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the kingdom out of thine hand, and given it | obeyed thy voice, and I have put my life in to thy neighbour, even to David :
hand, and have hearkened unto thy words 18 Because thou obeyedst not the voice which thou spakest unto me. of the LORD, nor executedst his fierce wrath 22 Now therefore, I pray thee, hearken upon Amalek, therefore hath the LORD done thou also unto the voice of thine handmaid, this thing unto thee this day.
and let me set a morsel of bread before 19 Moreover the LORD will also deliver thee ; and eat, that thou mayest have Israel with thee into the hand of the Philis- strength, when thou goest on thy way. tines : and to morrow_shalt thou and thy
23 But he refused, and said, I will not sons be with me: the LORD also shall deli- eat. But his servants, together with the ver the host of Israel into the hand of the woman, compelled him; and he hearkened Philistines.
unto their voice. So he arose from the 20 Then Saul "fell straightway all along earth, and sat upon the bed. on the earth, and was sore afraid, because of 24 And the woman had a fat calf in the the words of Samuel: and there was no house; and she hasted, and killed it, and strength in him; for he had eaten no bread took flour, and kneaded it, and did bake all the day, nor all the night.
unleavened bread thereof: 21 | And the woman
came unto Saul, 25 And she brought it before Saul, and and saw that he was sore troubled, and said before his servants; and they did eat. Then unto him, Behold, thine handmaid hath
handmaid hath they rose up, and went away that night.
7 Heb. made haste and fell with the fulness of his stature. Verse 2. “ I will make thee keeper of mine head.”— In the East the head is usually mentioned as the principal part of the body. In common language - the head” is equivalent to the life :' therefore, what Achish means is, probably, that he would make David the commander of his life-guard-a most honourable office in the East.
4. “ Shunem."-See the note to Josh, xix. 17.
"Gilbou.”—Mount Gilboa is composed of the range of hills stretching northward of Beth-shan, or Scythopolis, to the vicinity of the Sea of Tiberias, and forming the eastern boundary of the great plain of Esdraelon, and, in this part, the western boundary of the plain of the Jordan. The natives still call it Gebel Gilbo, or Mount Gilbo. Dr. Richardson says that it is about 800 feet above the level of the road (between the river and the mountains), and probably about 1000 feet above the level of the Jordan ; and perhaps 1200 feet above the level of the sea. It is a lengthened ridge, rising up in peaks, bearing a little withered grass and a few scanty shrubs, scattered about in different places. The plain of the Jordan, below these hills, is exceedingly beautiful and well cultivated. (See Richardson's Travels,' vol. ii.
7. “ A woman that halh a familiar spirit."-See the note on Deut. xviii. 1l. From the present text it appears that those who pretended to the spirit of divination included in their pretensions the power of obtaining access to the counsels of the dead; or, rather, of calling on the dead to appear to those who desired their presence. These were therefore what we call necromancers ; the belief in whose powers has existed in most countries, and still lingers perhaps in some of the dark corners even of our own land. The present chapter has given occasion to much discussion, turning chiefly on the points — whether the appearance of Samuel was real, or an imposition of the Pythoness on the credulity of Saul; and if real, by what power it was produced ?. That the spirit of Samuel was evoked by the woman, and came on the compulsion of her powerful arts, is an opinion that has had its advocates, but has of late years generally been rejected. Even Sir Thomas Brown, whose errors are often on the side of credulity, rejected this explanation. In his chapter, ‘Of the last and most common promoter of false opinions, the endeavours of Satan,' he says, _"Thus hath he (Satan) also made men believe that he can raise the dead, that he hath the key of life and death, and a prerogative above that principle which makes no regression from privations." After alluding to the opinions of the heathen philosophical schools on this point, he adds :-“ More inconsistent is the error of Christians, who holding the dead do rest in the Lord, do yet believe they are at the lure of the devil, that he, who is in bonds himself, commandeth the fetters of the dead, and, dwelling in the bottomless lake, (calleth) the blessed from Abraham's bosom :-that can believe the real resurrection of Samuel, or that there is any thing but delusion in the practice of necromancy, or the popular raising of ghosts.” (“Vulgar Errors,' B. i. c. 10.) For these and other reasons many believe that the witch of Endor was nothing more nor less than a cunning woman," who being acquainted with the state of public affairs-guessing that the tall stranger, who assured her that no harm should happen to herself, could be no other than the king of Israel and being well acquainted, as probably most of the Israelites were, with the person of Samuel-undertook the no very difficult task of deceiving Saul. Under
