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herds—and as a sort of fortress, to afford them protection and to maintain the right of occupation or pasturage in these desolate regions. Not perhaps that any of them served all these purposes, but that the name tower or castle (57an, migdol) seems equally applied to them all. Indeed it may possibly be traced in Scripture, that some of them, which were originally mere Hock-towers, became in time fortresses, and at last fortified cities. This perhaps may explain the origin of several towns mentioned in Scripture by such names as Migdol and Mizpah—by which such towers are denoted. These towers appear generally to have been erected upon sites naturally or artificially elevated, like that round castle of which a cut has been given at 1 Chron. xxvii., and which we take to afford as probable a general illustration as can be furnished of the towers of safeguard or defence so often mentioned in Scripture, whether it mentions them as near towns or abroad in the desert, and perhaps also including towers in a city, or forming part of its immediate fortification.

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15. " Engines...to be on the towers, and upon the bulwarks, to shoot arrows and great stones.”_ It would be interesting to feel assured that these engines were really the invention,” in the proper sense of the word, of Uzziah's "cunning men.” The peculiar system of life among the Jews was so little adapted to the development of inventive genius in the mechanical arts, that this has been doubted; but it is certainly a remarkable circumstance that Pliny does assign a Syrian origin to such engines as now come under our notice. Other circumstances seem to strengthen the claim of Uzziah to the invention of such machines. There is not the least trace of their existence anywhere at an earlier period. Homer has not the slightest allusion to projectile engines, though he must have mentioned them if they had existed in his time ; nor indeed do the Greek writers profess that anything was known about them until shortly after the Old Testament history had closed. And although the eastern origin of such engines is admitted, at least by Pliny, it is probable that they did not originate in a more eastern country than Palestine ; for Diodorus, in speaking of the siege of Nineveh in the time of Sardanapalus (considerably posterior to Uzziah), and which lasted seven years, attributes its long duration to the want of battering rams, balistæ for throwing stones, and other military engines ; the use of which was known in his own time to have operated in bringing sieges to a far more speedy conclusion than had been usual in more ancient times. The engines of Uzziah were doubtless analogous to the catapultæ and the balistæ of the Greeks and Romans. There is some difficulty in distinguishing these, because, although they seem to have been properly distinct, one to cast arrows and javelins, and the other stones and other blunt missiles, they are often confounded under one name. The Greek writers describe both sorts under the name of catapultæ ; and the later Roman writers, under that of balistæ ; but the early Roman writers distinguish the catapultæ from the balistæ. There are several descriptions of these engines extant; and from these various representations have been drawn, and explanations given of their mode of action ; but the result has generally produced machines far too complex in their construction and manner of operation, or inadequate to the production of the required effect.

Perhaps the amount of our real knowledge as to the construction of the ancient projectile machines is only, that the three leading principles employed were those of the cross-bow, the recoil of twisted ropes, and the sling. It is probably the diversified applications of these principles, to machines differently constructed for adaptation to modified purposes, which has involved the subject in perplexity. Our cuts exhibit some applications of the two first principles mentioned. According to these, the acting power lies in two perpendicular coils of twisted rope, set apart from each other. Into these coils are inserted, horizontally, the ends of two strong levers, the remoter ends of which are connected by a rope or other strong ligature. Thrus is formed a gigantic broken cross-bow, which cannot be bent, by drawing the two arms towards each other, without increasing the tension of the ropes, so as to give a tremendous recoiling power, applicable, by means of the cord, to

Head of the Catapulta, showing the rope, levers, and springs of twisted the discharge of either a dart or a stone. Our cuts show

rope, by which the discharge was effected. these respective applications too clearly to render further explanation necessary. There was, however, the other principle

, of the sling, which we must not leave unnoticed. In this (the Onager) the power was still supplied by ropes ; that is

, two perpendicular beams set apart from each other were connected at the top by two very strong cables, between which was inserted a large tapering beam, rather crooked; and the small end

of this beam being drawn down towards the ground, had of course a most violent tendency to recoil upward. When a heavy pear-shaped bag of stones had been

MEE

hung at this end, the beam was released, and flew up, discharging its burden with immense force at the enemy. Our last cut represents what was called a scorpion, being a smaller and portable kind of catapulta, but with the bow entire, and therefore without any rope coil being employed. It was essentially the same as the cross-bow, being a small machine, or rest, which enabled a strong bow to be drawn with comparative ease, and to discharge the arrow with much greater force, and less erring aim, than would have been otherwise practicable. It seems that the same name was also borne by one of the machines for throwing

Scorpion, pebbles and small stones.

