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took him under his protection, and after employing him in various capacities, ultimate.y made him nazar, or lordsteward of the household. When the king died, the ear of his successor was poisoned with insinuations against the Integrity of the nazar, as if he had enriched himself at the expense of the treasures entrusted to him. But, on opening the room in which the nazar's dishonest wealth was supposed to be deposited, nothing was found but his shepherd's weeds and sheep-hook, his pipe, his water-bottle, and the scrip in which he used to put his victuals-all hung up against the wall. The nazar, observing the king's astonishment, said, “When the great Shah Abbas found me in the mountains, keeping goats, these were all my possessions; and he took nothing from me. All else, called mine, I owe to his and your bounty, and you may justly reclaim it; but allow me to retain that which belongs to my original condition, to which I shall now cheerfully return, since I no longer enjoy your confidence.” The king: touched with admiration and remorse, instantly caused himself to be disarrayed of his outer robes, and gave them to the nazar; “which,” as Tavernier remarks, " is the greatest honour that a king of Persia can bestow upon a subject.” This little anecdote illustrates several points in the early history of David.
25. “ Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.”—The father, as we have already shown, expecting the customary consideration for parting with his daughter, an opportunity is afforded him of getting rid of an obnoxious person by proposing that the price of the girl's hand shall consist in the results of some difiicult and dangerous undertaking, in which there is every probability that the adventurer will perish. Instances of this meet us continually in the poems and romances of the East; and are not unknown in such of our own as refer to the ages and describe the manners of chivalry. The Bedouin story of Antar-that most perfect picture of early Oriental manners-affords several illustrations of this practice. In one of these a plot is laid between Antar's rival and the father of his beloved Illa for his destruction. It is proposed by the former, who thus states it to the father, by whom Antar is bitterly hated, and who eagerly adopts the expedient suggested.
“ Pretend to be good friends with Antar; appear very kind to him, and do not prevent his entering your tents. Soothe him with gentle words, and when he comes to you, ask him about the dower of Ibla : then he will say, What do you wish ?’ tell him you only desire a thousand Asafeer camels” (a particular species of camel, much valued for riding), " that your daughter may pride herself in them above the liigh and low. Know then, Malik, that these camels are in the possession of Monzar, son of Massema, the king of the Arabs, and the lieutenant of Nushirvan ; and I know that Antar, in the greatness of his courage, will go in search of them among the tribe of Shiban, and he will expose his life to danger and death, and you will never see him again.” Antar, like David, readily undertook the dangerous service; and, like him, succeeded in the enterprise which was designed to ensure his destruction,
then wilt thou sin against innocent blood,
to slay David without a cause? į Jonathan discloses his father's purpose to kill 6 Ånd Saul hearkened unto the voice of
David. 4 He persuadeth his father to reconciliation. 8 By reason of David's good success
Jonathan: and Saul sware, As the LORD in a new war, "Saul's malicious ruge breaketh
liveth, he shall not be slain. out against him. 12 Michal derciveth her fa- 7 And Jonathan called David, and Jonather with an image in David's bed. 18 David than shewed him all those things. And cometh to Samuel in Naioth. 20 Saul's messengers sent to take David, 22 and Saul himself,
Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he prophesu.
was in his presence, as 'in times past.
and David And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to went out, and fought with the Philistines, all his servants, that they should kill David. and slew them with a great slaughter; and 2 But Jonathan Saul's son delighted
son delighted they fled from 'him. much in David : and Jonathan told David, 9 And the evil spirit from the Lord was saying, Saul my father seeketh to kill thee: upon Saul, as he sat in his house with his now therefore, I pray thee, take heed to javelin in his hand: and David played with thyself until the morning, and abide in a his hand. secret place, and hide thyself:
10 And Saul sought to smite David even 3 And I will go out and stand beside my to the wall with the javelin; but he slipped father in the field where thou art, and I will away out of Saul's presence, and he smote commune with my father of thee; and what the javelin into the wall: and David fled, I see, that I will tell thee.
and escaped that night. 4 | And Jonathan spake good of David 11 Saul also sent messengers unto David's unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let | house, to watch him, and to slay him in the not the king sin against his servant, against morning: and Michal David's wife told him, David; because he hath not sinned against saying, If thou save not thy life to night, to thee, and because his works have been to morrow thou shalt be slain. theeward very good :
12 4 So Michal let David down through 5 For he did put his 'life in his hand, a window and he went, and fled, an! and slew the Philistine, and the LORD escaped. wrought a great salvation for all Israel : 13 And Michal took an image, and laid thou sawest it, and didst rejoice : wherefore I it in the bed, and put a pillow of goals
1 Judges 9. 17, and 12,3. Chap. 28. 21. Psal 119. 109. ? Heb. yesterday third day. * Heb, kis face,
for his bolster, and covered it with a the prophets prophesying, and Samuel stand
ing as appointed over them, the Spirit of And when Saul sent messengers to God was upon the messengers of Saul, and David, she said, He is sick.
