« EdellinenJatka »
7. “ Harilah.”—This certainly was not the district mentioned in the description of the garden of Eden as “the land of Havilah.” Some indeed suppose so: and believing, with us, that the Havilah near Eden was near the head of the Persian Gulf
, think that Saul traversed all the wide distance between, in pursuit of the Amalekites. This is absolutely incredible, and is contrary to the text, which makes the pursuit be towards Egypt, whereas this would be exactly from Egypt
. The text evidently places this Havilah near the south of Judah. There are two explanations: one is, that the whule breadth of country forming the north of Arabia, from the Persian Gulf to the south frontiers of Palestine, was called Havilah, and that the statement in Gen. ii. refers to the eastern part of this land, and the present account to the Festern: or else, that there was more than one Havilah,--and this is exceedingly probable, when we recollect that the name is taken from Havilah the son of Cush, and who may, like his father, have given name to different regions in which his descendants successively settled. Josephus very properly describes the Amalekites of this history, as occupying the country between Pelusium in Egypt and the Red Sea.
9. “ Saul and the people spared Agag.”—Josephus says that they were won upon to spare him by the beauty and tallDess of his person. "It is remarkable, by the by, that the Arabians make the Amalekites to have been giants; and they believe that Goliath himself was an Amalekite.
12. “Carmel."— This must not be confounded with Mount Carmel. It is mentioned in Josh. xv. 55, among the southern cities of Judah, and its name occurs between those of Maon and Ziph. Nabal, who resided at Maon, had his possessions in Carmel (1 Sam. xxv. 2). The place is probably the same as the “Carmelia,” which Jerome describes as leing in his time a village, ten miles east of Hebron, where there was then a Roman garrison.
" He set him up a place.”—This undoubtedly means that he set up a trophy or monument of his victory over the Amalekites. This we learn from 2 Sam. xviii. 18, where we read that Absalom set up a pillar and called it the mosument (T', the same word here rendered "place") of Absalom. It was usual in ancient times to erect some monur. cat or other, in commemoration of a victory generally on the spot where it had been obtained. This was probably the design of Saul's monument. It is difficult to say what it was. Perhaps it was a pillar or obelisk: Jerome makes it a triumphal arch; and he says it was usual to make an arch of myrtle, palm, and olive branches on such occasions. The trophies
, however, with which ancient authors make us best acquainted, were originally a heap of the arms and spoils taken from the enemy. Such spoils were in later times hung in an orderly manner upon a column or decayed tree; ar in the end representations of such trophies, in brass or marble, were substituted. They were consecrated to some diricity, with a suitable inscription ; and the sanctity with which they were invested, prevented people from disturbing e throwing them down; but when they fell, or were destroyed by accident or time, they were never restored, under the impression that ancient enmities ought not to be perpetuated. Virgil has fully described the process of forming the Düst usual trophy—that of arms fixed on a denuded or decayed tree. "The pious chief, whom double cares attend
Was hung on high, and glitter'd from afar, For his unbury'd soldiers, and his friend,
A trophy sacred to the god of war. Yet first to Heav'n perform'd a victor’s vows :
Above his arms, fix'd on
the leafless wood, He bar'd an ancient oak of all her boughs ;
Appear’d his plumy crest, besmeard with blood.' Then on a rising ground the trunk he plac'd,
His brazen buckler on the left was seen: Which with the spoils of his dead foe he grac'd. Truncheons of shiver'd lances hung between ; The coat of arms by proud Mezentius worn,
And on the right was placed his cors'let bor d; Now on a naked snag in triumph borne,
And to the neck was tied his unavailing sword.”
Æntüs, B. xi. DxYDEN. The word 7, yad, applied to this monument and to Absalom's pillar, literally means "a hand;" and is so transisted in the Septuagint; whence it has been supposed, by some, that the trophy in question was surmounted by the figure of a hand, which is, in Scripture, the general emblem of strength and power. In the note to Num. ii. 2, we have neationed instances of standards surmounted by the figure of a hand; and the cut of Roman standards exhibits two of this description. To which we may add, that in the mosques of Persia, generally, the domes (for they have seldom minarets like the Turks) are surmounted by the figure of an outspread hand, in the place where the Turks would put 3 crescent, and we a cross or a vane.