this view, it is thought that Saul did not see the appearance, but trusted to the woman's statement that she saw it; and that the voice which was heard was produced by the powers of ventriloquism :-though others suppose that the woman had an associate who personated the appearance and imitated the voice of the dead prophet. Some, however, conclude that this associate was a demon, whose aid she invoked on this occasion. But, thirdly, a large class of highly respectable interpreters contend that the appearance was really that of Samuel ; but, of course, deny that the power of the woman or of the devil had any share in its production. They think that when the woman was preparing either to use her craft in imposing on Saul, or else was about to employ her incantations in the expectation of raising a demoniacal spirit to answer his questions, Samuel himself, or his spirit, appeared, by the Lord's permission, to the very great and declared surprise of the woman herself. The text certainly does throughout convey the impression that the appearance was real, This also was the opinion of the ancient Jewish church, as expressed in Ecclus. xlvi. 20, where of Samuel it is said, that “after his death he prophesied, and shewed the king his end.”. Josephus also describes the appearance as really that of Samuel. Dr. Hales, in his “ New Analysis of Chronology,' has an able article on this view of the subject; in which he thinks that the following were among the reasons for the permitted appearance to Saul:-1, "To make Saul's crime
the instrument of his punishment, in the dreadful denunciation of his approaching doom. 2. To show to the heathen world the infinite superiority of the ORACLE OF THE Lord, inspiring his prophets, over the powers of darkness, and the delusive prognostics of their wretched votaries in their false oracles. - 3. To confirm the belief of a future state, by One who rose from the dead,' even under the Mosaical dispensation.” (Luke xvi. 31.)
* En-dor.”—This was near Nain, where Christ raised the widow's son from the dead. It is now ruined ; but in Jerome's time subsisted as a large village, which he places four miles south (more properly S.W.) from Mount Tabor. This agrees well enough with the situation where it was found by Burckhardt, who says that two hours and a half from Nazareth he came to the village of Denouny, and near it (that is, more to the south-east, we presume) found the ruins of En-dor, where the witch’s grotto is still shown. The Bible says nothing about her grotto. "She probably lived in a house, like the other inhabitants of the place.
on by hundreds, and by thousands: but Da1 Darid marching with the Philistines, 3 is disal- with Achish.
vid and his men passed on in the rereward lorced by their princes. 6 Achish dismisseth him, with commendations of his fidelity.
3 Then said the princes of the Philistines,
What do these Hebrews here? And Achish Now the Philistines gathered together all said unto the princes of the Philistines, Is their armies to Aphek: and the Israelites not this David, the servant of Saul the king pitched by a fountain which is in Jezreel. of Israel, which hath been with me these 2 And the lords of the Philistines passed | days, or these years, and I have found no
fault in him since he fell unto me unto this
7 Wherefore now return, and go in peace, , day?
that thou “displease not the lords of the 4 And the princes of the Philistines were Philistines. wroth with him; and the princes of the 8 9 And David said unto Achish, But Philistines said unto him, 'Make this fellow what have I done? and what hast thou found return, that he may go again to his place in thy servant so long as I have been 'with which thou hast appointed him, and let him thee unto this day, that I may not go fight not go down with us to battle, lest in the against the enemics of my lord the king? battle he be an adversary to us: for where- 9 And Achish answered and said to Dawith should he reconcile himself unto his vid, I know that thou art good in my sight, master? should it not be with the heads of as an angel of God: notwithstanding the these men ?
princes of the Philistines have said, He shall 5 Is not this David, of whom they sang 'not go up with us to the battle. one to another in dances, saying, "Saul slew 10 Wherefore now rise up early in the his thousands, and David his ten thousands ? morning with thy master's servants that
6 Then Achish called David, and said are come with thee: and as soon as ye be unto him, Surely, as the Lord liveth, thou up early in the morning, and have light, hast been upright, and thy going out and depart. thy coming in with me in the host is good in
il So David and his men rose up early my sight: for I have not found evil in thee to depart in the morning, to return into the since the day of thy coming unto me unto this land of the Philistines. And the Philistines day: nevertheless the lords favour thee not. I went up to Jezreel.