they also prophesied. i And Saul sent the messengers again 21 And when it was told Saul, he sent * 2e David, saying, Bring him up to me other messengers, and they prophesied likene bed, that I may slay him.
wise. And Saul sent messengers again the . And when the messengers were come third time, and they prophesied also. ehold, there was an image in the bed, 22 Then went he also to Ramah, and
a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster. came to a great well that is in Sechu: and ? And Saul said unto Michal, Why hast he asked and said, Where are Samuel and
deceived me so, and sent away mine David? And one said, Behold, they be at ny, that he is escaped? And Michal an- Naioth in Ramah. ed Saul, He said unto me, Let me go;
23 And he went thither to Naioth in Rashould I kill thee?
mah: and the Spirit of God was upon him i} So David fled, and escaped, and also, and he went on, and prophesied, until .. to Samuel to Ramah, and told him all he came to Naioth in Ramah.
Saul had done to him. And he and 24 And he stripped off his clothes also, uel went and dwelt in Naioth.
and prophesied before Samuel in like man| And it was told Saul, saying, Behold, ner, and lay down naked all that day and id is at Naioth in Ramah.
all that night. Wherefore they say, 'Is Saul | And Saul sent messengers to take also among the prophets ? id: and when they saw the company of
* Heb. fell, • Chap. 10. 11.
se 13. “ Vichal took an image," &c.-In the original this is a teraphim; and the intention, in placing it in the as evidently to make an appearance as if a human being were lying there. Of teraphim we have already spoken. se images appear to have been objectionable, it has occasioned some surprise that so pious a man as David allowed remain in his house. In fact, it is difficult to understand distinctly what the ideas connected with these images and it is very probable that the term was applied to different kinds of images, some of which were less objec'le than others. Abarbenel and other Rabbins specify different sorts of teraphim, besides those used idolatrously. say that one sort was a kind of talisman, designed to draw down the favourable influences of the heavenly bodies ; I served as a sort of dial, to make known the time of the day; and a third was in the similitude of some living , and women had such figures of their husbands, that they might have their presence, as it were, continually *hem. The last of these explanations is exceedingly doubtful. We cannot help thinking that there was something
in these teraphim, and that they formed a superstition to which women seem to have been particularly addicted. ed not blame David, however. The image was not produced till he had left the place; and very probably he knew at there was such a thing in the house. It must be constantly recollected that men and women live in separate ents, and are not much in each other's company; so that a husband has very little cognizance of what is kept or in the harem. And, whatever may have been the case in David's time, it is certainly true now, that one who 23 a king's daughter for his wife is very differently circumstanced from all other husbands. The princess assumes itire control of the domestic establishment; in which the husband is seldom considered in much other light than f a favoured (and not always favoured) upper servant. He is usually most submissive to her; and rarely veno in the smallest exertion of that authority which commonly belongs to husbands in the East. ut a pillow of goats' hair for a bolster, and covered it with a cloth."— It is difficult to understand this. The obvious retation of the reading in our version would be, that in those early times it was not usual for any but sick persons bolsters or pillows to support the head when in bed; and that therefore Michal put one stuffed with goats'nder the head of the teraphim, to confirm the impression she wished to convey, that David lay there sick. She rould cover the head and bolster with a cloth, it being usual in the East for people to cover their heads while in This explanation seems to us sufficiently satisfactory. It will be observed, however, that the word hair is not original, and that the word rendered “pillow" (n.), cebir) is subject to various interpretations. The Septuand Josephus say that it was a goat's liver ; the use of which, as explained by the latter, was, that the liver of a nad the property of motion for some time after being taken from the animal, and therefore gave a motion to the lothes, which was necessary to convey the impression that a living person lay in the bed. But the Targum says a goat-skin bottle: if so, it was probably inflated with air-a fact which would impair any claims to originality the recent invention of air-pillows may have established. Others think that the goats'-hair was put about the of the image, to look like human hair ; and, lastly, some suppose that the article in question was a net or curtain its-hair used, as a mosquito curtain, for the purpose of keeping away troublesome insects.