32. “ Agag came unto him delicately.”—“Cheerfully.” would be a more intelligible rendering of the original (natya madanotk) than “delicately.” It seems that Agag thought he had nothing further to apprehend, now that he had ebtained the protection of the king.
33. “ Samuel hewed Agag m pieces."— It is not clear whether he did it himself or commanded others to do it. The latter is certainly rendered possible by the frequent practice of describing a great personage as doing that which he Commanded to be done. But, on the other hand, there is nothing in the act incompatible with Oriental usage, or with the position which Samuel occupied. Samuel was not a priest, but only a Levite ; and the Levites seem to have held themselves bound to act for the Lord with their swords when required, as in the instance of the slaughter with which they punished their brethren for their sin in worshipping the golden calf; and, on a later occasion, even a priest-Phinebas, afterwards high-priest,-in the fervour of his zeal, took a javelin and slew therewith Zimri and Cosbi, as recorded a Num. xxv. It is not, and never was in the East, unusual for persons in power to slay offenders with their own hands
. In the preceding book, we have seen Gideon himself destroying the two captive kings of Midian ; and in Ludus ration of more modern usage there is an anecdote in Chardin, which illustrates not only this point, but the hewing ja pieces, and also the idea concerning the connecting bond formed by the eating of another's salt, to which we have had previous occasions to refer. ne circumstance occurred in Persia when Chardin was there. The king, “ rising in Frath against an officer who had attempted to deceive him, drew his sabre, fell upon him, and hewed him to pieces, at the feet of the grand vizier, who was standing (and whose favour the poor wretch courted by this deception), and bioking fixedly upon him, and the other great lords who stood on each side of him, he said with a tone
of indignation, I have then such ungrateful servants and traitors as these to eat my salt. Look on this sword, it shall cut off all these perfidious heads.'" Hewing in pieces is still sometimes resorted to as an arbitrary punishment in different estern countries : but we believe it is no where sanctioned by law, which indeed seldom directs the mode by which death shall be indicted. Bruce notices instances of this form of death in Abyssinia ; and it is mentioned among the atrocities of Djezzar, the notorious pasha of Acre, that he caused fifty or sixty officers of his seraglio, whom he suspected & fraud, to be hewed in pieces, each by the sword of two janissaries. It was not a Hebrew form of punishment, but appears to have been resorted to in the present instance in order to inflict on Agag the same kind of death which he had been accustomed to inflict on others: for the
“as," with which Samuel's answer commences, implies analogy of action—that is, that his (Agags) mother should be made childless, in the same manner as he had made women childless.
and come with me to the sacrifice. And he 1 Samuel sent by God, under pretence of a sacrifice, sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called
comcth to Beih-lehem. 6 His human judgment them to the sacrifice. is reproved. 11 He anointeth David. 15 Saul
6 | And it came to pass, when they were sendeth for David to quiet his evil spirit.
come, that he looked on Eliab, and said, And the LORD said unto Samuel, How long Surely the Lord's anointed is before him. wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have re- 7 But the LORD said unto Samuel, Look jected him from reigning over Israel ? fill not on his countenance, or on the height of thine horn with oil, and go, I will send thee his stature; because I have refused him: to Jesse the Beth-lehemite: for I have pro- for the LORD seeth not as man seeth; for vided me a king among his sons.
man looketh on the Soutward appearance, 2 And Samuel said, How can I go? if but the Lord looketh on the heart. Saul hear it, he will kill me. And the LORD 8 Then Jesse called Abinadab, and made said, Take an heifer 'with thee, and say, I him pass before Samuel. And he said, am come to sacrifice to the LORD.
Neither hath the LORD chosen this. 3 And call Jesse to the sacrifice, and I 9 Then Jesse made Shammah to pass by. will shew thee what thou shalt do: and thou And he said, Neither hath the LORD chosen shalt anoint unto me him whom I name unto this. thee.
