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sicians, and down to comparatively modern times, as an essential part of medical education, principally with the view of determining, it seems, the proper or improper days for administering medicine. Sir Thomas Brown sums up the days excluded as unfit, by different ancient authorities, as making up nearly three quarters of the year, so that little more than a fourth of the year was left for the administration of medicine. Sir Thomas, himself a physician, objects to this, but observes, guardedly, that “a sober and regulated astrology,” in medicine, was not to be rejected or con. demned. If, even in Europe, the practice of medicine has not from any very remote date been divested of mystery and superstition, we may readily understand that in its early state, as now in the East, the little that was useful in it was buried under such a mass of absurd and idolatrous rites and observances, that the more instructed Jews regarded it with abhorrence, and considered it a most objectionable course to apply to a “physician.” Probably the customary course was to employ such common remedies as were popularly known; and in cases of difficulty to apply to the priests, who from their cognizance of diseases involving ceremonial uncleanness, probably accumulated such information as enabled them to give useful medical advice when required.
and went about throughout all the cities of 1 Jehoshaphat, succeediny Asa, reigneth well, and
Judah, and taught the people. prospereth. 7 He sendeth Levites with the princes
10 9 And the fear of the Lord 'fell upon to teach Judah. 10 His enemies being terrified all the kingdoms of the lands that were round by God, some of them bring him presents and about Judah, so that they made no war tribute. 12 His greatness, captains, and armies.
against Jehoshaphat. AND 'Jehoshaphat his son reigned in his 11 Also some of the Philistines brought stead, and strengthened himself against Jehoshaphat presents, and tribute silver ; Israel.
and the Arabians brought him flocks, seven 2 And he placed forces in all the fenced thousand and seven hundred rams, and cities of Judah, and set garrisons in the land seven thousand and seven hundred he of Judah, and in the cities of Ephraim, which goats. Asa his father had taken.
12 9 And Jehoshaphat waxed great ex3 And the LORD was with Jehoshaphat, ceedingly; and he built in Judah castles, because he walked in the first ways of his and cities of store. father David, and sought not unto Baalim ; 13 And he had much business in the
4 But sought to the LORD God of his cities of Judah: and the men of war, mighty father, and walked in his commandments, men of valour, were in Jerusalem. and not after the doings of Israel.
14 And these are the numbers of them 5 Therefore the LORD stablished the king- according to the house of their fathers: Of dom in his hand; and all Judah brought to Judah, the captains of thousands; Adnah Jehoshaphat presents; and he had riches the chief, and with him mighty men of vaand honour in abundance.
lour three hundred thousand. 6 And his heart 'was lifted
15 And next to him was Jehohanan the of the Lord: moreover he took away the captain, and with him two hundred and fourhigh places, and groves out of Judah.
score thousand. Also in the third year of his reign he 16 And next him was Amasiah the son sent to his princes, even to Ben-hail, and to of Zichri, who willingly offered himself unto Obadiah, and to Zechariah, and to Netha- the LORD; and with him two hundred thouneel, and to Michaiah, to teach in the cities sand mighty men of valour. of Judah.
17 And of Benjamin; Eliada a mighty 8 And with them he sent Levites, even man of valour, and with him armed men Shemaiah, and Nethaniah, and Zebadiah, with bow and shield two hundred thousand. and Asahel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehona- 18 And next him was Jehozabad, and than, and Adonijah, and Tobijah, and Tob with him an hundred and fourscore thousand adonijah, Levites; and with them Eli-shama ready prepared for the war. and Jehoram, priests.
19 These waited on the king, beside 9. And they taught in Judah, and had those whom the king put in the fenced cities the book of the law of the Lord with them, throughout all Judah. 11 Kings 15. 34, 3 That is, was encouraged.
in the ways
5 Or, palaces & Heb. at his hand. Verse 9. “And went about throughout all the cities of Judah, and instructed the people.”—This commission of five princes, two priests, and nine Levites, going about from city to city, with the book of the law, to instruct the people, forms one of the most interesting circumstances that we meet with in the history of any of the kings. Not only was the heart of Jehoshaphat “ lifted up in the ways of the Lord,” but he desired the hearts of his people to be lifted up in like manner. We read of another good king (Josiah), who caused the law to be read to the people assembled at Jerusalem (chap. xxxiv. 30); but we read of no other than Jehoshaphat who sent instruction to the homes of his people.