* Chap. 18.7, and 21. 11. 3 Heb. thou art not good in the eyes of the lords. * Heb. do not evil in the eyes of the lords.
il Chron. 12. 19.
5 Heb.be fore thee.
Verse 1. “ Aphek.”—See note to Josh. xii. 18. This must have been in the tribe of Issachar, in or on the borders of the great plain of Esdraelon ; and must not be confounded with the place of the same name in the tribe of Judah, where the Philistines had their camp in the time of Eli (chap. iv. 1).
By a fountain which is in Jezreel.”-Of this Jezreel see the note on Josh. xix. 17. The fountain was probably in the neighbour hood of the town, which seems to have been near the southern termination of the Gilboa mountains. Here then we have another great battle in the plain of Esdraelon, which may be taken as the great battle-field of Palestine (see Hos. i. 5). The names given here and in the preceding chapter, very clearly point out the eastern part of the plain and the hills behind it on the east, as the scene of this battle. Saul it seems had disposed his army on or near Mount Gilboa, his own station being near the fountain in Jezreel.
3. “ The princes of the Philistines.”—The heads of the other Philistine states, not the lords in the court of Achish, who probably concurred in or submitted to the views which the king entertained concerning David.
4 Then David and the people that were
with him lifted up their voice and wept, un1 The Amalekites spoil Ziklag. 4 David asking counsel is encouraged by God to pursue them.
til they had no more power to weep, 11 By the means of a revived Egyptian he is
5 And David's two wives were taken capbrought to the enemies, and recovercth all the tives, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail spoil. 22 David's law to divide the spoil equally the wife of Nabal the Carmelite. öetween them that light, and them that keep the
6 And David was greatly distressed; for stuff. 26 He sendeth presents to his friends.
the people spake of stoning him, because And it came to pass, when David and his the soul of all the people was 'grieved, every men were come to Ziklag on the third day, man for his sons and for his daughters: but that the Amalekites had invaded the south, David encouraged himself in the Lord his and Ziklay, and smitten Ziklag, and burned God. it with fire;
7 And David said to Abiathar, the priest, 2 And had taken the women captives, that Ahimelech's son, I pray thee, bring me hither were therein: they slew not any, either great the ephod. And Abiathar brought thither or small, but carried them away, and went on the ephod to David.
8 And David enquired at the Lord, say3 | So David and his men came to the ing, Shall I pursue after this troop? shall I city, and, behold, it was burned with fire; overtake them? And he answered him, and their wives, and their sons, and their Pursue: for thou shalt surely overtake them, daughters, were taken captives.
and without fail recover all.
1 Heb. bitter.
9 So David went, he and the six hundred 20 And David took all the flocks and the men that were with him, and came to the herds, which they drave before those other brook Besor, where those that were left be- cattle, and said, This is David's spoil. hind stayed.
21 | And David came to the two hun10 But David pursued, he and four hun. dred men, which were so faint that they dred men: for two hundred abode behind, could not follow David, whom they had made which were so faint that they could not go also to abide at the brook Besor: and they over the brook Besor.
went forth to meet David, and to meet the 11 g And they found an Egyptian in the people that were with him : and when David field, and brought him to David, and gave came near to the people, he 'saluted them. him bread, and he did eat; and they made 22 Then answered all the wicked men and him drink water;
men of Belial, of those that went with Da12 And they gave him a piece of a cake vid, and said, Because they went not with of figs, and two clusters of raisins: and when us, we will not give them ought of the spoil he had eaten, his spirit came again to him: that we have recovered, save to every man for he had eaten no bread, nor drunk any his wife and his children, that they may lead water, three days and three nights.
them away, and depart. 13 And David said unto him, To whom 23 Then said David, Ye shall not do so, belongest thou? and whence art thou ? And my brethren, with that which the Lord hath he said, I am a young man of Egypt, servant given us, who hath preserved us, and delito an Amalekite; and my master left mc, vered the company that came against us into because three days agone I fell sick. 14 We made an invasion upon the south 24 For who will hearken unto you in this of the Cherethites, and upon the coast which matter? but as his part is that goeth down halongeth to Judah, and upon the south of to the battle, so shall his part be that tarCaleb; and we burnt Ziklag with fire. rieth by the stuff: they shall part alike.