10 Again, Jesse made seven of his sons 4 And Samuel did that which the LORD to pass before Samuel.
to pass before Samuel. And Samuel said spake, and came to Beth-lehem. And the unto Jesse, The Lord hath not chosen elders of the town trembled at his 'coming, these. and said, Comest thou peaceably?
11 And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here 5 And he said, Peaceably: I am come to all thy children? And he said, There resacrifice unto the LORD: sanctify yourselves, maineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto 17 And Saul said unto his servants, ProJesse. 'Send and fetch him: for we will not vide me vow a man that can play well, and sit down till he come hither.
8 Heb. eyes.
* 1 Chron. 28. 9. Psal 7.9. Jer. 11. 20, and 17. 10, and 20.12.
1 Heb, in thine hand.
bring him to me 12 And he sent, and brought him in. 18 Then auswered one of the servants, Now he was ruddy, and withal' of a beauti- and said, Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse ful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the Beth-lehemite, that is cunning in playthe LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this ing, and a mighty vaiiant man, and a man is he.
of war, and prudent in 'matters, and a 13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and comely person, and the LORD is with him. anointed him in the midst of his brethren: 19 | Wherefore Saul sent messengers and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David unto Jesse, and said, Send me David thy from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, son, which is with the sheep. and went to Ramah.
20 And Jesse took an ass laden with 14 But the Spirit of the LORD departed bread, and a bottle of wine, and a kid, and from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD sent them by David his son unto Saul. troubled him.
21 And David came to Saul, and stood 15 And Saul's servants said unto him, before him : and he loved him greatly; and Behold now, an evil spirit from God trou- he became his armourbearer. bleth thee.
22 And Saul sent to Jesse, saying, Let 16 Let our lord now command thy ser- David, I pray thee, stand before me; for he rants, which are before thee, to seek out a hath found favour in my sight. man, who is a cunning player on an harp: 23 And it came to pass, when the evil and it shall come to pass, when the evil spirit from God was upon Saul, that David spirit from God is upon thee, that he shall took an harp, and played with his hand : so play with his hand, and thou shalt be Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the well
evil spirit departed from him. 52 Sam. 7. & Psal. 78.70. 6 Heb, round. 7 Heb. fair of eyes.
8 Or, terrified. 9 Or, speech. Verse 12. ^ He was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to.”—Dr. Boothroyd's version is Edoubtedly more accurate here: “He was ruddy, with beautiful eyes, and a goodly appearance.” Calmet, with whom D. Hales concurs, makes David to have been fifteen years of age at this time. Josephus, indeed, says that he was but ten ; but this is perhaps too young for him to have charge of the sheep; and twenty-five, the age given by Lightfoot, is too old for the context.
15. " And Saul's servants said unto him," &c.-The remainder of this chapter is thought to be an anticipation of the chronological order of the history. The reader is certainly much perplexed to make out the real order of the transactions here recorded ; and the difficulties would in a great degree be obviated by fixing the chronological place of this passage between verses 9 and 10 of chap. xviii. The order of the history would then, as settled by Bishop Warburton, and followed by Hales, stand thus :-David is anointed by Samuel; he carries provisions to his brethren; he fights 2nd overcomes Goliath; is received in the king's court; contracts a friendship with Jonathan ; incurs Saul's jealousy; retires home to his father; is, after some time, sent for to soothe Saul's melancholy with his harp; proves successful, and is made his armourbearer, and again excites the jealousy of Saul, who endeavours to smite him with his javelin.
