarkable. The indication is altogether very interesting. Of other kings we might suppose that foreigo quadrupeds and birds were collected merely as objects of curiosity and wonder-to enliven a park or decorate a garden. But as we know that Solomon was attached to the study of natural history and that she spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall : he spake also of beasts, and of creeping things, and of fishes "--we can understand that he commissioned his navigators to bring home living specimens of the more remarkable foreign animals, that he might be enabled to acquaint himself with their peculiar habits and characteristics by actual study and observation. Thus we find that although trade was the primary object of this navigation, the wise Hebrew king was not insensible to the advantages which it offered him in acquiring a larger knowledge of God's creation; and as every one would be anxious to gratify the king in his favourite pursuit, we may readily imagine that he must have formed a noble collection of animals, many of which probably had never before been seen in Western Asia. The writings in which his observations are recorded would have been of great interest at the present day; but now the only evidence we possess of his peculiar taste for such studies, beyond the bare historical statement of the fact, is contained in the circumstance, that his existing writings contain more numerous and striking allusions to the characteristics of animals and plants than are to be found in any other sacred writer.
10 And the young men that were brought 1 The Israelites, assembled at Shechem to crown
up with him spake unto him, saying, Thus Rehoboum, by Jeroboam make a suit of relaxation
shalt thou answer the people that spake unto him.6 Rehoboam, refusing the old men's unto thee, saying, Thy father made our counsel, by the advice of young men answereth yoke heavy, but make thou it somewhat them roughly., 16 Ten tribes revolting kill Ha- lighter for us; thus shalt thou say unto doram, and make Rehoboam to flee.
them, My little finger shall be thicker than AND 'Rehoboam went to Shechem : for to my father's loins. Shechem were all Israel come to make him °11 For whereas my father 'put a heavy king:
yoke upon you, I will put more to your 2 And it came to pass, when Jeroboam yoke: my father chastised you with whips, the son of Nebat, who was in Egypt, whither but I will chastise you with scorpions. he had fled from the presence of Solomon the king, heard it, that Jeroboam returned out of Egypt.
3 And they sent and called him. So Jeroboam and all Israel came and spake to Rehoboam, saying
4 Thy father made our yoke grievous : now therefore ease thou somewhat the grievous servitude of thy father, and his heavy yoke that he put upon us, and we will serve thee.
5 And he said unto them, Come again unto me after three days. And the people departed.
6 | And king Rehoboam took counsel with the old men that had stood before So. lomon his father while he yet lived, saying, What counsel give ye me to return answer to this people?
7 And they spake unto him, saying, If thou be kind to this people, and please them, and speak good words to them, they will be thy servants for ever.
8 But he forsook the counsel which the old men gave him, and took counsel with
[SCORPION—Scorpio afen.] the young men that were brought up with him, that stood before him.
9 And he said unto them, What advice 12 So Jeroboam and all the people came give ye that we may return answer to this to Rehoboam on the third day, as the king people, which have spoken to me, saying, bade, saying, Come again to me on the third Ease somewhat the yoke that thy father did day. put upon us?
13 And the king answered them roughly;
a, Hend and mandible.
1 Kings 12. 1 &c.
? Heb laded.
the old men,
and king Rehoboam forsook the counsel of ritance in the son of Jesse: every man to
your tents, O Israel: and now, David, see 14 And answered them after the advice to thine own house. So all Israel went to of the young men, saying, My father made their tents. your yoke heavy, but I will add thereto: 17 But as for the children of Israel that my father chastised you with whips, but I dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam will chastise you with scorpions.
reigned over them. 15 So the king hearkened not unto the 18 Then king Rehoboam sent Hadoram people: for the cause was of God, that the that was over the tribute ; and the children LORD might perform his word, which he of Israel stoned him with stones, that he spake by the hand of Ahijah the Shilonite died. But king Rehoboam made speed to to Jeroboam the son of Nebat.
get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jeru16 | And when all Israel saw that the salem. king would not hearken unto them, the peo- 19 And Israel rebelled against the house ple answered the king, saying, What portion of David unto this day. have we in David ? and we have none inhe
31 Kings 11. 29. + Heb. strengthened himself,
put captains in them, and store of victual,
and of oil and wine. 1 Rehoboam, raising an army to subdue Israel, is forbidden by Shemaiah. 5 He strengtheneth his 12 And in every several city he put shields kingdom with forts and provision. 13 The priests and spears, and made them exceeding strong, and Levites, and such as feared God, forsaken by having Judah and Benjamin on his side. Jeroboam, strengthen the kingdom of Judah. 18
13 | And the priests and the Levites that The wives and children of Rehoboam.
