Sivut kuvina


the ‘valley of Elah, behold, it is here wrapped heart, and was sore afraid of Achish the in cloth behind the ephod: if thou wilt | king of Gath. take that, take it: for there is no other save 13 And he changed his behaviour before that here. And David said, There is none them, and feigned himself mad in their like that; give it me.

hands, and 'scrabbled on the doors of the 10 And David arose, and fled that day gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his for fear of Saul, and went to Achish the king beard. of Gath.

14 Then said Achish unto his servants, 11 And the servants of Achish said unto Lo, yo see the man 'is mad: wherefore then him, Is not this David the king of the land ? have ye brought him to me? did they not sing one to another of him in 15 Have I need of mad men, that ye have dances, saying, "Saul hath slain his thou- brought this fellow to play the mad man in sands, and David his ten thousands? my presence? shall this fellow come into my 12 And David laid up these words in his house?

• Chap. 17. 9. $ Chap. 18. 7, und 29. 5. Ecclus. 47. 6. o Or, made marks, 7 Or, playeth the mad man,


Verse 1. “ Nob.”—This is described in ch. xxii. 19 as a “city of the priests ;” and in Nehem. xi. 32, its naine is men. tioned after Anathoth, among the cities occupied by the Benjamites on their return from the captivity. Jerome says that, in his time, the ruins of Nob still existed near Diospolis or Lydda. But this was in the south of Ephraim; and if he rightly determines its site, we may conclude that, as the ten tribes did not return with Judah and Benjamin, the latter tribe took the liberty of appropriating some part of the vacant territory of Ephraim which adjoined its own. The Rabins generally, however, think that Nob was near Jerusalem-and so near, according to some, as to be visible from thence. It seems difficult to understand this chapter without supposing that the tabernacle must at this time have been at Nob, although we do not elsewhere find the least intimation of such a circumstance; and the connected account shich we have of the successive removals of the ark, after having been restored by the Philistines, from Beth-shemesh to Kirjath-jearim, and from thence to the house of Obed-edom, and afterwards to Jerusalem by David, without any mection of Nob, might incline us to suppose that, if the tabernacle was at Noh, the ark was not in it. There is no questiou that the customary services and sacrifices still took place at the tabernacle, even when the ark was absent.

4. * There is halloweil bread.”—This was the old shew-bread, which, after lying a week on the able in the holy place, was taken

away and might only be eaten by the priests. 7. Dueg, an Edomite:?He was of course a proselyte to the Hebrew religion. Some of the Rabbins think that he was of the seed of Israel, but is called an Edomite from having lived in Edom: but this has a very suspicious look, and tray be traced to their desire to intimate that no alien by birth was admitted to offices of trust and importance, whence also they affirm that Uriah was a true Israelite, but is called “the Hittite,” because he had dwelt among the Ilittites.

The chiefest of the herdmen that belonged to Saul.—Sauì had by this time probably made large additions to his paternal property in flocks and herds, which constituted a very considerable part of the wealth of the ancient monarche. As large possessions of this kind required to be divided into several parts and fed in different places, the person who kad the general superintendence of the whole, held an office of very considerable importance. The office of governor of the reval Alocks is often mentioned by the ancient writers, as existing in most countries with which they were acguainted. David, however, who was practically well acquainted with the management of cattle, seems to have abohabed the office of general overseer of the pastoral concerns of the king, and appointed a particular overseer for the Several species of cattle, which were divided into separate flocks. Thus there was an Arab (Ishınaelite) over the camels, and another Arab (Hagarene) over the flocks ; there was also an overseer of the asses ; and the herds had two overseers, urze, a native of the district, for those that fed in Sharon, and another for those that fed in the valleys (1 Chron. xxvii. 9. This excellent distribution was not, however, peculiar to him, as we find something of the same in Ulysses's little Engdom of Ithaca, where Eumæus is the chief swineherd, and seems to have nothing to do with any other cattle ; while Melantheus is the chief goatherd. These two act quite independently of each other, and have many servants under them. They sit at meat with princes and nobles in their master's house. Eumæus, the son of a king, but sold fur a slave, when young, to the father of Ulysses, is treated as the friend of the family, and Homer denotes his superior diguity to the subordinate swineherds by calling him, “ the swineherd, prince of men.” Yet with all his superiority, lit was not above the practical duties of his office ; while at the same time he was skilled in the use of arms, and rendered his master powerful aid in his great combat with the suitors. The character and situation of this remarkable leren serves exceedingly well to illustrate the condition which a chief herdsman, even of only a particular species of cattle, occupied in those early times.