“ An evil spirit from God troubleth thee.”—There are different opinions as to this disease of Saul. Some interpreters conclude that his case was one of real possession by an evil spirit, and was, in kind, analogous to that of the demoniacs 80 often mentioned in the New Testament. But the large majority of modern interpreters think, that the king's complaint was a real madness, of the atrabilarious or melancholy kind, exhibited in fits, recurring at uncertain Etervals, and which the soothing strains of music were well calculated io allay, but could have been of no avail had the disease been other than natural. Under this view, of course, the evil spirit is construed to mean a malign or diseased tone of mind, said to be “ from the Lord,” inasmuch as it was made instrumental in effecting the purposes of the Darine Providence. A similar use of the expression to that which this construction infers is found in the history of Gideon's guilty son, where it is said that “ the Lord sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem” Judges ir. 23), which evil spirit is agreed to have been a spirit of dissension and strife, which was made instrumental in accomplishing the righteous judgment of God, on those whose deep crimes had provoked his indignation.
armies to battle, and were gathered togei The armies of the Israelites and Philistines being ther at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah, ready to batile, 4 Goliath cometh proudly forth to and
pitched between Shochoh and Azekah, challenge a combat. 12 David, sent by his father in 'Ephes-dammim. to visit his brethren, tuketh the challenge. Elab chideth him.
2 And Saul and the men of Israel were 30 He is brought to Saul. 32. He sheveth the reason of his confidence. 38 gathered together, and pitched by the valley Without armour, armed by faith, he slayeth the of Elah, and 'set the battle in array against giant. 55 Saul taketh notice of David.
the Philistines. Now the Philistines gathered together their 3 And the Philistines stood on a moun
* Or, the coast of Dammim. : Heb. ranged the battle.
and a span.
tain on the one side, and Israel stood on a | parched corn, and these ten loaves, and run mountain on the other side: and there was to the camp to thy brethren; a valley between them.
these ten cheeses unto the 4 And there went out a champion out 'captain of their thousand, and look how thy of the camp. of the Philistines, named Go- brethren fare, and take their pledge. liath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits 19 Now Saul, and they, and all the men
of Israel, were in the valley of Elah, fighting 5 And he had an helmet of brass upon with the Philistines. his head, and he was 'armed with a coat of 20 s And David rose up early in the mail; and the weight of the coat was five morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, thousand shekels of brass.
and took, and went, as Jesse had command6 And he had greaves of brass upon his ed him; and he came to the ®trench, as the legs, and a 'target of brass between his host was going forth to the 'fight, and shoulders.
shouted for the battle. 7 And the staff of his spear was like a
21 For Israel and the Philistines had put weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed the battle in array, army against army: six hundred shekels of iron : and one bear- 22 And David left ichis carriage in the ing a shield went before him.
hand of the keeper of the carriage, and ran 8 And he stood and cried unto the armies into the army, and came and saluted his of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye brethren. come out to set
23 And as he talked with them, behold, not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? | there came up the champion, the Philistine choose you a man for you,
and let him come of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies down to me.
of the Philistines, and spake according to the 9 If he be able to fight with me, and to same words: and David heard them. kill me, then will we be your servants: but 24 And all the men of Israel, when they if I prevail against him. and kill him, then saw the man, fled from him, and were sore shall
be our servants, and serve us. afraid 10 And the Philistine said, I defy the 25 And the men of Israel said, Have armies of Israel this day; give me a man,
seen this man that is come up ? surely to that we may fight together.
defy Israel is he come up: and it shall be, 11 When Saul and all Israel heard those that the man who killeth him, the king will words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, enrich him with great riches, and will give and greatly afraid.
him his daughter, and make his father's 12 , Now David was “the son of that house free in Israel. Ephrathite of Beth-lehem-judah, whose 26 And David spake to the men that name was Jesse; and he had eight sons: stood by him, saying, What shall be done and the man went among men for an old to the man that killeth this Philistine, and man in the days of Saul.
taketh away the reproach from Israel? for 13 And the three eldest sons of Jesse who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he went and followed Saul to the battle : and should defy the armies of the living God? the names of his three sons that went to the 27 And the people answered him after battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next this manner, saying, So shall it be done to unto him Abinadab, and the third Sham- the man that killeth him. mah.