were in all Israel resorted to him out of all AND 'when Rehoboam was come to Jerusa- their coasts. lem, he gathered of the house of Judah and 14 For the Levites left their suburbs and Benjamin an hundred and fourscore thou
their possession, and came to Judah and sand chosen men, which were warriors, to Jerusalem : for 'Jeroboam and his sons had fight against Israel, that he might bring the cast them off from executing the priest's kingdom again to Rehoboam.
office unto the LORD: 2 But the word of the LORD came to 15 And he ordained him priests for the Shemaiah the man of God, saying,
high places, and for the devils, and for the 3 Speak unto Rehoboam the son of Solo- calves which he had made. mon, king of Judah, and to all Israel in Ju- 16 And after them out of all the tribes of dah and Benjamin, saying,
Israel such as set their hearts to seek the 4 Thus saith the LORD, Ye shall not go Lord God of Israel came to Jerusalem, to up, nor fight against your brethren: return sacrifice unto the LORD God of their faevery man to his house: for this thing is thers. done of me. And they obeyed the words of 17 So they strengthened the kingdom of the LORD, and returned from going against Judah, and made Rehoboam the son of SoJeroboam.
lomon strong, three years : for three years 5 And Rehoboam dwelt in Jerusalem, they walked in the way of David and Soloand built cities for defence in Judah.
mon. 6 He built even Beth-lehem, and Etam, 18 | And Rehoboam took him Mahalath and Tekoa,
the daughter of Jerimoth the son of David 7 And Beth-zur, and Shoco, and Adul- to wife, and Abihail the daughter of Eliab lam,
the son of Jesse; 8 And Gath, and Mareshah, and Ziph, 19 Which bare him children; Jeush, and
9 And Adoraim, and Lachish, and Aze- Shamariah, and Zaham. kah,
20 And after her he took "Maachah the 10 And Zorah, and Aijalon, and Hebron, daughter of Absalom; which bare him which are in Judah and in Benjamin fenced Abijah, and Attai, and Ziza, and Shelocities.
mith. 11 And he fortified the strong holds, and 21 And Rehoboam loved Maachah the "I Kings 12. 91, &c. 2 Heb. presented themselves to him. * Clap. 13, Q.
1 Kings 15. 2.
daughter of Absalom above all his wives his brethren : for he thought to make him and his concubines: (for he took eighteen king. wives, and threescore concubines; and begat 23 And he dealt wisely, and dispersed of twenty and eight sons, and threescore daugh- all his children throughout all the countries ters.)
of Judah and Benjamin, unto every fenced 22 And Rehoboam made Abijah the son city: and he gave them victual in abundof Maachah the chief, to be ruler among ance. And he desired 'many wives.
Heb. a multitude of wives Verse 23. “ Dispersed of all his children," &c.- It seems that he made each of his twenty-eight sons governor of some principal town and surrounding district. As this measure is described as “ dealing wisely," it is necessary to observe that this expression implies a measure of deep-planned policy, as in Exod. i. 10; and we may conjecture that this policy consisted in so subjecting the whole country, in such detail, to the royal house, as was calculated not only to ensure the permanence of its authority, but to keep in check the power of the old hereditary nobles—the “ chiefs of fathers,” and “princes of tribes,"—which has always been found dangerous to reigning dynasties in the East, wherever the principle of clanship operates. We consider this so strikingly illustrated by the present state of things in Persia, that we cannot do better than furnish the following explanation of it, to which we are indebted to Mr. Fraser's Journey into Khorassan.'
After explaining the policy of the Persian kings, to form an opposition to the power of the old nobility, being the heads of tribes, he mentions as one of the measures of this policy, that “ No noble unconnected with the royal blood is to be found at the head of any of the more considerable governments, and all the principal of these, with many of inferior importance, are filled by the sons and grandsons of the king... This system is undoubtedly well calculated to ensure peace and tranquillity to the kingdom and its sovereign, during his lifetime ; for it is highly improbable that any of the princes will make an open attempt, either on his province or on the crown, while his father lives."