2 Heb. gade.
4 Heb. was.
: for the LORD shall deliver it into the per :
hand of the king 1 Jehoshaphat, joined in affinity with Ahab, is per- 12 And the messenger that went to call
suaded to go with him against Rumoth-gileud. Micaiah spake to him, saying, Behold, the 4 Ahab, seduced by false prophets, according to the word of Micaiah, is slain there.
words of the prophets declare good to the
king with one assent; let thy word thereNow Jehoshaphat had riches and honour fore, I pray thee, be like one of their's, and in abundance, and joined affinity with speak thou good. Ahab.
13 And Micaiah said, As the LORD liveth. 2 'And 'after certain years he went down even what my God saith, that will I spcak. to Ahab to Samaria. And Ahab killed 14 And when he was come to the king, sheep and oxen for him in abundance, and the king said unto him, Micaiah, shall we for the people that he had with him, and go to Ramoth-gilead to battle, or shall I persuaded him to go up with him to Ramoth- forbear? And he said, Go ye up, and prosgilead.
per, and they shall be delivered into your 3 nd Ahab king of Israel said unto Je-hand. hoshaphat king of Judah, Wilt thou go 15 And the king said to him, How man with me to Ramoth-gilead? And he an- times shall I adjure thee that thou say noswered him, I am as thou art, and my peo- thing but the truth to me in the name of ple as thy people ; and we will be with thee the LORD? in the war.
16 Then he said, I did see all Israel 4 9 And Jehoshaphat said unto the king scattered upon the mountains, as sheep that of Israel
, Enquire, I pray thee, at the word have no shepherd : and the Lord said, These of the LORD to day.
have no master; let them return therefore 5 Therefore the king of Israel gathered every man to his house in peace. together of prophets four hundred men, 17 And the king of Israel said to Jehoand said unto them, Shall we go to Ramoth- shaphat, Did I not tell thee that he would gilead to battle, or shall I forbear?. And not prophesy good unto me, obut evil? they said, Go up; for God will deliver it 18 Again he said, Therefore hear the into the king's hand.
word of the LORD; I saw the Lord sitting 6 But Jehoshaphat said, Is there not here upon his throne, and all the host of heaven a prophet of the LORD besides, that we standing on his right hand and on his left
. might enquire of him?
19 And the LORD said, Who shall entice 9 And the king of Israel said unto Jeho- Ahab king of Israel, that he may go up and shaphat, There is yet one man, by whom we fall at Ramoth-gilead? And one spake sayinay enquire of the Lord: but I hate him; | ing after this manner, and another saying for he never prophesied good unto me, but after that manner. always evil: the same is Micaiah the son of 20 Then there came out a "spirit, and Imla. And Jehoshaphat said, Let not the stood before the Lord, and said, I will enking say so.
tice him. And the LORD said unto him, 8. And the king of Israel called for one Wherewith? of his officers, and said, "Fetch quickly Mi- 21 And he said, I will go out, and be a caiah the son of Imla.
lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets
. 9 And the king of Israel and Jchosha- And the LORD said, Thou shalt entice phat king of Judah sat either of them on him, and thou shalt also prevail : go
out, his throne, clothed in their robes, and they and do even so. sat in a 'void place at the entering in of the 22 Now therefore, behold, the Lord hath gate of Samaria; and all the prophets pro- put a lying spirit in the mouth of these thy phesied before them.
prophets, and the Lord hath spoken
evil 10 And Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah against thee. had made him horns of iron, and said, Thus 23 Then Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah saith the LORD; With these thou shalt push came near, and smote Micaiah
the Syria until "they be consumed.
cheek, and said, Which way went the Spirit 11 And all the prophets prophesied so, of the Lord from me to speak unto thee? saying, Go up to Ramoth-gilead, and
21 And Micaiah said, Behold, thou shalt 11 Kings 22. 2.
2 Teb, at the end of years. 1 Ileb, thou consume them.
3 Ileb. yet, or more. Heb, with one mouth,
4 Or, eunuchs. 9 Or, but for evil.
% Heb. hasten. 10 Job. 1. 6.
see on that day when thou shalt go "into with him, saying, Fight ye not with small or Han inner chamber to hide thyself.
great, save only with the king of Israel. 25 Then the king of Israel said, Take ye 31 And it came to pass, when the capMicaiah, and carry him back to Amon the tains of the chariots saw Jehoshaphat, that governor of the city, and to Joash the king's they said, It is the king of Israel. Thereson;
fore they compassed about him to fight: but 26 And say, Thus saith the king, Put Jehoshaphat cried out, and the Lord helped this fellow in the prison, and feed him with him; and God moved them to depart from bread of affliction and with water of afflic. | him. tion, until I return in peace.