Authors are not even now agreed about the separate uses of the catapultæ and balistæ as distinguished from each other. The question is not of m'ch importance; but we see reason to prefer the conclusion that it was the former which threw the heavy javelins and arrows, and the latter the stones, although it is probable that the same engine was sometimes adapted to both uses. The balista, as might be expected, seems to have been the more cumbersome engine of the two, as its proportion in armies and fortified towns is always much inferior to that of the catapulta, when the two sorts of engines are discriminated. Livy says that the Romans took in Carthage 120 large, and more than 200 small catapultæ, and 33 large and 53 small balistæ. This is interesting, in connection with the present text, as showing the number of these engines required by a well-fortified city.

These agines varied greatly in size and power. The largest catapultæ discharged enormous javelins, or beams headed with iron, while the smaller gave immense power to lighter missiles; and the larger balistæ are reported to have cast enormous stones, which crushed whole houses where they fell, and, both together, beat down, swept away, and destroyed, with an effect which we cannot well understand, and which only the united voice of antiquity could induce the modern world to believe. These engines were used both in the attack and defence of fortified places. In Josephus there are abundant references to their uses and effects, as employed in the last fatal siege of Jerusalem by the Romans. The defenders themselves had three hundred engines for throwing darts, and forty for stones—which they had taken from the Romans, and which practice taught them how to use. Some of the Roman engines were, however, far more powerful, particularly those of the tenth legion. Some of these discharged a stone weighing a talent to the distance of two furlongs, and that with such tremendous force, that not only did it destroy the foremost men, but with unspent power rushed through their masses, sweeping away whole files of them in its course. The same author, in describing the siege of Jotapata, where himself commanded, says, the darts and stones were thrown by the Roman engines with such power, that numbers of people were destroyed at once. The force of the stones, in particular, was such, that they broke down the battlements and carried away the angles of the towers; and a10 body of men could be set so thickly, but that one of these stones would sweep a whole file of' it from one end to the other. He adds, that once a man who was stauding near him, had his head knocked off by one of these stones, throwa from a machine nearly three furlongs distant.

We have scarcely a better account of the operation of military engines than that given by Lucan ; which is the more valuable for our present purpose as describing their use for the defence rather than the assault of towns. “Nor hands alone the missile deaths supply,

Their bucklers in the warlike shell combine ;
From nervous cross-bows whistling arrows fly; Compact and close the brazen roof they bear,
The steely corslet and the bone they break,

And in just order to the town draw near:
Through multitudes their fatal journeys take; Safe they advance, while with unwearied pain
Nor wait the lingering Parcæ's slow delay,

The wrathful engines waste their stores in vain ; But wound, and to new slaughter wing their way. High o'er their heads the destined deaths are tost, Now by some vast machine a ponderous stone, And far beneath in vacant earth are lost; Pernicious, from the hostile wall is thrown;

Nor sudden could they chanye their erring aim, At once, on many, swift the shock descends,

Slow and unwieldy moves the cumbrous frame. And the crush'd carcases confounding blends. This seen, the Greeks their brawny arms employ, So rolls some falling rock, by age long worn,

And hurl a stony tempest from on high: Loose from its root by raging whirlwinds torn, The clattering shower the sounding fence assails, And thundering down the precipice is borne ; But vain, as when the stormy winter hails, O'er crashing woods the mass is seen to ride, Nor on the solid marble roof prevails : To grind its way, and plain the mountain's side. Till, tired at length, the warriors fall their shields; Gall'd with the shot from far, the legions join, And, spent with toil, the broken phalanx yields.”

Pharsalia, lib. iii. (Rows.) The lines we have put in italics denote, with the context, that it was a work of time and labour to alter the aim which had been given to one of these engines. The testudo, or tortoise, being a roof which the soldiers made by joining their shields over their heads, to protect themselves from the missiles thrown from the town against which they acted, is represented in a cut in vol. i. p. 610. Under this shelter the besiegers often carried on operations fatal to the town, and it appears to be alluded to in Job xl. 15 (margin), and Ezek. xxiii. 24.