He then makes some observations as to the bad tendency of this arrangement to produce civil wars after the death of the king, by putting the several princes in a condition to contest the throne with each other ; but as there were causes in operation that prevented this danger in the kingdom of Judah, we pass his observations on this part of the subject. What follows is important, and probably illustrates the proceeding of Rehoboam and some of the succeeding kings: “ Each of these princes has a wuzzeer (vizier) appointed to assist him in his government; and when he is young, the king generally sends some person on whom he can depend (for the most part à meerza from his own court) to instruct the novice, and, in truth, to govern the province ; for he transacts all business, and is made responsible for every thing, Indeed these princes are so often but dissolute young men, attached to their pleasures, that their ministers are almost always the operative and responsible governors. A sum is fixed by the king and his ministers for the province to yield to his treasury, clear of all expenses, except sometimes a provision for the prince, whose income is thus intended to be limited: in addition to this, all expenses of collection, of police, military establishment, payment of salaries, and other expenses incidental to government, are provided from the province; beyond which the prince and his miuisters make what they can.” The courts of these viceroys are thickly streved over the country, and in them the forms and organization of the imperial court and government are imitated on a scale more or less complete according to the importance of the province. Some of these viceroys are mere boys. In the East, the sons of great men are intrusted with independent establishments at a very early age. The son of Daoud, late Pasha of Bagdad, had a distinct and independent household, with a stud, and numerous servants, at the age of twelve, liable to no other control than is iinplied in the fact that his mother lived in his house, and managed his domestic concerns. Even at such, or an earlier age, boys of rank learn to conduct themselves with great gravity and state when in public ; and indeed, generally, an Oriental boy acquires the gravity and general demeanour of manhood at a much earlier age than in Europe. Some of Rthoboam's sons must have been very young.
4 And he took the fenced cities which i Rehoboam, forsaking the Lord, is punished by pertained to Judah, and came to Jerusa
Shishak. 5 He and the princes, repenting at the len. preaching of Shemaiah, are delivered from de- 5 Then came Shemaiah the prophet to struction, but not from spoil. 13 The reign and Rehoboam, and to the princes of Judah, death of Rehoboam.
that were gathered together to Jerusalem And it came to pass, when Rehoboam had because of Shishak, and said unto them, established the kingdom, and had strength. Thus saith the Lord, Ye have forsaken mc, ened himself, he forsook the law of the LORD, and therefore have I also left you in the and all Israel with him.
hand of Shishak. ? And it came to pass, that in the fifth 6 Whereupon the princes of Israel and year of king Rehoboam Shishak king of the king humbled themselves; and they Egypt came up against Jerusalem, 'because said, The Lord is righteous. they had transgressed against the LORD, 7 And when the LORD saw that they
3 With twelve hundred chariots, and humbled themselves, the word of the LORD threescore thousand horsemen: and the peo- came to Shemaiah, saying, They have humple were without number that came with bled themselves; therefore I will not destroy him out of Egypt; the Lubims, the Suk them, but I will grant them 'some deliverkiims, and the Ethiopians.
ance; and my wrath shall not be poured
11 Kings 14. 24, 25.
Or, a little while.
7 Heb. words.
out upon Jerusalem by the hand of Shi- he would not destroy him altogether: 'and shak.
also in Judah things went well. 8 Nevertheless they shall be his servants; 13 | So king Rehoboam strengthened that they may know my service, and the himself in Jerusalem, and reigned : for 'Reservice of the kingdoms of the countries. hoboam was one and forty years old when
9. So Shishak king of Egypt came up he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen against Jerusalem, and took
away the trea- years in Jerusalem, the city which the LORD sures of the house of the LORD, and the had chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, to treasures of the king's house; he took all: put his name there. And his mother's name he carried away also the shields of gold was Naamah an Ammonitess. which Solomon had made.
14 And he did evil, because he prepared 10 Instead of which king Rehoboam made not his heart to seek the LORD. shields of brass, and committed them to the 15 Now the acts of Rehoboam, first and hands of the chief of the guard, that kept last, are they not written in the book of the entrance of the king's house.
Shemaiah the prophet, and of Iddo the seer 11 And when the king entered into the concerning genealogies? And there were house of the LORD, the guard came and wars between Rehoboam and Jeroboam confetched them, and brought them again into tinually. the guard chamber.
16 And Rehoboam slept with his fathers, 12 And when he humbled himself, the and was buried in the city of David : and wrath of the Lord turned from him, that | Abijah his son reigned in his stead. * Chap. 9. 15. * Or, and yet in Judah there wcre good things. 5 1 Kings 14. 21.