“ Bring him up to me in the bed.”—It will be recollected that the beds commonly in use were probably, as now, şi a padded quilt, doubled, for a mattress, and another, single, for a covering. There cannot, therefore, be a more nient way of transporting a sick person, than to wrap him up in his bed and carry him away. In fact, this is ay in which we have usually seen sick persons, in Western Asia, carried from one place to another, when circums rendered it necessary to remove them. This also explains how it happened that the sick were brought to Chris' ir beds, to be healed. " Lay down naked all that day.”—Reland has an excellent note on this subject, which we cannot refrain from ig, with slight alteration, as given by Whiston in his translation of Josephus. “The word naked does not always y entirely naked; but sometimes means without men's usual armour, or without their usual robes or upper garments ; as when Virgil bids the husbandmen plough naked and sow naked. And we are thus to understand when Josephus says that God had given the Jews the security of armour when they were naked; and when he says, that Ahab fell upon the Syrians when they were naked and drunk; when he says that Nehemiah commanded those Jews who were building the walls of Jerusalem, to take care and have their armour on upon occasion, that the enemy might not fall upon them naked. I may add, that the case seems to be the same in Scripture, when it says that Saul lay down naked among the prophets (1 Sam. xix. 24); when it says, that Isaiah walked naked and barefoot (Isa. xx. 2, 3); and when it says, that Peter before he girt on his fisher's coat was naked (John xxi. 7). Nor were the governmes, or naked soldiers, others than those levis armaturæ, who were free from the heavy armour of the rest. And the like may be supposed in several other places. What is said also of David gives light to this; who was reproached by Michal for having shamefully uncovered himself while dancing before the ark; whereas it appears by the context, that he had at that time been covered with a linen ephod, probably such as the Levites wore." We are therefore to understand, that in the present instance, and also in that of David, the king put aside the outer robes and arms, by which his dignity was, perhaps, more particularly distinguished, and appeared in the light under dress which, as now worn in the East, is complete in itself, although, from fitting closer to the body than the loose outer robes, it certainly does suggest the idea of comparative nakedness,
vant into a covenant of the LORD with thee: 1 David consulteth with Jonathan for his safety. notwithstanding, if there be in me iniquity,
11 Jonathan and David renew their covenant by slay me thyself; for why shouldest thou vath. 18 Jonathan's token to David. 24 Saul, bring me to thy father? missing David, seeketh to kill Jonathan. 35 Jo- 9 And Jonathan said, Far be it from thee: nathan lovingly taketh his leave of David.
for if I knew certainly that evil were deterAnd David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and mined by my father to come upon thee, then came and said before Jonathan, What have would not I tell it thec? I done ? what is mine iniquity ? and what is 10 Then said David to Jonathan, Who my sin before thy father, that he seeketh my
shall tell me? or what if thy father answer life?
thee roughly? 2 And he said unto him, God forbid; 11 | And Jonathan said unto David, thou shalt not die : behold, my father will Come, and let us go out into the field. do nothing either great or small, but that and they went out both of them into the he will 'shew it me: and why should my
field. father hide this thing from me? it is not so.
12 And Jonathan said unto David, O 3 And David sware moreover, and said, LORD God of Israel, when I have 'sounded Thy father certainly knoweth that I have my father about to morrow any time, or the found grace in thine eyes; and he saith, third day, and, behold, if there be good toLet not Jonathan know this, lest he be ward David, and I then send not unto thee, grieved: but truly as the LORD liveth, and and 'shew it thee; as thy soul liveth, there is but a step be
13 The Lord do so and much more to tween me and death.
Jonathan: but if it please my father to do 4 Then said Jonathan unto David, 'What-thee evil, then I will shew it thee, and send soever thy soul 'desireth, I will even do it thee away, that thou mayest go for thee.
and the Lord be with thee, as he hath been 5 And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, with
father. to morrow is the new moon, and I should 14 And thou shalt not only while yet I not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let live shew me the kindness of the LORD, that me go, that I may hide myself in the field I die not: unto the third day at even.
15 But also thou shalt not cut off thy 6 If thy father at all miss me, then say,
kindness from my house for ever: no, not David earnestly asked leave of me that he when the Lord hath cut off the enemies of might run to Beth-lehem his city: for there David every one from the face of the earth. is a yearly 'sacrifice there for all the fa- 16 So Jonathan made a covenant with mily.
the house of David, saying, Let the LORD 7 If he say thus, It is well; thy servant even require it at the hand of David's eneshall have peace: but if he be very wroth, mies. then be sure that evil is determined by 17 And Jonathan caused David to swear him.
again, 'because he loved him: for he loved 8 Therefore thou shalt deal kindly with him as he loved his own soul. thy servant; for 'thou hast brought thy ser
18 Then Jonathan said to David, To
in peace : morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be of Jesse to thine own confusion, and unto missed, because thy seat will be empty. the confusion of thy mother's nakedness?