15 And David said to him, Canst thou 25 And it was so from that day 'forward, bring me down to this company? And he that he made it a statute and an ordinance said, Swear unto me by God, that thou wilt for Israel unto this day. neither kill me, nor deliver me into the hands 26 | And when David came to Ziklag, of my master, and I will bring thee down to he sent of the spoil unto the elders of Judah,
even to his friends, saying, Behold a 'present 16 C And when he had brought him down, for you of the spoil of the enemies of the behold
, they were spread abroad upon all the LORD ; earth, eating and drinking, and dancing, be- 27 To them which were in Beth-el, and to cause of all the great spoil that they had them which were in south Ramoth, and to taken out of the land of the Philistines, and them which were in Jattir, out of the land of Judah.
28 And to them which were in Aroer, and 17 And David smote them from the twi- to them which were in Siphmoth, and to them Lght even unto the evening of 'the next day: which were in Eshtemoa, and there escaped not a man of them, save 29 And to them which were in Rachal, four hundred young men, which rode upon and to them which were in the cities of the camels, and fled.
Jerahmeelites, and to them which were in 18 And David recovered all that the the cities of the Kenites, Amalekites had carried away: and David 30 And to them which were in Hormah, rescued his two wives.
and to them which were in Chor-ashan, and 19 And there was nothing lacking to them, to them which were in Athach, neither small nor great, neither sons nor
31 And to them which were in Hebron, daughters, neither spoil, nor any thing that and to all the places where David himself they had taken to them: David recovered all. / and his men were wont to haunt. ? Heb, their morrow. s Or, asked them how they did.
Heb. blessing. Verse 1. “ The Amalekites had invaded the south.”—The strength of the country, both of the Hebrews and of the PhiIstines, having been drawn northward to the battle in Esdraelon, the Amalekites, as might be expected, eagerly availed ti einselves of the opportunity of invading the defenceless south. In this expedition, which has entirely the character of a yomade incursion into a settled country, they were not likely to overlook David's town, or to fail of avenging his Ietent expedition against themselves. 2. “ Stew not ony. –The men capable of bearing arms having gone to the war, there were probably none of those remaining in the town whom it was usual to put to death. In most cases the women and boys were spared, to be used
5 Heb, and forward.
4 Heb. men.
as slaves, and the old people from the prevailing sentiment of respect to age. David, in his recert expedition against the southern tribes, did not spare any; while the Amalekites spared all. The reason of this difference, apparently to the disadvantage of David's humanity, is obviously that David had to do with armed men, whom it was not usual to spare, whereas the Amalekites found none but those whom it was unusual to destroy. This, and other war practices which accur in this chapter, such as the division of spoil, &c., have already been fully considered in the notes to Num. XXV. and Deut. xx. To this we cannot here abstain from adding the excellent illustration to be derived from the in structions which the Caliph Abubekr addressed to Yezid, when about to send him, at the head of an army, into Syria. After advising him to behave kindly to his own troops, he says: “When you meet your enemies, quit yourselves like men, and don't turn your backs ; and if you get the victory, kill no little children, nor old people, nor women. Destroy no palm-trees (see note on Deut. xx. 19), nor burn any fields of corn. Cut down no fruit trees, nor do any mischief to cattle, only such as you kill to eat. When you make any covenant, stand to it, and be as good as your word,” &c. (Ockley's .Conquest of Syria,' p. 24.)
9. “ The brook Besor.”—The winter torrent, now called Oa-di-Gaza, a little to the south of Gaza, agrees exceedingly well with the situation which the history would seem to assign to the brook Besor. It is mentioned in the note to Gen. xvi. 18, where we imagined it was the same with “ the river of Egypt,” but found occasion to retract that opinion in the note to Num. xxxv. 5. That so many of the men were tired by the time they got to the brook Besor, proves that Ziklag, and consequently Gath, was a good distance to the north, and furnishes another argument for not placing it so far to the south as Calmet, T. H. Horne, and others, have done. The vicinity of a river was naturally selected as the resting-place of those who were unable to proceed farther.