9: "The sword of Goliath here wrapped in a cloth.” – Josephus says that David had dedicated the sword to the Lord. It was a custom among the ancients to dedicate to the gods some conspicuous part of the enemy's spoils; a True of which is preserved in the European custom of depositing in churches standards captured in war. As the pot of manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, deposited in the tabernacle, had established the idea of laying up things as faenorials of the Lord's deliverances, it is very likely that Goliath's sword was deposited there with the same intention. As to the cloth in which it was wrapped up, we are not thence to infer that it was thrust away in a corner. The cloth was probably a rich picce, embroidered or otherwise ornamented, in which the sword was wrapped up. Speaking of India, Mr. Roberts says, “ All things which are valuable or sacred, or which have been acquired at great expense or trouble, are alsays folded in a cloth." ("Oriental Illustrations, p. 173.) 10. “ Gath.”—This was one of the five principalities of the Philistines. No trace of it now remains, and even its site has been matter of controversy. Calmet, and others after him, conjecture that Ekron and Gath were at the opposite extremities of the land of the Philistines--the former to the north, and the latter to the south. This conclusion is chiefly founded on a construction of the texts, 1 Sam. v. 8, 10, and xvii. 52, to which we see nu occasion to subscribe

it is thought to be supported by the mention which Jerome makes ofʻa Gath between Eleutheropolis and Gaza. Bat even this would not make Gath the southern most city of the Philistines. Besides, Jerome says that there were 1 2


different Gaths in this neighbourhood ; for, speaking of Jonah's birth-place, he says it was called Gath-Opher, to distinguish it from other places of the same name near Eleutheropolis and Diospolis; and which of these he understood as the Philistine city is clear from his conjecture, in his comment on Jer. xxv. 20, that as Gath is not mentioned with the other Philistiue states, it was probably at that time incorporated with Ashdod. He therefore understood Gath to be nearer to Ashdod than to any other of the Philistine cities; and therefore he points to the same place as Eusebius who says that Gaza was four miles from Eleutheropolis, on the road to Lydda. This was in the tribe of Dan, aud therefore has the support of Josephus, who distinctly says that Gath was in the tribe of Dan. This is the position usually given in maps, and we apprehend that none could be found more in unison with the general bearing of the Scriptures. Let us take the instance of the migrations of the ark while in the hands of the Philistines. It was first taken to Ashdod, and was from thence carried to Gath, which this account makes the nearest to Ashdod of all the Philistine towns; and its removal to the nearest town is certainly more probable than that it was taken to the most distant town of all, which Calmet’s account supposes Gath to have been, without touching at the intermediate towns of Askelon and Gaza on its way. Then, again, the ark was removed from Gath to Ekron, which the common account makes to have been the nearest town, except Ashdod, to Gath; whereas the other account absolutely makes the ark in this removal traverse the whole length of the Poilistines' country, from Gath, the most southern town, to Ekron, the most northern, with the same silence as before concerning the intermediate towns. For these and other reasons, we suliscribe to the opinion which places Gath at no great distance from Ashdod. Four miles from Eleutheropolis, on the road to Diospolis, of course makes Gath more inland-more towards the frontier of Israel than any other Philistine tuwn, and was perhaps about twenty-five miles nearly west from Jerusalem.

13. “Let his spittle fall down upon his beard.”— So intensely is the beard respected in the East, that this defilement of his own beard by David was well calculated to convince Achish that he was really mad. He could scarcely suppose that a man in his senses would do this indignity to his own beard. For one person to spit on the beard of another, or to say that he will do so, is the greatest possible act or expression of contempt; and the fall of a man's own saliva upon it is considered a sort of self-insult, of which no sane man could, unless from natural infirmity, be guilty. When the late Sir John Macdonald, the East India Company's envoy in Persia, had his first audience of the Shah, in 1826, the Shah said that he had anxiously been expecting the envoy for some time, and that his place had long been empty (see the note on chap. XX. 18): the latier replied, that after leaving Shiraz, the sickness which prevailed in camp prevented his making such rapid progress as he wished, but that after quitting Ispahan he had hastened to the royal stirrup. His majesty said it was fortunate he had not arrived sooner, or he would have been involved in disputes with the Russians; addilig. Poof reksha pur,"--"I spit on their beards.” (Captain Alexander's "Travels,' p. 208.)

