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kettle, or caldron, or pot; all that the flesh- 27 | And there came a man of God unto hook brought up the priest took for himself. Eli, and said unto him, Thus saith the So they did in Shiloh unto all the Israelites LORD, Did I plainly appear unto the house that came thither.

of thy father, when they were in Egypt in 15 Also before they burnt the fat, the Pharaoh's house? priest's servant came, and said to the man 28 And did I choose him out of all the that sacrificed, Give flesh to roast for the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to offer upon priest; for he will not have sodden flesh of mine altar, to burn incense, to wear an thee, but raw.

ephod before me? and "did I give unto the 16 And if any man said unto him, Let house of thy father all the offerings made them not fail to burn the fat 'presently, and by fire of the children of Israel? then take as much as thy soul desireth; then 29 Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice and he would answer him, Nay ; but thou shalt at mine offering, which I have commanded give it me now: and if not, I will take it by in my habitation; and honourest thy force.

above me, to make yourselves fat with the 17 Wherefore the sin of the young men

chiefest of all the offerings of Israel my was very great before the LORD: for men people ? abhorred the offering of the LORD.

30 Wherefore the LORD God of Israel 18 But Samuel ministered before the saith, I said indeed that thy house, and the LORD, "being a child, øgirded with a linen house of thy father, should walk before me ephod.

for ever: but now the LORD saith, Be it far 19 Moreover his mother made him a little from me; for them that honour me I will coat, and brought it to him from year to honour, and they that despise me shall be year, when she came up with her husband lightly esteemed. to offer the yearly sacrifice.

31 Behold, the days come, that I will cut 20 | And Eli blessed Elkanah and his off thine arm, and the arm of thy father's wife, and said, The Lord give thee seed of house, that there shall not be an old man in this woman for the loan which is lent to the thine house. LORD. And they went unto their own home.

32 And thou shalt see an enemy in my 21 And the LORD visited Hannah, so that habitation, in all the wealth which God shall she conceived, and bare three sons and two give Israel: and there shall not be an old daughters. And the child Samuel grew man in thine house for ever. before the LORD.

33 And the man of thine, whom I shall 22 | Now Eli was very old, and heard not cut off from mine altar, shall be to conall that his sons did unto all Israel; and sume thine eyes, and to grieve thine heart : how they lay with the women that Rassem

and all the increase of thine house shall die bled at the door of the tabernacle of the 'in the flower of their age. congregation.

34 And this shall be a sign unto thee, 23 And he said unto them, Why do ye that shall come upon thy two sons, such things ? for 'I hear of your evil deal- Hophni and Phinehas; in one day they ings by all this people.

shall die both of them. 24 Nay, my sons; for it is no good report 35 And I will raise me up a faithful that I hear: ye make the Lord's people to priest, that shall do according to that which transgress.

is in mine heart and in my mind: and I 25 If one man sin against another, the will build him a sure house; and he shall judge shall judge him: but if a man sin walk before mine anointed for ever. against the LORD, who shall intreat for him? 36 And it shall come to pass,

that every Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto one that is left in thine house shall come the voice of their father, because the LORD and crouch to him for a piece of silver and would slay them.

a morsel of bread, and shall say, "Put me, 26 And the child Samuel grew on, and I pray thee, into one of the priests' offices, was in favour both with the LORD, and also that I may eat a piece of bread. with men.

on

90r, I hear evil words of you. • Hebo as on the day.. o Exod. 28.4.

8 Heb. assembled by troops. 7 Or, petition which she asked, &c.

13 Heb. ca. 10 Or, to cry out 1 Levit. 10. 14. 18 Or, lhe affliction of the tabernacle for all the wealth which Güd would have given Israel

1. Heb. join.

15 Or somewhat about the priesthood.

Verse 1. Mine horn is exalted.—This expression often occurs in the Bible ; and doubtless the reference, here and in other such passages, is to the horn as a general symbol of power and glory. It is however remarkable that, whether this were formerly the case or not, some of the women in Syria do wear a sort of korn upon their heads. This is particularly the case among the Druses of Lebanon, speaking of whom Dr. Macmichael observes, “ One of the most extraordinary parts of the attire of their females is a silver horn, sometimes studded with jewels, worn on the head in various positions, distinguishing their different conditions. A married woman has it affixed to the right side of the head, a widow on the left, and a virgin is pointed out by its being placed on the very crown: over this silver projection the long veil is thrown, with which they so completely conceal their faces, as rarely to have more than one eye visible” (Journey,

' p. 251). Colonel Light gives a similar description, and adds that the horn is a tin or silver conical tube, about twelve inches long, and about the size of a common post horn. The wife of the emir was distinguished by a gold horn, enriched with precious stones. Buckingham saw a similar horn in use among the Christian women at Tyre; and the writer of the present note has even observed a precisely analogous ornament worn by the women at Tyer and other places in Russia.