13. " My master left me, because three days agone I fell sick.”—This Egyptian had probably been taken prisoner by the Amalekites in one of their predatory incursions into the Egyptian territory, and retained as a slave. We have often had occasion to observe, that slaves are usually treated with great kindness in the East; but it does still not unfrequently happen, that in rapid journeys over the deserts, slaves are abandoned, and often perish, because the inhuman master, or his party, will not consent to encumber themselves with the necessary conveyance of, or attendance on, a sick man.
If he can, by his own exertions, keep up with his party, it is well; but, if not, there is little hope for him. Old slaves--that is, those who have long been the property of a particular master, or have been reared in his familyare, we believe, scarcely ever thus treated ; but slaves newly purchased or acquired, do not often meet with equal indulgence. This “ young man of Egypt” would seem not long to have been a slave to his Amalekite master.
14. “ Cherethites.”—Compare with verse 16, and Zeph. ii. 5; from which it appears highly probable that this was either a general name for the Philistines, or for a section or tribe of that nation inhabiting the southern part of Philistia. There are other opinions; but we apprehend that this is founded on the most satisfactory evidence.
27. “ To them which were in Beth-el," &c.—Bethel and the other principal towns in this list have already been noticed. South Ramoth is mentioned in Josh. xix. 8, among the cities of Simeon. Jattir is included in Josh. xv. 48, among the towns of Judah in the mountains. Jerome reads it “Jether," as he well might, and identifies it with a large village which existed in his time under the name of Jethira. It was in the interior of Daroma, near Malatha, about twenty miles (south-east, of course) from Eleutheropolis, which places it among the mountains, as the text referred to requires, to the south of Hebron, among the well-known haunts of David. Aroer was hardly the Aroer on the other side Jordan, as all the places mentioned seem to have been in the tribe of Judah or on its borders: the Septuagint reads “ Arouel” instead of " Adamah” in the list of Judah's towns given in Josh. xv. (verse 22); and this may be the place intended. Eshtemoa is mentioned next to Jattir in the list (Josh. xxi. 16) of the towns which Judah gave to the Levites, and, like it, is among the towns enumerated in the mountains of Judah. Jerome says, that it was in his time a Jewish village of Daroma, to the north of another village called Anem (probably the Anim mentioned after Ashtemosh in Josh. xv. 50), which he seems to place to the east of Hebron, but modifies his statement by saying, that it was near another village of the same name, south of Hebron, which may make the result south-east or even south-south-east. Rachul is nowhere else mentioned in the Bible, neither is Alach. Chor-ashan is doubtless the Ashan given to the tribe of Simeon in Josh. xix. 7, and perhaps the same as the village of Beth-Asan of Jerome's time, fifteen miles from Jerusalem. These presents, sent to the elders of so many important places, show that David had a party of powerful friends in his own tribe.
and the Sarchers hit him; and he was sore
wounded of the archers. 1 Saul having lost his army, and his sons slain, he
4 Then said Saul unto his armourbearer. and his armourbearer kill themselves. 7 The Philistines possess the forsaken towns of the Israelites. Draw thy sword, and thrust me through 8 They triumph over the dead carcases. 11 They therewith; lest these uncircumcised come of Jabesh-gilead, recovering the bodies by night, and thrust me through, and 'abuse me. But burn them at Jabesh, and mournfully bury their
his armourbearer would not; for he was sore bones.
afraid. Therefore Saul took a sword, and Now 'the Philistines fought against Israel: fell upon it. and the men of Israel fled from before the 5 And when his armourbearer saw that Philistines, and fell down 'slain in mount Saul was dead, he fell likewise upon his Gilboa.
sword, and died with him. 2 And the Philistines followed hard
6 So Saul died, and his three sons, and Saul and upon his sons; and the Philistines his armourbearer, and all his men, that same slew Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Melchi- day together. shua, Saul's sons.
7 | And when the men of Israel that 3 And the battle went sore against Saul, were on the other side of the valley, and
11 Chron. 10. 1.
* Or, wounded.
* Heb, shooters, men with bows.
• Heb. found him.
• Or, mock me.