15. Have I need of mad men?”—The Rabbins say that the king's wife and daughter were mad, and hence find a stronger emphasis in the question, “ Have I need of mad men ?


vid, Abide not in the hold; depart, and get

thee into the land of Judah. Then David 1 Companies resort unto Duvid at Adullam, 3. At departed, and came into the forest of Hareth. Mizpeh he commendeth his parents unto the king

T When Saul heard that David was of Moab.

5 Admonished by Gad, he cometh to Hareth. 6 Saul going to pursue him, com

discovered, and the men that were with him, plaineth of his servants' unfaithfulness. 9 Doeg (now Saul abode in Gibeah under a stree in accuseth Ahimelech. Il Saul commandeth to Ramah, having his spear in his hand, and kill the priests. 17 The footmen refusing, Doeg all his servants were standing about him ;) executeth it. 20 Abiathar escaping, bringeth

7 Then Saul said unto his servants that Durid the news.

stood about him, Hear now, ye Benjamites; David therefore departed thence, and es

will the son of Jesse give every one of you caped to the cave Adullam: and when his fields and vineyards, and make you all capbrethren and all his father's house heard it, tains of thousands, and captains of hunthey went down thither to him.

dreds; 2 And every one that was in distress, 8 That all of you have conspired against and every one that 'was in debt, and every me, and there is none that 'sheweth me that one that was 'discontented, gathered them- my son hath made a league with the son of selves unto him; and he became a captain Jesse, and there is none of you over them: and there were with him about for me, or sheweth unto me that my son four hundred men.

hath stirred up my servant against me, to 3 | And David went thence to Mizpeh lie in wait, as at this day? of Moab: and he said unto the king of 9 | Then answered Docg the Edomite, Moab, Let iny father and my mother, I pray which was set over the servants of Saul, and thee, come forth, and be with you, till I know said, I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob, what God will do for me.

to Alimelech the son of Ahitub. 4 And he brought them before the king 10 And he enquired of the Lord for him of Moab: and they dwelt with him all the and gave him victuals, and gave him the while that David was in the hold.

sword of Goliath the Philistine. 5 And the prophet Gad said unto Da- 11 Then the king sent to call Ahimelee!

? Heb, bitter of soul, 3 Or, grove in a high place. * Heb. Nacorerelh mise eno,

that is sorry

I Heb. had a creditor.

the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his | also is with David, and because they knew father's house, the priests that were in Nob: when he fled, and did not shew it to me. and they came all of them to the king. But the servants of the king would not put

12 And Saul said, Hear now, thou son of forth their hand to fall upon the priests of Ahitub. And he answered, 'Here I am, my

the Lord. lord.

18 And the king said to Doeg, Turn 13 And Saul said unto him, Why have thou, and fall upon the priests. And Doeg ye conspired against me, thou and the son the Edomite turned, and he fell upon the of Jesse, in that thou hast given him bread, priests, and slew on that day fourscore and and a sword, and hast enquired of God for five persons that did wear a linen ephod. him, that he should rise against me, to lic 19 And Nob, the city of the priests, smote in wait, as at this day?

he with the edge of the sword, both men 14 Then Ahimelech answered the king, and women, children and sucklings, and and said, And who is so faithful among all oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of thy servants as David, which is the king's the sword. son in law, and goeth at thy bidding, and is 20 9 And one of the sons of Ahimelech honourable in thine house?

the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped, 15 Did I then begin to enquire of God and fled after David. for him? be it far from me: let not the king 21 And Abiathar shewed David that Saul impute any thing unto his servant, nor to had slain the Lord's priests. all the house of my father: for thy servant 22 And David said unto Abiathar, I knew nothing of all this, "less or more. knew it that day, when Doeg the Edomite

16 And the king said, Thou shalt surely was there, that he would surely tell Saul: I die, Abimelech, thou, and all thy father's have occasioned the death of all the persons house.

of thy father's house. 17 And the king said unto thg 7 8 foot- 23 Abide thou with me, fear not: for he men that stood about him, Turn, and slay that seeketh my life sceketh thy life: but the priests of the LORD; because their hand with me thou shalt be in safeguard.

Heb. little or great.