14. All that the fleshhook brought up the priest took for himself."-This evidently refers to the peace offerings, of which the fat only was consumed on the altar; the breast and shoulder belonged to the priest, and the rest was allowed to the offerer, with which to entertain his friends and feast the poor. The sense therefore here is that Eli's sons, not content with the liberal portion which fell to their share, claimed to have a portion of that which remained with the offerer, and with which he was preparing his feast.

15. “Gree flesh to roast for the priest.”—This was another course still more offensive. Legally the sacrifice could not be disposed of before the fat parts had been offered on the altar: that is, the Lord's portion was to be offered in the first instance. For this there appear to have been two reasons, one was, that they thus secured an opportunity of obtaining more choice pieces than could be secured by the chance insertion of the flesh-hook into the boiler afterwards ; and another, that they liked roast meat better than boiled. They are not singular in this preference. In the East, Deat as simply boiled is not much used or liked, although boiled often with their pillaus or messes of boiled rice. This prejudice against meat simply boiled is stronger in India than even in Western Asia. Mr. Roberts, in his note on Lev. vii. 31, states that the Hindoos would almost as soon eat the flesh of a living animal as of one that has been boiled. It is always either roasted, or made into curry, or prepared with spices: and the Mohammedans of India who " have made the pilgrimage to Mecca, relate it as a very wonderful thing that boiled meat is there sold. In the text just referred to, and in Num. vi. 9, there seems to be a direction that the portion of the priests should be boiled; and if so, this seems to render the offence the greater in demanding meat for roasting. Or it may be that, as the legal portion of the priests was to be boiled, they were anxious to have some additional parts which might be roasted. Was there any ulterior design, in direction to boil the meat of sacrifices not consumed on the altar? The meat left to the priests e offerers, is always roasted in heathen sacrifices,

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EGYPTIAN EPHOD. 18. “ Lonen ephod.”—Perhaps the only existing representative of an ancient article of dress which may in any degree be supposed to resemble the linen robes of this class, is that which our

wood-cut exhibits. It is one of two old Egyptian linen tunics, which were obtained by General Reynier, when in Egypt with the French expedition, from the Arabs

at Sakkârah, who said they had found them in a hole filled with sand, which they had cleared out. The following account is taken from Egyptian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 119.—" One of these tunics is of a square form, being three feet one inch long, and of equal breadth: the sleeves are about one foot four inches long. There is an opening at the top for the head, and it was also open at the bottom, being, in this respect, pretty much in the form of a common shirt. In the lower part of the shirt, both before and behind, there are two square pieces of embroidery let into the cloth ; a similar square piece appears on each shoulder. On each of the arms there are also two pieces of embroidery; and one on each side, between the hole for the neck, and the square patch on the shoulder, hanging down before and behind, like a pair of braces: these embroidered parts are sewed to the cloth. The embroidery contains nothing at all of a pictorial kind but is formed of squares and circles, and other forms of pure invention. ... The cloth is yellow, and the embroidery brown. It is not determined if the material of the shirt was linen, cotton, or hemp; but the first is most likely. Some chemists conjectured that the embroidery was made of the hair of an animal. The body of the tunic is formed of two breadths or pieces, and the seams on each side are covered with a neat piece of edging: the bottom of the sleeves is edged in the same way. The opening for the neck could be contracted by some small ties that are still attached to it." Of course, the author describes it as a shirt,” merely because it more resembles that than any other article of our own dress. We do not know that in actual use it answered to our garment of that name. Considering the climate and habits of the people, it was perhaps more probably, an outer, or perhaps only, article of dress for the superior part of the body, during summer. Its ornamented appearance favours this conclusion. It was obviously intended to be compressed around the waist by a girdle.

32. There shall not be an old man in thine house for ever.We should understand this perhaps as implying simply the calamity of untimely deaths in the family. But it implied something more among the Hebrews, with whom age was so much respected, as it is still in most eastern nations, that the continual absence of age in a family would alone lower its claims to that dignity and respect which attend the presence of aged men. Under this combination of ideas, it is, in the East, considered a most venomous curse for one to wish that the family of another may never furnish old men; and nothing can imply, according to the feeling of the speaker, more commiseration on the one hand, a more disrespect on the other, than to say that a particular family has contained no old men for many generations.

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CHAPTER III.

4 That the LORD called Samuel: and he 1 How the word of the Lord was first revealed to answered, Here am I. Samuel. Il God telleth Samuel the destruction 5 And he ran unto Eli, and said, Here of Eli's house. 15 Samuel, though loth, telleth am I; for thou calledst me. And he said, El the vision. Samuel groweth in credit.