32 For it came to pass, that, when the 27 And Micaiah said, If thou certainly captains of the chariots perceived that it return in peace, then hath not the LORD was not the king of Israel, they turned back spoken by me. And he said, Hearken, all again from pursuing him. ye people.
33 And a certain man drew a bow Hat a 28 So the king of Israel and Jehosha- venture, and smote the king of Israel "bephat the king of Judah went up to Ramoth-tween the joints of the harness: therefore gilead.
he said to his chariot man, Turn thine hand, 29 And the king of Israel said unto Je- that thou mayest carry me out of the host; hoshaphat, I will disguise myself, and will for I am "wounded.
. 34 And the battle increased that day: So the king of Israel disguised himself; and howbeit the king of Israel stayed himself up they went to the battle.
in his chariot against the Syrians until the 30 Now the king of Syria had command- even: and about the time of the sun going ed the captains of the chariots that were down he died. 11 01, from chamber to chamber.
13 Heb. from after him. 14 Heb. in his simplicity. 13 Heb. between the joints, and between the breastplate. Verse 5. “God will deliver it into the king's hand.”—The reader will not fail to note the remarkable ambiguity of this answer, which was well calculated to save the credit of these idolatrous priests, whatever might be the event." 'In the first place, it is not said what should be delivered into the king's hand-the word it, which seems in our version to refer to Ramoth-Gilead, not being in the original; nor is it said into what king's hand this unexpressed something should be delivered. Thus, although we should certainly understand them to mean, that the city, or the Syrian army, should be delivered into the hands of Ahab, and he so understood them, as it was doubtless their wish: yet'if the event proved adverse, it was open to them to say that they meant that the Hebrew host was to be delivered into the hands of the Syrian king. Zedekiah indeed was more explicit; but his brethren, when the event proved otherwise than they expected, were at liberty to disavow his individual statement, and adhere to the ambiguity of their more general answer. It was very probable that this double meaning was not unobserved by Jehoshaphat, and occasioned that misgiving which led him to inquire for “a prophet of the Lord besides.".
This response is calculated to remind one of the well-studied ambiguity exhibited in the answers of the heathen oracles of old. The one most in point is that which the oracle at Delphi gave to Cræsus, king of Lydia, who sent to inquire whether he might venture to make war upon the Persians. The answer was, that by crossing the river Halys to attack the Persians), Cræsus would overthrow a mighty power. This safe and prudent answer, the Lydian monarch interpreted according to his wish: he crossed the Halys, and was defeated and taken captive by Cyrus. The Persian, on learning this circumstance, allowed his prisoner to send ambassadors to Delphi, to reproach the oracle for deceiving him. The oracle answered, that Cræsus had himself only to blame: the oracle had only said, that if he attacked the Persians, a mighty empire would be overthrown: and
if then he had desired further information, he ought to havo inquired whether his own empire or that of Cyrus was intended. (Herodotus, Clio, 53, 91.) One would think that the priestesses of Delphi had taken a lesson from Ahab's priests of Baal.
10. " Made him horns of sron." _Horns being a general symbol of power, horns of iron were probably intended to symbolize the utmost energy of strength and power. As thus understood by the Jews, the act of Zedekiah must have seemed very expressive. it was intended, no doubt, to imitate an occasional practice, which we have found, and shall continue to find, among the true prophets, of imitating by symbolical action the purport of some of the messages with which they were entrusted.
12 Heb. a chamber in a chamber.
15 Heb. made sick.
hoshaphat, Shouldest thou help the ungodly, 1 Jehoshaphat, reproved by Jehu, visiteth his king and love them that hate the Lord ? theredom. 5 His instructions to the judges, 8 to the fore is wrath upon thee from before the priests and Levites.
LORD. And Jehoshaphat the king of Judah re- 3 Nevertheless there are 'good things turned to his house in peace to Jernsalem. found in thee, in that thou hast taken away
2 And Jehu the son of Hanani the seer the groves out of the land, and hast prepared went out to meet him, and said to king Je. I thine heart to seek God.
• Chap 17. 4,6.