7 Or, guard. Verse l. Care Ailullam."- See the note on Josh, xiii. 11. 2. “ Ercry one that was in distress," &c.—See the note on Judges xi. 3.

3. " Let my father an:l my with you."--This is the last we hear of David's parents. The Jews think that his brethren were included; but that the king of Moab destroyed the whole family, except one brother who was preserved by Nahash, king of the Aminonites, and that this was the kind act of that king for which David afterwards (2 Sam. X. 2) expresses his gratitude.

3. Forest of Harelh." --Jerome says that there was in his time a village called Arath, which had been the abode of David. It was west of Jerusalem; by which, with the usual latitudle, we may understand south-west or south-west by west, which was probably the true direction, as David's present refuge does not seem to have been far from Keilah. This place is only mentioned here.

6. }r Gibeah under a tree in Ramah." - This is not intelligible. Ramah means a high place, or hill, and should not here be rendered as a proper name. Boothroyd's version is, “Saul was sitting on a hill. in Gibeah, under a tamarisktree.” This determination of the kind of tree is very probable, as the Hebrew word box ashel) is similar to that (ethel) which denotes a species of tamarisk which occurs frequently in Western Asia. Probably there was no house large enough in Gibeah for him to hold his court within doors ; and if there had been such, he might still probably have preferred the situation in which he now appears, with the height for his throne, the tree for his canopy, and the spear for his sceptre. The assembly is described in such a manner as to suggest the idea that this was the regular form in which Saul sat in state to administer public affairs, and not merely an accidental occurrence. It is, in fact, such a position as a modern Oriental prince or chief would select when any emergency required him to hold his court o. transact his affairs in the open air ; and which those who do so labitually, regularly prefer, both for the sake of stato and conveniecce. It will be observed that Saul is almost never mentioned without a spear in his hand. Spears secm to have been the earliest sceptres, to illustrate which Bishop Patrick cites a passage from Justin (lib. xliii. cap. 3), who, speaking of the early times of the Romans, says, “In those days kings hitherto had spears as signs of royal authority, which the Greeks called sceptres: for in the beginning of things, the ancients worshipped spears for immortal gods ; in memory of which religion, spears are still added to the images of the gods.” And as some of the Greeks called spears * sceptres," so others, who had called a spear by its common name, even when regarded as a sceptre, continued long after to call their sceptres “spears." So Pausanias tells us that sceptres were called spears by the kings of Argos.

18.He fell upon the priests, and slew...fourscore and five persons.”—Thus the uprighteous command of Saul accomplished to the letter the Lord's threatenings against the house of Eli:—“Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the ears of every one that heareth it shall tingle. In that day I will perform against Eli all things which I bave spoken concerning his house: when I begin I will also make an end,” ch. iii. 11, 12; see also ii. 27—36. Abiathar indeed escaped, and was afterwards exalted to the liigh-priesthood ; but it was one of the first acts of Solomon's reiga to “thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the Lord, that he might fulfil the word of the Lord which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh” (1 Kings ii. 27). The prediction does not, however, extenuate the atrocity i Sanl's conduct in sacrificing so many innocent and venerable persons to his blind rage.

5 Heb. Bchold me.

8 Heb. runners.

go forth.


hand of Saul ? And the Lord said, They

will deliver thee up. . David, enquiring of the Lord by Abiathar, rescueth Keilah. 7 God shewing him the coming of

13 9 Then David and his men, which Saul, and the treachery of the Keilites, he escapeth

were about six hundred, arose and departed from Keilah. 14 In Ziph Jonathan cometh and out of Keilah, and went whithersoever they comforteth him. 19 The Ziphites discover him to could go. And it was told Saul that David Saul. 25 At Maon he is rescued from Saul by

was escaped from Keilah; and he forbare to the invasion of the Philistines. 29 He dwelleth at En-gedi.

14 And David abode in the wilderness in Then they told David, saying, Behold, the strong holds, and remained in a mountain Philistines fight against Keilah, and they in the wilderness of Ziph. And Saul sought rob the threshingfloors.

him every day, but God delivered him not 2 Therefore David enquired of the Lord, into his hand. saying, Shall I go and smite these Philis- 15 And David saw that Saul was come tines? And the Lord said unto David, Go out to seek his life: and David was in the and smite the Philistines, and save Keilah. wilderness of Ziph in a wood.