16. "Went into the temple... to burn incense.”—In many ancient countries, and some modern, the kings by virtue of their office had a right to exercise sacerdotal functions; and it best explains Uzziah's conduct to suppose that he was stimulated by foreign example to aspire to the same privilege.

21. “ And dwelt in a several house."— The Jewish writers conclude that this house was outside the town, according to the law which excluded lepers from towns. We see from this that a leper was incapable of reigning, at least while he remained a leper. It does not appear that Uzziah was properly deposed, but only deprived of the exercise of the sovereign power, which was administered by his son, as regent, and probably in his father's name. It was probably the ceremonially unclean character of the disease which occasioned this regulation.

CHAPTER XXVII.

Ammonites, and prevailed against them. 1 Jotham reigning well prospereth. He subdueth And the children of Ammon gave him the the Ammonites. 7 His reign. 9 Ahaz succeedeth same year an hundred talents of silver, and him.

ten thousand measures of wheat, and ten Jotham 'was twenty and five years old when thousand of barley. So much did the chilhe began to reign, and he reigned sixteen dren of Ammon pay unto him, both the scyears in Jerusalem. His mother's name also cond year, and the third. was Jerushah, the daughter of Zadok. 6 So Jotham became mighty, because he

2 And he did that which was right in the prepared his ways before the LORD his sight of the LORD, according to all that his God. father Uzziah did: howbeit he entered not 7 Now the rest of the acts of Jotham, into the temple of the LORD. And the and all his wars, and his ways, lo, they are people did yet corruptly.

written in the book of the kings of Israel 3 He built the high gate of the house of and Judah. the LORD, and on the wall of Ophel he 8 He was five and twenty years old when built much.

he began to reign, and reigned sixteen years 4 Moreover he built cities in the moun- in Jerusalem. tains of Judah, and in the forests he built 9 | And Jotham slept with his fathers, castles and towers.

and they buried him in the city of David: 5 He fought also with the king of the and Ahaz his son reigned in his stead. 12 Kiugs 15, 32, &c. ? Or, the tower.

* Or, established.

3 Heb. this.

Baalim.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

in one day, which were all 'valiant men; be1 Ahaz reigning very wickedly is greatly afflicted their fathers.

cause they had forsaken the LORD God of by the Syrians. 6 Judah being captivated by the prophet. 16 Ahaz sending for aid to Assyria is slew Maaseiah the king's son, and Azrikam not helped thereby. 22 In his distress he groweth the governor of the house, and Elkanah that more idolatrous. 26 He dying, Hezekiah suc

was next to the king. ceedeth him.

8 And the children of Israel carried

away Avaz 'was twenty years old when he began captive of their brethren two hundred thouto reign, and he reigned sixteen years in sand, women, sons, and daughters, and took Jerusalem: but he did not that which was also away much spoil from them, and brought right in the sight of the Lord, like David the spoil to Samaria. his father:

9 But a prophet of the LORD was there, 2 For he walked in the ways of the kings whose name was Oded : and he went out of Israel, and made also molten images for before the host that came to Samaria, and

said unto them, Behold, because the LORD 3 Moreover he 'burnt incence in the valley God of your fathers was wroth with Judah, of the son of Hinnom, and burnt "his chil. he hath delivered them into your hand, ana dren in the fire, after the abominations of ye have slain them in a rage that reacheth the heathen whom the LORD had cast out

up unto heaven. before the children of Israel.

10 And now ye purpose to keep under 4 He sacrificed also and burnt incense in the children of Judah and Jerusalem for the high places, and on the hills, and under bondmen and bondwomen unto you: but are every green tree,

there not with
you, even with

you,

sins 5 Wherefore the Lord his God delivered against the LORD your God? him into the hand of the king of Syria; and 11 Now hear me therefore, and deliver they smote him, and carried away a great the captives again, which ye have taken multitude of them captives, and brought captive of your brethren : for the fierce them to *Damascus. And he was also deli- wrath of the LORD is upon you. vered into the hand of the king of Israel, 12 Then certain of the heads of the chilwho smote him with a great slaughter. dren of Ephraim, Azariah the son of Jo

6. For Pekah the son of Remaliah slew hanan, Berechiah the son of Meshillemoth, in Judah an hundred and twenty thousand I and Jehizkiah the son of Shallum, and 19 Kings 16.2. 2 Or, fered sacrifice.