4 And Jehoshaphat dwelt at Jerusalem : | troversies, when they returned to Jerusa. and he went out again through the people lem. from Beer-sheba to mount Ephraim, and 9 And he charged them, saying, Thus brought them back unto the LORD God of shall ye do in the fear of the LORD, faiththeir fathers.
fully, and with a perfect heart. 5 And he set judges in the land through- 10 And what cause soever shall come to out all the fenced cities of Judah, city by you of your brethren that dwell in their city,
cities, between blood and blood, between 6 And said to the judges, Take heed law and commandment, statutes and judg. what
ye do: for ye judge not for man, but ments, ye shall even warn them that they for the LORD, who is with you ‘in the judg- trespass not against the LORD, and so wrath ment.
come upon you, and upon your brethren: 7 Wherefore now let the fear of the LORD this do, and ye shall not trespass. be upon you; take heed and do it: for there 11 And, behold, Amariah the chief priest is no iniquity with the LORD our God, nor is over you in all matters of the LORD; and *respect of persons, nor taking of gifts. Zebadiah the son of Ishmael, the ruler of
8 Moreover in Jerusalem did Jehosha- the house of Judah, for all the king's matphat set of the Levites, and of the priests, ters : also the Levites shall be officers before and of the chief of the fathers of Israel, for you. 'Deal courageously, and the LORD the judgment of the LORD, and for con- shall be with the good.
4 Deut. 10. 17.
2 Heb. he returned and went out.
3 Heb. in the matter of judgment. Job 34. 19. Acts 10. 34. Rom. 2. 11. Ephes. 6. 9. Col. 3. 23. 1 Pet. 1. 17. 5 Heb. Tako courage and do.
Verse 5. “He set judges in the lanıl.”—David seems to have done this before; but this, as well as many other of David's improvements, must have been greatly disturbed by the division of the kingdom, although Jehoshaphat would appear to have been the first of the kings of Judah who perceived that the old regulation might be advantageously modified to adapt them to the altered circumstances of the kingdom. The proportion of Levites, also, to the rest of the population must have been far greater in the kingdom of Judah than it had been in the sole realm of David and Solomon, so that a larger number could be employed in the administration of justice. Some think, however, that David's judicial regulations had fallen into disuse, and that Jehoshaphat here revives them.
8. “For the judgment of the Lord.”—This high court seems a new institution, unless the idea were taken from the council which assisted Moses. We find no trace of the existence of such a court elsewhere in the historical books The Jews think they discover in it their Sanhedrim, or great council of seventy, which made so great a figure in their later history, and which, although apparently of late origin, they contend to have originated with the seventy elders appointed by Moses. But with respect to this claim, see the note on Num. xi. 16. The number of the members of the court established by Jehoshaphat, we are not told; and if its functions have considerable resemblance to those of the Sanhedrim, this may well have been because that celebrated body was organized with an express reference to whatever intimations for the constitution of such a court could be obtained from the sacred books. The duties of the present court, as well as those of the inferior local tribunals mentioned above, are pretty clearly defined in the impressive addresses which the king made to them. We see that the great court of Jerusalem consisted of priests and paternal chiefs, and that it had cognizance of all judicial matters, whether civil or criminal. It has been somewhat disputed what is intended by the matters of the Lord,” and “the king's matters,” in verse 11. Grotius seems to understand that this does not define something supplementary, but refers to what had been previously stated, merely to intimate that, in one class of cases, the high-priest was to be president, and in the other Zebadiah," the ruler of the house of Judah." Under his view, the "matters of the Lord” are not exclusively ecclesiastical matters, as some suppose, but those matters generally which were defined by the law of God, and were to be judged by that law; and the king's matters," not particularly matters of policy or state, but those matters which, not being defined by the law of God, were left to the judgment of the king. In this explanation we concur. It will be observed that there was a written law, to which no addition could be made; but then there must have arisen a great number of cases for which this law did not provide, and which were to be adjudicated by the law of custom, or according to the principles of equity. Of the former, the priests, as best acquainted with the law, were the proper judges ; while the latter naturally devolved on the paternal chiefs, but, when the monarchy was established, under the superior authority of the king, who himself was the supreme judge in this branch of law. We never read of any cause brought before the king for which the law of Moses had provided. Perhaps an appeal had lain to the high priest for the written law, and to the king for the law of custom or equity. It is essential throughout to keep in mind the distinction between these classes of judicial cases, It is the same in Mohammedan countries, where the book which the Moslems hold sacred is also these law-book, to which, of course, no addition can be made. Hence, as in Persia, the written and unwritten law become objects of separate jurisdiction, the respective powers and privileges of which are often matters of high dispute. The written law is administered by ecclesiastical persons, and the unwritten, by secular magistrates, with the king at their head. Referring to the frequently conflicting nature of these distinct judicatures, and the disputes as to the limits of their jurisaiction, it appears to us very probable that the design of Jehoshaphat, in the mixed character he gave to this high tribunal, was to inake the two branches of judicature coalesce so far as seemed necessary to facilitate the operation of the general system.