I called not; lie down again. And he went And the child Samuel ministered unto the and lay down. Lord before Eli. And the word of the 6 And the LORD called yet again, SaLord was precious in those days ; there was

muel. And Samuel arose and went to Eli, no open vision

and said, Here am I; for thou didst call 2 And it came to pass at that time, when And he answered, I called not, my Eli ras laid down in his place, and his eyes son ; lie down again. began to wax dim, that he could not see; 7 'Now Samuel did not yet know the

3 And ere the lamp of God went out in Lord, neither was the word of the Lord yet the temple of the Lord, where the ark of revealed unto him. God was, and Samuel was laid down to 8 And the Lord called Samuel again the

third time. And he arose and went to Eli, 101, Thus did Samuel before he knew the LORD, and before the word of the LORD was revealed unto hum.

7

me.

sleep;

his place.

and said, Here am I; for thou didst call me. shall not be purged with sacrifice nor offerAnd Eli perceived that the LORD had called ing for ever. the child.

15 | And Samuel lay until the morning, 9 Therefore Eli said unto Samuel, Go, and opened the doors of the house of the lie down: and it shall be, if he call thee, that LORD. And Samuel feared to shew Eli the thou shalt say, Speak, Lord; for thy servant vision. heareth. So Samuel went and lay down in 16 Then Eli called Samuel, and said, Sa

muel, my son. And he answered, Here am I. 10 And the LORD came, and stood, and 17 And he said, What is the thing that called as at other times, Samuel, Samuel. the LORD hath said unto thee? I pray thee Then Samuel answered, Speak; for thy ser- hide it not from me: God do so to thee, and vant heareth.

more also, if thou hide any 'thing from me 11 | And the LORD said to Samuel, Be- of all the things that he said unto thee. hold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which 18 And Samuel told him every whit, both the ears of 'every one that heareth it and hid nothing from him. And he said, shall tingle.

It is the LORD: let him do what seemeth 12 In that day I will perform against Eli him good. all things which I have spoken concerning 19 f And Samuel grew, and the Lord his house : 'when I begin, I will also make was with him, and did let none of his words an end.

fall to the ground. 13 "'For I have told him that I will judge 20 And all Israel from Dan even to Beerhis house for ever for the iniquity which he sheba knew that Samuel was "established knoweth; because his sons made themselves to be a prophet of the LORD. Svile, and he 'restrained them not.

21 And the LORD appeared again in Shi14 And therefore I have sworn unto the loh: for the LORD revealed himself to Sa. house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli's house muel in Shiloh by the word of the LORD.

? 2 Kings 21. 12. 3 Heb. beginning und ending:
* Or, and I will tell him, &c.

6 Or, accursed,

* Chap 9 99; 20, 31, kc. 7 He's. funei nut upon them, 8 Heb. so add, Or, word.

11 Or, faithful. 10 Heb. all the things, or words.

Verse 1. “ The child Samuel ministered unto the Lord.”—Josephus says that Samuel was, at this time, about twelve years of age. His ministry doubtless consisted of such Levitical duties as his years made him capable of performing. It is perhaps scarcely uecessary to explain that the transactions of this chapter did not take place in the tabernacle. It is evident that at a proper distance around this fabric were established such tents, cells, or other dwellings, as were requisite for the accommodation of the priests and Levites engaged in the sacred ministrations, and in which were also deposited the utensils employed in the services of the tabernacle. It seems as if Samuel lodged in some part of Eli's abode, or of one next or near to it; as it is evident that he was within call, or he would not else have supposed that Eli had called him. Indeed, as the lad was thus within call, and appears to have been accustomed to the call, we may infer that part of his duty consisted in some degree of personal attendance upon the high-priest. It is very probable that the remarkable circumstances of his birth led Eli to feel such a peculiar interest about the young Samuel, as might induce him to take him under his immediate care and protection.

CHAPTER IV.

tines: and they slew of the army in the

field about four thousand men. I The Israelites are overcome by the Philistines at

3 [ And when the people were come into Eben-ezer. 3 They fetch the ark unto the terror of the Philistines. 10 They are smitten again, the camp, the elders of Israel said, Wherethe ark taken, Hophni und Phinehas are slain. fore hath the LORD smitten us to day before 12 Eli at the news, falling backward, breaketh the Philistines ? Let us 'fetch the ark of his neck. 19 Phinehas' wife, discouraged in her the covenant of the LORD out of Shiloh unto travail with I-chabod, dieth.

us, that, when it cometh among us, it may And the word of Samuel ''came to all Israel. save us out of the hand of our enemies. Now Israel went out against the Philistines 4 So the people sent to Shiloh, that they to battle, and pitched beside Eben-ezer: might bring from thence the ark of the coand the Philistines pitched in Aphek. venant of the Lord of hosts, which dwelleth

2 And the Philistines put themselves in between the cherubims: and the two sons of array against Israel: and when they joined Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with battle, Israel was smitten before the Philis- the ark of the covenant of God.

1 Or, came to pass.

% Heb. wons.

3 Heb. the battle was spread.

* Heb. the array.

S Heb. take untu u.

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