: Heb. sons of valvur.

6 Heb. the second to the king.

3 Levit, 18. 21.

4 lleb. Darmesek.

Amasa the son of Hadlai, stood up against 20 And Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria them that came from the war,

came unto him, and distressed him, but 13 And said unto them, Ye shall not strengthened him not. bring in the captives hither : for whereas 21 For Ahaz took away a portion out of we have offended against the Lord already, the house of the LORD, and out of the house ye intend to add more to our sins and to of the king, and of the princes, and gave it our trespass: for our trespass is great, and unto the king of Assyria: but he helped there is fierce wrath against Israel.

him not. 14 So the armed men left the captives 22 And in the time of his distress did and the spoil before the princes and all the he trespass yet more against the LORD: this congregation.

is that king Ahaz. 15 And the men which were expressed 23 For he sacrificed unto the gods of by name rose up, and took the captives, and 'Damascus, which smote him: and he said, with the spoil clothed all that were naked Because the gods of the kings of Syria help among them, and arrayed them, and shod them, therefore will I sacrifice to them, that them, and gave them to eat and to drink, they may help me. But they were the ruin and anointed them, and carried all the fee- of him, and of all Israel. ble of them upon asses, and brought them 24 And Ahaz gathered together the vesto Jericho, "the city of palm trees, to their sels of the house of God, and

cut in pieces brethren: then they returned to Samaria. the vessels of the house of God, and shut

16 ? At that time did king Ahaz send up the doors of the house of the LORD, and unto the kings of Assyria to help him. he made him altars in every corner of Jeru

17 For again the Edomites had come salem. and smitten Judah, and carried away 'cap- 25 And in every several city of Judah he tives.

made high places to burn incense unto 18 The Philistines also had invaded the other gods, and provoked to anger the LORD cities of the low country, and of the south God of his fathers. of Judah, and had taken Beth-shemesh, and 26 | Now the rest of his acts and of all Ajalon, and Gederoth, and Shocho with the his ways, first and last, behold, they are villages thereof, and Timnah with the vilwritten in the book of the kings of Judah lages thereof, Gimzo also and the villages and Israel. thereof: and they dwelt there.

27 And Ahaz slept with his fathers, and 19 For the Lord brought Judah low be they buried him in the city, even in Jerusacause of Ahaz king of Israel ; for he made lem: but they brought him not into the Judah naked, and transgressed sore against sepulchres of the kings of Israel : and Hethe Lord.

zekiah his son reigned in his stead. 8 Heb. a captivity.

19 Or, lo offer. Verse 18. “ Gederoth.”—This is probably the same as the Gederah of Josh. xv. 35, in the same group of towns with Socoh. If so, it is perhaps the same that Jerome calls Gaddera, and which he describes as a village in the province of Ælia (Jerusalem) and near the terebinth tree.”

" Shocho.”—Or “Socuh,” as in Josh. xv. 35, where it is counted among the towns of Judah " in the valley.”. Jeroine says there were two little villages of this name in his time, one in the mountain and the other in the plain, in the ninth mile from Eleutheropolis on the road to Ælia or Jerusalem.-Gimzo is not elsewhere mentioned in Scripture, and uothing is known of it. The other towns have been already noticed.

7 Deut. 34.3.

9 Heb, Darmesek.

CHAPTER XXIX.

2 And he did that which was right in the 1 Hezekiah's good reign. 3 He restoreth religion. sight of the Lord, according to all that Da5 He exhorteth the Levites. 12 They sanctify

vid his father had done. themselves, and cleunse the house of God. 20 3 9 He in the first year of his reign, in Hezekiah offereth solemn sacrifices, wherein the

the first month, opened the doors of the Levites were more forward than the priests.

house of the Lord, and repaired them. HEZEKIAH 'began to reign when he was five 4 And he brought in the priests and the and twenty years old, and he reigned nine Levites, and gathered them together into and twenty years in Jerusalem. And his the east street, mother's name was Abijah, the daughter of 5 And said unto them, Hear me, ye LeZechariah.

vites, sanctify now yourselves, and sanctify

12 Kings 18. 1.

the house of the LORD God of your fathers, | the LORD: so they sanctified the house of and carry forth the filthiness out of the holy the Lord in eight days; and in the sixplace.