8 Or, fixed. Verse 3. “ Lubims.”—These were undoubtedly the Libyans of north-eastern Africa. The whole of that continent, 90 far as known, was called Libya by the Greeks; but the Libyans properly seem to have been the different nomade, tribes who inhabited northern Africa from the confines of Egypt westward to the lake Tritonis (now Lowdeah), beyond which the country was occupied by a settled agricultural population. In the strictest sense, however, the Libyans appear to have been that portion of those tribes who occupied the territory from the confines of Egypt to the Gulf of Syrtis now Sidra). Herodotus has given a particular account of the manners and usages of all the Libyan nomades, which do not essentially differ from those of other nomade shepherds, though modified by the nature of the desert country in which they wandered. He says, however, that those who were nearest to Egypt had approximated their manners in a considerable degree to those of the Egyptians, although they still retained their national costume. Some of the chariots may have belonged to them; for that they had them we learn from the circumstance that the Greeks were said to have borrowed from them the custom of harnessing four horses to their chariots.
“ The Sukkiims.”—The Septuagint and Vulgate render this by Troglodytce; and as the Sukkiim are mentioned with other African nations, most commentators, ancient and modern, acquiesce in this interpretation, although Grotius and others think that they were Scenite Arabs-dwellers in tents, because Sukkoth means “tents” in Hebrew. Bochart, however, in support of the common interpretation, labours to show that the word sukka, from which both plurals are formed, eans a cave or den. We dislike the principle of both explanations, as we do not see any neccssit for looking to Hebrew roots for the meaning of the proper names of foreign nations. Sukkiim was doubtless the native or customary name of the people denoted ; and the Septuagint is probably correct in understanding it to refer to the Ethiopian people whom the Greeks called Troglodytæ, on account of their habitations being caverns in the mountains, natural and artificial. This name, denoting dwellers in caves, was variously applied to different people whose manner of life it described ; but its more especial application, as a national appellative-an epithet properly, but rendered a proper name by custom-was to the inhabitants of the mountains on
the western coast of the Red Sea. It will be observed that a range of mountains runs parallel to the coast; and the territory of the proper Troglodytes Seeing to have consisted of these mountains and the strip of lowland between them and the sea, from Berenice (which Pliny calls a city of the Troglodytæ) nearly down to the strait of Babel-mandel. These mountains are still inhabited by a people (the Bisharein) whose character and habits, as described by Burckhardt, correspond in a remarkable degree to those of the Troglodytæ, from whom they are probably descended. In this very territory, on the shore of the Red Sea, Pliny places a city called Sucha, which is nothing more than the singular form of the word Sukkiim, and is no doubt the same, the native name of which Bruce gives as Suakem. The Troglodytes had towns on the lowlands, and the truth of the matter seems to be, that they originally lived exclusively in the caverns of the mountains; and when they afterwards built towns on the plain, continued, as a matter of convenience, to resort to their mountains at particular seasons of the year.
The usages of the Troglodytes have been indicated by Herodotus, Agatharchides, Strabo, Diodorus, and Pliny, from whose accounts they appear to have been chiefly occupied in the rearing
of cattle, and had many habits in common with most Oriental pastoral tribes, as well as other rather remarkable usages (if correctly reported) by which they were pecilliarly distinguished. These, as not serving any illustrative purpose, we need not particularly mention ; but as they www appear as warriors against the Hebrews, it is well to mention, after Diodorus (lib. iii.), that they—or at least one tribe or division of them called the Megabereans—bore round shields made with the raw hides of oxen, and were armed with olubs bound with iron. The common weapons of the Troglodytes were, however, bows and spears. They began their unsets with throwing stones, and then plied the enemy with their arrows, with which they did great execution, being very expert marksmen. Bruce has a long theoretical account of the Ethiopian Troglodytes and the shepherds for he makes two nations of what the ancient authors describe as one. His account is very ingenious, and even justructive ; but not convincing. If however, with the ancient authorities, we consider the Troglodytes as shepherds and then apply to them some of the facts on which his theory is based, a further corroboration may be obtained of the identification we have assumed. He informs us that, in the ancient language of the country, Su or Suah meant “ shepherd” or “ shepherils," _hence the local names of Sucha, Suakem, and perhaps Suez. Here then, though Bruce does