Or. Say what is thy mind, and I will do, &c. & Heb. speaketh, or thinketh. Chap. 18.3, and 23. 18.
9 Or, by his love towarde nia,
Heb. uncorer mine ear.
& He's, seashed,
* Or, feast.
7 Heb. uncover thine ear.
* Heb. out,
19 And when thou hast stayed three days, 31 For as long as the son of Jesse liveth then thou shalt go down "quickly, and upon the ground, thou shalt not be estacome to the place where thou didst hide blished, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now thyself '3when the business was in hand, and send and fetch him unto me, for he shall shalt remain by the stone 'Ezel.
surely die. 20 And I will shoot three arrows on the 32 And Jonathan answered Saul his side thereof, as though I shot at a mark. father, and said unto him, Wherefore shall
21 And, behold, † will send a lad, saying, he be slain? what hath he done? Go, find out the arrows. If I expressly say
33 And Saul cast a javelin at him to unto the lad, Behold, the arrows are on this smite him : whereby Jonathan knew that side of thee, take them; then come thou: for it was determined of his father to slay there is peace to thee, and 'sno hurt; as the David. Lord liveth.
34 So Jonathan arose from the table in 22 But if I say thus unto the young man,
and did eat no meat the second Behold, the arrows are beyond thee; go thy day of the month: for he was grieved for way: for the Lord hath sent thce away.
David, because his father had done him 23 And as touching the matter which shame. thou and I have spoken of, behold, the LORD 35 | And it came to pass in the mornbe between thee and me for ever.
ing, that Jonathan went out into the field 24 So David hid himself in the field: at the time appointed with David, and a and when the new moon was come, the king little lad with him. sat him down to eat meat.
36 And he said unto his lad, Run, find 25 And the king sat upon his seat, as at out now the arrows which I shoot.
And as other times, even upon a seat by the wall: the lad ran, he shot an arrow beyond him. side, and David's place was empty.
place of the arrow which Jonathan had shot, 26 Nevertheless Saul spake not any thing Jonathan cried after the lad, and said, Is that day: for he thought, Something hath not the arrow beyond thce ? befallen him, he is not clean; surely he is
38 And Jonathan cried after the lad, not clean.
Make speed, haste, stay not. And Jona27 And it came to pass on the morrow,
than's lad gathered up
the arrows, and which was the second day of the month, that to his master. David's place was empty: and Saul said 39 But the lad knew not any thing : only unto Jonathan his son, Wherefore cometh Jonathan and David knew the matter. not the son of Jesse to meat, neither yester- 40 And Jonathan gave his artillery unto day, nor to day?
shis lad, and said unto him, Go, carry them to the city.
37 lad come to
carnestly asked teave of me to go to Beth-41 qtAnd as soon as the lad was gone,
David arose out of a place toward the south, 29 And he said, Let me go, I pray thec; and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed for our family hath a sacrifice in the city; himself three times: and they kissed one and my brother, he hath commanded me to another, and wept one with another, until be there: and now, if I have found favour in David exceeded. thine eyes, let me get away, I pray thee, and 42 And Jonathan said to David, Go in see my brethren. Therefore he cometh not peace, aforasmuch as we have sworn both unto the king's table.
of us in the name of the LORD, saying, The 30 Then Saul's anger was kindled against Lord be between me and thee, and between Jonathan, and he said unto him, "Thou my seed and thy seed for ever. And he son of the perverse rebellious woman, do arose and departed: and Jonathan went not I know that thou hast chosen the son into the city. il Or, diligently.
12 Heb. greatly. 13 Heb. in the day of the business. 13 Heb, aut any thing.
17 IIeb. Son of perverse rebellioni. Heb. to pass over him.
2. Or, the Lord be witness of that which, &c. Verse 5. “ To-morrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat.”-See the note on Num. ITFIL
. !). The commencement of the new month or moon was celebrated by extraordinary sacrifices and feasting, at s which, it seemas, the head of a family expected all its members to be present. It seems that David did not ordinarily
» Heb missert
14 Or, that shetreth the way. 10 Heb. is the sun of death.
18 Or, Thou perrerse rebel.
20 Heb. instruments. 21 Heb.hat was his.
take meat with the king ; but on such occasions he was expected to be present-probably as being the king's son-inlaw. Sume of the Rabbins say that the principal persons of the court dined with the king on this occasion. In either case, David might be expected to attend; but the text does not indicate the presence of any persons not of the king's family.