teenth day of the first month they made an 6 For our fathers have trespassed, and end. done that which was evil in the

eyes

of the 18 Then they went in to Hezekiah tho LORD our God, and have forsaken him, and king, and said, We have cleansed all the have turned away their faces from the habi- house of the LORD, and the altar of burnt tation of the LORD, and 'turned their backs. offering, with all the vessels thereof, and the

7 Also they have shut up the doors of the shewbread table, with all the vessels thereof. porch, and put out the lamps, and have not 19 Moreover all the vessels, which king burnt incense nor offered burned offerings Ahaz in his reign did cast away in his transin the holy place unto the God of Israel. gression, have we prepared and sanctified,

8 Wherefore the wrath of the LORD was and, behold, they are before the altar of the upon Judah and Jerusalem, and he hath LORD. delivered them to "trouble, to astonishment, 20 q Then Hezekiah the king rose early, and to hissing, as ye see with your eyes. and gathered the rulers of the city, and

9 For, lo, our fathers have fallen by the went up to the house of the LORD. sword, and our sons and our daughters and 21 And they brought seven bullocks, and our wives are in captivity for this.

seven rams, and seven lambs, and seven he 10 Now it is in mine heart to make a goats, for a øsin offering for the kingdom, covenant with the Lord God of Israel, that and for the sanctuary, and for Judah. And his fierce wrath

may
turn
away
from us.

he commanded the priests the sons of Aaron 11 My sons, be not now negligent: for to offer them on the altar of the Lord. the Lord hath 'chosen you to stand before 22 So they killed the bullocks, and the him, to serve him, and that ye should minis- priests received the blood, and 'sprinkled it ter unto him, and burn incense.

on the altar: likewise, when they had killed 12 | Then the Levites arose, Mahath the rams, they sprinkled the blood upon the the son of Amasai, and Joel the son of Aza- altar : they killed also the lambs, and they riah, of the sons of the Kohathites: and of sprinkled the blood upon the altar. the sons of Merari, Kish the son of Abdi, 23 And they brought "forth the he goats and Azariah the son of Jehalelel : and of the for the sin offering before the king and the Gershonites; Joah the son of Zimmah, and congregation: and they laid their "hands Eden the son of Joah :

upon

them : 13 And of the sons of Elizaphan; Shimri, 24 And the priests killed them, and they and Jeiel: and of the sons of Asaph; Ze- made reconciliation with their blood upon chariah, and Mattaniah:

the altar, to make an atonement for all 14 And of the sons of Heman; Jehiel, Israel: for the king commanded that the and Shimei: and of the sons of Jeduthun; burnt offering and the sin offering should be Shemaiah, and Uzziel.

made for all Israel. 15 And they gathered their brethren, 25 12 And he set the Levites in the house and sanctified themselves, and came, accord- of the LORD with cymbals, with psalteries, ing to the commandment of the king, 'by and with harps, according to the commandthe words of the LORD, to cleanse the house ment of David, and of Gad the king's seer, of the LORD.

and Nathan the prophet: for so was the com16 And the priests went into the inner mandment of the Lord '*by his prophets. part of the house of the LORD, to cleanse it, 26 And the Levites stood with the inand brought out all the uncleanness that struments of David, and the priests with the they found in the temple of the Lord into | trumpets. the court of the house of the LORD. And 27 And Hezekiah commanded to offer the Levites took it, to carry it out abroad the burnt offering upon the altar. And into the brook Kidron.

15when the burnt offering began, the song 17 Now they began on the first day of of the LORD began also with the trumpets, the first month to sanctify, and on the eighth i and with the instruments ordained by Daday of the month came they to the porch of vid king of Israel. ? Heb. given the neck.

Or, offer sacrifice. 70r, in the business of the LORD. 12 Chron. 16. 4, and 25. 6. ** Heb. by the hand of the LORD. 1+ Heb, by the hand of. 18 Heb, bands of instruments.

Heb. commotion. 4 Or, be not now deceived. 5 Num. 8. 14; and 18.2.6.
8 Lerit. 4. 14.
9 Levit, 8, 14, 15. Heb. 9. 21.

10 Ueb. near.

11 Levit. 4. 15. 15 Heb, in the time,

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