3 And David's men said unto him, Be- 16 | And Jonathan Saul's son arose, and hold, we be afraid here in Judah: how much went to David into the wood, and strengthmore then if we come to Keilah against the ened his hand in God. armies of the Philistines ?

17 And he said unto him, Fear not: for 4 Then David enquired of the Lord yet the hand of Saul my father shall not find again. And the Lord answered him and thee; and thou shalt be king over Israel, said, Arise, go down to Keilah; for I will and I shall be next unto thee, and that also deliver the Philistines into thine hand. Saul my father knoweth. .

5 So David and his men went to Keilah, 18 And they two made a covenant before and fought with the Philistines, and brought the Lord: and David abode in the wood, away their cattle, and smote them with a and Jonathan went to his house. great slaughter. So David saved the inha- 19 | Then came up the Ziphites to Saul bitants of Keilah.

to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide 6 And it came to pass, when Abiathar himself with us in strong holds in the wood, the son of Ahimelech 'fled to David to Kei- in the hill of Hachilah, which is 'on the lah, that he came down with an ephod in his south of Jeshimon ? hand.

20 Now therefore, o king, come down 7 And it was told Saul that David was according to all the desire of thy soul to come to Keilah. And Saul said, God hath come down; and our part shall be to deliver delivered him into mine hand; for he is him into the king's hand. shut in, by entering into a town that hath 21 And Saul said, Blessed be ye of the gates and bars.

LORD; for ye have compassion on me. 8 And Saul called all the people together 22 Go, I pray you, prepare yet, and know to war, to go down to Keilah, to besiege and see his place where his haunt is, and David and his men.

who hath seen him there : for it is told me 9 And David knew that Saul secretly that he dealeth very subtilly. practised mischief against him; and he said 23 See therefore, and take knowledge of to Abiathar the priest, Bring hither the all the lurking places where he hideth him. ephod.

self, and come ye again to me with the cer10 Then said David, O Lord God of tainty, and I will go with you: and it shall Israel, thy servant hath certainly heard that come to pass, if he be in the land, that I Saul seeketh to come to Keilah, to destroy will search him out throughout all the thouthe city for my sake.

sands of Judah. 11 Will the men of Keilah deliver me up 24 And they arose, and went to Ziph beinto his hand ? will Saul come down, as thy fore Saul: but David and his men were in servant hath heard ? O Lord God of Israel, the wilderness of Maon, in the plain on the I beseech thee, tell thy servant. And the south of Jeshimon. Lord said, He will come down.

25 Saul also and his men went to seek 12 Then said David, Will the men of him. And they told David: wherefore he Keilah 'deliver me and my men into the came down into a rock, and abode in the Chap. 22. 20. 3 Heb, on the right hand.

* Heb. foot shall be.


? Heb. shut


4 Or, the wilderness.

wilderness of Maon. And when Saul heard 27 ( But there came a messenger unto that, he pursued after David in the wilder- Saul, saying. Haste thee, and come ; for the ness of Maon.

Philistines have "invaded the land. 26 And Saul went on this side of the 28 Wherefore Saul returned from purmountain, and David and his men on that suing after David, and went against the side of the mountain: and David made haste Philistines: therefore they called that place to get away for fear of Saul; for Saul and 'Sela-hammahlekoth. his men compassed David and his men round 29 And David went up from thence, about to take them.

and dwelt in strong holds at En-gedi. Heb. spread themselves upon, &c. 7 That is, the rock of divisions, Verse 2. “ Keilah.”—The context evidently places this in the western portion of Judah's territory; probably not far from Adullam. It is mentioned, in Josh. xv. 44, among the western towns of Judah. Jerome says that it existed in the fourth century as a small village, eight miles from Eleutheropolis, on the road to Hebron, where the tomb of the prophet Habakkuk was shown.