14. “Shew me the kindness of the Lord.”—It is evident from this and other passages, that Jonathan was well aware of the Lord's appointment that David, and not himself, was to sit upon the throne of Israel. His cheerful acquiescence in this determination, and his steady affection, under such circumstances, for the man by whom he was to be superseded, manifests a generosity of character which has not often been paralleled, and of which David was most fully sensible.
18. “ Thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty.”—“Thy place has long been empty among thy friends," 0. simply, “thy place been empty," or—" has long been empty:"-are common expressions of compliment among the Persians, addressed to one who is again seen after either a long absence, or after such short absences as occur in the common course of life. The late king of Persia, for instance, used the expression as a gracious compliment to Sir Joha Malcolm, at his first audience on his second embassy. One who returns from a journey, or who joins a circle of acquaintance whom he has not seen within the usual number of weeks or days, is greeted with the same phrase of compliment.
25. “ The king sat upon his seat.”—From the account in which the principal persons were placed at Saul's table, and that they all had an assigned place, David's seat being empty in his absence, it is evident that Saul had by this time introduced considerable state and ceremony into his court. The expression-“ Jonathan arose," has been thought by some to imply that Jonathan stood during the meal ; but others suppose he arose on the entrance of his father, from respect, and then sat down again. Josephus says that Jonathan sat on one side of Saul, and Abner on the other, and the same view is taken by the Syriac.
26. “ He is not clean."-Saul conjectured that David's attendance was precluded by some ceremonial defilement, from which he had not purified himself.
30." Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman.”—In abusing another it is still customary in the East to apply disgraceful epithets to the mother of the abused person. There is no intention to stigmatize the mother personally. She may be wholly unknown to the person who employs such expressions, and no one thinks her injured by them; but they are in the highest degree offensive to her son. When one person is offended with another, or when two persons quarrel, it is, indeed, the last and most venomous mode of attack for the parties to apply every intemperate epithet to their respective mothers, wives, and daughters—to charge them with crime, and to threaten what they will do or would do to them. But the mother is in all these cases the most general and favourite object of this revolting form of abuse ; and so prevalent is this habit, that not only will a father, like Saul, use such expressions in abusing his son, but even brothers in their quarrels with each other will in the same way, and for the purposes of mutual offence, apply the same expressions to the mother whom both of them respect and love. Similar forms of reflected abuse-harmless to the object from which they are reflected-are not unknown in this country, and, so far as they go, are quite analogous to those employed in the East. The father, also, is sometimes, though not so ofte:, the object to whom contumelious epithets are applied for the sake of annoying the son. Even Antar, who deeply respected his father and loved his mother, does not scruple on occasion to call his owa brother “ base born,” and “the son of a dog."
5 And David answered the priest, and I David at Nob obtaineth of Ahimelech hallowed
said unto him, Of a truth women have been bread. 7 Doeg was present. 8 David taketh kept from us about these three days, since Goliathi's sword. 10‘David at Gath feigneth I came out, and the vessels of the
young himself mad.
men are holy, and the bread is in a manner Then came David to Nob to Ahimelech the common, øyea, though it were sanctified this priest: and Ahimelech was afraid at the day in the vessel. meeting of David, and said unto him, Why Ő So the priest gave him hallowed bread: art thou alone, and no man with thee? for there was no bread there but the shew
2 And David said unto Ahimelech the bread, that was taken from before the LORD, priest, The king hath commanded me a to put hot bread in the day when it was business, and hath said unto me, Let no man know any thing of the business where- 7 Now a certain man of the servants of about I send thee, and what I have com- Saul was there that day, detained before manded thee: and I have appointed my the Lord; and his name was Doeg, an servants to such and such a place.
Edomite, the chiefest of the herdmen that 3 Now therefore what is under thine belonged to Saul. hand? give me five loaves of bread in mine 8 And David said unto Ahimelech, hand, or what there is present.
And is there not here under thine hand 4 And the priest answered David, and spear or sword? for I have neither brought said, There is no common bread under mine
sword nor my weapons with me, because hand, but there is 'hallowed bread; if the the king's business required haste. young men have kept themselves at least 9 And the priest said, The sword of Go. from women.
liath the Philistine, whom thou slewest in
* Exod. 95. 30. Levit. 245. Matth, 12. 4
1 Hebe found
Or, especially when this day there is other sanctified in the vessel