12 O our God, wilt thou not judge them? | Jehoshaphat in his fear proclaimeth a fast. 5 His for we have no might against this great
prayer. 14 The prophecy of Jahaziel. 20 Jeho- company that cometh against us; neither shaphat exhorteth the people, and setteth singers know we what to do : but our eyes are upon to praise the Lord. 22 The great overthrow of thee. the enemies. 26 The people, having blessed God at Berachah, return in triumph. 31 Jehosha
13 And all Judah stood before the LORD, phat's reign. 35 His convoy of ships, which he with their little ones, their wives, and their made with Ahaziah, according to the prophecy of children. Eliezer, unhappily perished.
14 | Then upon Jahaziel the son of ZeIt came to pass after this also, that the chariah, the son of Benaiah, the son of Jeiel, children of Moab, and the children of Am- the son of Mattaniah, a Levite of the sons mon, and with them other beside the Am- of Asaph, came the Spirit of the Lord in monites, came against Jehoshaphat to battle. the midst of the congregation;
2 Then there came some that told Jeho- 15 And he said, Hearken ye, all Judah, shaphat, saying, There cometh a great mul- and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem, and thou titude against thee from beyond the sea on king Jehoshaphat, Thus saith the LORD this side Syria; and, behold, they be in Ha- unto you, Be not afraid nor dismayed by zazon-tamar, which is En-gedi.
reason of this great multitude; for the battle 3 And Jehoshaphat feared, and set 'him- is not your's, but God's. self to seek the LORD, and proclaimed a fast
16 To morrow go ye
down against them: throughout all Judah.
behold, they come up by the 'cliff of Ziz; 4 And Judah gathered themselves to and ye shall find them at the end of the gether, to ask help of the LORD: even out 'brook, before the wilderness of Jeruel. of all the cities of Judah they came to seek 17 Ye shall not need to fight in this the LORD.
battle: set yourselves, stand ye still, and 5 And Jehoshaphat stood in the con- see the salvation of the LORD with
0 gregation of Judah and Jerusalem, in the Judah and Jerusalem : fear not, nor be dishouse of the LORD, before the new court, mayed; to morrow go out against them: for
6 And said, O LORD God of our fathers, the LORD will be with you. art not thou God in heaven? and rulest not 18 And Jehoshaphat bowed his head with thou over all the kingdoms of the heathen? his face to the ground: and all Judah and and in thine hand is there not power and the inhabitants of Jerusalem fell before the might, so that none is able to withstand LORD, worshipping the LORD. thee?
19 And the Levites, of the children of 7 Art not thou our God, 'who didst drive the Kohathites, and of the children of the out the inhabitants of this land before thy Korhites, stood up to praise the LORD God people Israel, and gavest it to the seed of of Israel with a loud voice on high. Abraham thy friend for ever?
20 q And they rose early in the morning, 8 And they dwelt therein, and have built and went forth into the wilderness of Tekoa : thee a sanctuary therein for thy name, say- and as they went forth, Jehoshaphat stood ing,
and said, Hear me, O Judah, and ye inha9 'If, when evil cometh upon us, as the bitants of Jerusalem ; 'Believe in the LORD sword, judgment, or pestilence, or famine, your God, so shall ye be established; bewe stand before this house, and in thy pre- lieve his prophets, so shall ye prosper. sence, (for thy name is in this house,) and 21 And when he had consulted with the cry unto thee in our affliction, then thou people, he appointed singers unto the LORD, wilt hear and help.
and that should praise the beauty of holi 10 And now, behold, the children of Am- ness, as they went out before the army, and mon and Moab and mount Seir, whom thou to say, Praise the LORD; for his mercy en*wouldest not let Israel invade, when they dureth for ever came out of the land of Egypt, but they 22 T 'And when they began ''to sing and turned from them, and destroyed them not; . to praise, the LORD set ambushments against 11 Behold, I
say, how they reward us, to the children of Ammon, Moab, and mount come to cast us out of thy possession, which Seir, which were come against Judah; and thou hast given us to inherit.
"they were smitten. 1 Heb. his fuce. % Heb. thou. 31 Kings 8. 37. Chap. 6. 28. 4 Deut. 2. 9. 5 Heb.ascent.
6 Or, valley 7 Isa. 7.9. 8 Heb. praisers. 9 Heb. And in the time that they, &c. 1° Hab. in singing and praise, 11 Or, they smote one another.