15. "Wilderness of Ziph.”—See the note on Josh. xv. 21 ; where it is seen that there were two Ziphs, one of which Jerome identifies with the Ziph of the present history, and places eight miles east of Hebron ; and as Ziph, Carmel, and Maon were apparently at no very considerable distance from each other-as appears from this history, and from Josh. xv. 53, where they are named together—this location is corroborated by that in which he finds Carmel at ten miles from Hebron. The other Ziph, mentioned in verse 24 of the same chapter, as being in the south country, may bare been more distant from Hebron than that mentioned by Jerome; but if, with Calmet and others, we determine this more remote Ziph to be that of David's history, it then ceases to be that in the vicinity of Carmel, which the Listery seems to require it to be; and it ceases indeed to be in the same district with Carmel, since the other Ziph was in the south country, whereas Ziph, Carmel, and Maon were in the hill country. The maps usually place Ziph and Carmel respectively at about double the distances given by Jerome. But as this alteration implies that Jerome was mistaken in two statements at once, concerning a district in which he resided at a time when the sources of topographical illustration were more complete than at present, we feel reluctant to depart from his account, particularly as we do not perceive that any historical statement is improved by the alteration. But we may understand Jerome's description of “ east,” with the usual latitude, as explained in the note to chap. xiii. 5. If the history should require it, we might, speaking loosely, place Ziph to the north-east from Hebron, and Carmel to the south-east, at the assigned distances. One thing seems probable, that, of the three towns, Maon and Carmel were considerably more to the south than Ziph. These three places, together with Hebron, seem to have been the principal towns in the mountainous fuotry between the central mountains and the Dead Sea ; and if the conjecture be tenable, it would obviate many d.ficulties to consider that “the wilderness of Ziph,” called from the town of that name, served to distinguish the Dorthern half of the hill country-say, north of a line drawn from Hebron to the Dead Sea ; and the wilderness of Vaca and the district of Carmel constituted the southern half of the same region. This southern district was apparectly divided, longitudinally, into two parts, that denominated from Maon being the eastern, nearest the Dead Sea, and that denominated from Carmel being the western, or nearest to the central mountains. A hilly region was often called a wilderness, as at present by the Arabs; and it usually took its name from some principal town within its limits,

19. " In the hill of Hachilah, which is on the south of Jeshimon.”—This hill was, of course, “the mountain in the wildentess of Ziph," of verse 14. Being to the south (literally " on the right hand”—that is, to the south of one facing the east of Jeshimon, the position of the latter necessarily determines that of the hill. The only datum, separate from cozjecture, which we have for finding Jeshimon, is that afforded by Jerome, who says that it lay ten miles to the south vf Jericho, near the Dead Sea. If this position be allowed, then the hill Hachilah, on the south of Jeshimon, would agree exceedingly well with that of the remarkable hill, twelve miles to the south (Jeshimon being ten) of Jericho, where, walter-times, the high-priest Jonathan built the famous castle of Masada ; and which, from its impregnable character Tas the chosen retreat of desperate or persecuted people. Josephus describes it as a high rocky hill, of large circumfetetce, surrounded with valleys of such vast depth downward, that the eye could scarcely penetrate their profundity from the bill

. The cliffs of this rock were so craggy that no animal could tread them, except at one or two places, where the ascent was practicable, though full of danger and difficulty. The path from the west was of easiest ascent; but the other, which led by an ascent of thirty furlongs from the Dead Sea, was called the “Serpent," on account of its narrowLess and numerous and intricate windings. The path was broken off at the prominent parts of the rock, and returned frequently into itself; and it was at the same time so narrow that a person was obliged, as it were, to proceed first on ote leg and then on the other; while the fearful chasms and precipices rendered destruction inevitable if the foot slipped, and were enough to quell the stoutest heart. At the top of the mountain was a plain, on which Jonathan built the fortress which was rebuilt by Herod, who also added a palace, and enclosed the whole level at the top with a high wall, seven furlongs in extent. This fortress acquired considerable fame in the later wars of the Jews. It is, huwever, apparently too far north to have been in the wilderness of Ziph, unless on such a supposition as that with which we concluded the preceding note.

21. " In the wilderness of Maon, in the plain on the south of Jeshimon.” 25. "He came down into a rock, and abode in l'de ruderness of Maon.”—That is, when David heard of Šaul's approach, he left the hill Hachilah, and removed ni ste to the south, into a plain in the wilderness of Maon, and from thence to a strong rocky hill in the same wilderEtus. We think this passage rather corroborates our impression concerning the wildernesses of Ziph and Maon. As ty the town of the latter name, we know no precise data for determining its relative place, unless by the inferences which the history of David affords. In the note to Josh. xv. 21, we gave the common statement, “about thirty miles of Jeruga lem," but our idea as to the probable extent of the wilderness of Maon would allow it to be placed me ich more to the south, if the history should seem to require it, as perhaps it does; for, by enlarging the wilderness, *e are the less restricted in the location of the town. The bearing of some of the remarks on this chapter will appear in the 25th.

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