28 And Eliab his eldest brother heard 14 And David was the youngest: and when he spake unto the men; and Eliab's the three eldest followed Saul.
anger was kindled against David, and he 15 But David went and returned from said, Why camest thou down hither? and Saul to feed his father's sheep at Beth- with whom hast thou left those few sheep in lehem.
the wilderness? I know thy pride, and the 16 And the Philistine drew near morning naughtiness of thine heart; for thou art and evening, and presented himself forty come down that thou mightest see the days.
battle. 17 And Jesse said unto David his son, 29 And David said, What have I now Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this done? Is there not a cause ? * Or, gorget.
Heb. cheeses of milk. 7 Heb. captain of a thousand. 8 Or, place of the carriage. Or, battle-array, or place of fight. 10 Heb, the essets from upon him. 11 Heb.asked his brethren of peace.
19 Heb. from his face.
# Hob. clothed.
– Chap 16. 1.
13 jush. 15. 16.
30 | And he turned from him toward | Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with another, and spake after the same "manner : staves ? And the Philistine cursed David by and the people answered him again after the his gods. former manner.
44 And the Philistine said to David, 31 And when the words were heard which come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto David spake, they rehearsed them before the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the Saul : and he 15sent for him.
field. 32 ! And David said to Saul, Let no 45 Then said David to the Philistine, man's heart fail because of him; thy servant Thou comest to me with a sword, and with will go and fight with this Philistine. a spear, and with a shield: but I come to
33 And Saul said to David, Thou art not thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the able to go against this Philistine to fight with God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast him ; for thou art but a youth, and he a defied. man of war from his youth.
46 This day will the LORD deliver thee 34 And David said unto Saul, Thy ser- into mine hand; and I will smite thee, and rant kept his father's sheep, and there came take thine head from thee; and I will give a lion, and a bear, and took a "lamb out of the carcases of the host of the Philistines the flock:
this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the 35 And I went out after him, and smote wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth him, and delivered it out of his mouth: and may know that there is a God in Israel. when he arose against me, I caught him by 47 And all this assembly shall know that his beard, and smote him, and slew him. the LORD saveth not with sword and spear:
36 Thy servant slew both the lion and for the battle is the Lord's, and he will give the bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine you into our hands. shall be as one of them, seeing he hath de- 48 And it came to pass, when the Phified the armies of the living God.
arose, and came and drew nigh to 37 David said moreover, The Lord that meet David, that David hasted, and ran delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and toward the army to meet the Philistine. out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver 49 And David put his hand in his bag, me out of the hand of this Philistine. And and took thence a stone, and slang it, and Saul said unto David, Go, and the LORD besinote the Philistine in his forehead, that with thee.
the stone sunk into his forehead; and he 38 | And Saul 'armed David with his fell upon his face to the earth. armour, and he put an helmet of brass upon 50 So ?David prevailed over the Philishis head; also he armed him with a coat of tine with a sling and with a stone, and mail.
smote the Philistine, and slew him ; but 39 And David girded his sword upon his there was no sword in the hand of David. armour, and he assayed to go; for he had 51 Therefore David ran, and stood upon not proved it. And David said unto Saul, the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew I cannot go with these ; for I have not proved it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, them. And David put them off him. and cut off his head therewith. And when
40 And he took his staff in his hand, and the Philistines saw their champion was dead, chose him five smooth stones out of the they fled. abrook, and put them in a shepherd's "bag 52 And the men of Israel and of Judah which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philiswas in his hand: and he drew near to the tines, until thou come to the valley, and to Philistine.
the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of 41 And the Philistine came on and drew the Philistines fell down by the way to Dear unto David; and the man that bare the Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and unto Ekron. shield went before him.
53 And the children of Israel returned 42 And when the Philistine looked about, from chasing after the Philistines, and they and saw David, he disdained him: for he spoiled their tents. was but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair 54 And David took the head of the Phicountenance.
listine, and brought it to Jerusalem; but he 43 And the Philistine said unto David, I put his armour in his tent. 14 Het word.
18 Or, valley.
15 Heb. took him, 18 Or, kid. 17 Heb. clothed David with his clothes. 19 Heb. vessel
20 Heb, shut thee up. 21 Ecclus. 47. 4. 1 Mac, 4.30.