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a good claim to the title of a crown. It was undoubtedly a regal distinction, and several examples of it occur in the sculptures and coins of ancient Persia. The subjoined cut is a portrait of Aga Mohammed Khan, the last but one of the Persian kings. Though a modern subject, it has been introduced under the impression that the form of the very conspi. cuous cap furnishes a complete and striking illustration of some of the ancient Oriental combinations of the crown with the helmet.
“ The bracelet that was on his arm."—We believe that Harmer was the first to suggest that Saul's bracelet, which the Amalekite brought with the crown to David, was one of the badges of royalty. In proof that the bracelet was used in the East as a badge of power, he cites a passage from D'Herbelot, stating that when the Khalif Cayem Bemrillah granted the investiture to an eastern prince of certain dominions, which his predecessors had possessed, and among the rest of the city of Bagdad itself, the ceremony of investiture was performed by the khalif's sending him, together with the necessary firman, a crown, a chain, and bracelets. This is a very good illustration ; and the conjecture which Harmer seems to found upon it becomes certainty, when we refer to past and existing usage of Persia. In some of the accounts (for almost every account differs in some particulars) of the closing scene in the life of the unhappy Yezdijird, in whose reign the Arabians conquered Persia, it is related that when he sought refuge in a mill from his pursuers, he offered the miller, as a bribe, his girdle, his bracelets, and his ring; and that his bracelets formed a royal distinction is established by the present Persian custom, which only allows them to be worn by the king and his sons. We have shown that the bracelet upon the arm” includes both bracelets, usually so called, and armlets. That of Saul was probably an armlet, like the distinction of Persian royalty, which is a jewelled band worn above the elbow. Those which the king wears in his dress of state make a most glorious appearance, and are valued at nearly a million of our money. The principal stone in each of these bazúbends, as they are called, is of immense value. That in the left armlet, called the derid-e-noor, or “sea of light,” is considered the diamond of the finest lustre in the world, and weighs 156 carats: that in the right armlet is called the taj-e-mah, or “crown of the moon,” and is a most splendid diamond, weighing 146 carats. These facts may assist us in forming some idea of the conspicuous character of the armlet or bracelet in the regalia of the ancient Oriental kings. But the custom was not exclusivoly Oriental ; for, according to Turner, bands of gold, worn around the neck, arms, and knees, were emblems of supreme authority among the ancient British kings.
18. “ He bade them teach the children of Judah the use of the bow.”—The words, “ the use of,” not being in the original, soine commentators think that “the Bow” was the title of the ensuing elegy, and that this is what was commanded to be taught. This is possible: but the common reading seems more tban equally so, as the experience of the efficacy
of this weapon, in the recent engagement with the Philistines (1 Sam. xxxi. 3), was well calculated to direct David's attention to the subject, and induce him to desire that more attention should be paid to the bow for warlike purposes. Davids own stay among the Philistines was also calculated to operate for the same result. The bow was indeed well keses to the Hebrews long before this time, but it does not appear that it was used to any considerable extent as a mililary weapon. We read of no body of archers in the Hebrew army till after David's time; but very large bodies of archers uz subsequently mentioned. They appear to have been chiefly Benjamites, who seem, throughout their history, to have teru remarkable for their partiality to missile weapons. The archers
of Ephraim are, however, mentioned once. (Compaze 1 Chron. viii. 40; 2 Chron. xiv. 8 and xvii. 7; Ps. lxxviii
. 9.) The frequent reference to archery in the Psalms voud aloce suffice to show the interest which David took in the subject. The Bible itself bears witness to the extreme antiquity of the bow. Ishmael, when banished from his father's tents, “ dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer ;" and his nephew, Esau, employed the bow in his hunting. (Gen. xxi. 20 and xxvii
. 3.) Very probably the intration of the bow originated in the desire to obtain a weapon for the distant attack of animals, whose strength or wiftness rendered a close assault difficult or dangerous. Such a weapon would, of course, soon come to be employed against man; and to this we find allusions towards the end of Genesis, where, speaking of Joseph, the dying Israel
* The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him. But his (own) bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong ” (chap. xlix. 23, 24). Here the strength of the arms is properly alluded to, a strong arm being necessary to bend a strong bow. The aged patriarch had, on a former occasion, told Joseph: “ Beteld I have given thee one portion above thy brethren, which I took out of the hand of the Amorite with my sword and with my bow," (chap. xlviii. 22.)
The most ancient offensive or defensive arms seem also to be those which are the most universal ; because that simplicity of construction which leads to early invention, leads also to independent discovery among different and unconnected matists
. This applies to the bow, which we find to have been very extensively diffused. it exists among nations the test brutal, or ignorant, or savage, and even in the islands which lie most remote from the continent; although, indeed, there have been some nations among whom no trace of its existence can be discovered.
De ancient bows were for the most part of wood, but we sometimes read of horn being employed. Those of wood waze tipped with horn, and those of horn with metal-often gold or silver. Indeed the bow was sometimes wholly of metal, as steel or brass ; and such are mentioned in Scripture (Job xx. 24; Ps. xviii. 34). These of course were, from their stiffness
, bent with great difficulty; whence David, in the last-cited text, properly mentions it as a proof of the extraordinary strength with which the Lord had endowed him, that a bow of steel was broken by his
arms. Thus, on retut of the force required to bend some ancient bows, whether of wood, metal, or horn, it was often proposed as a trial of strength to bend some particular bow; and we find ancient heroes glorying in the possession and use of a bow which no one but themselves could bend. Such was the famous bow of Ulysses. It had remained among his treasures during the twenty years of his absence from Ithaca. In the end, it was agreed that the
hand of his supposed
widow Radid be given to him who, out of the numerous suitors, should be abie to bend this bow, and to send the arrow through twee rings The bow was of horn, and the string had remained unbitched at one end, as usual when the weapon was
in te. Not one of the suitors was able even so far to bend the bow as to hitch on the string at the loosened end, dikongh they tried to relax the rigidity of the bow by chafing it with suet before the fire. At last Ulysses himself, who las prezent in the disguise of a beggar, takes it, and the description of the manner in which he deals with it is highly
“ He now, with busy look and curious touch,
When the wary hero, wise,
As with a swallow's voice. Had made his hand familiar with the bow,
He seized a shaft, which at the table's side Poising it and examining-at once
Lay ready drawn.
He lodged the reed As when in harp and song adept, a bard
Full in the bowstring, drew the parted head Strings a new lyre, extending first the chords,
Home to his breast, and, aiming as he sat, He knits them to the frame at either end,
At once dismiss'd it. Through the num'rous rings With promptest ease! with such Ulysses strung Swift few the gliding steel, and, issuing, sped His own huge bow, and with his right hand thrillid Beyond them." The nerve, which in its quick vibration sang
Odyss. xxi. CowPER.
From A BAS-RELIEF AT Tueses.
From A BAS-RELIEF AT Tackt-1-Bostax. We may suppose that such a bow as this, and such as David referred to, is that in the hands of the Persian ki the annexed cut, who, in the original sculpture at Tackt-i-Bostan, is represented of colossal proportions, in the a shooting at wild boars. It is observable that in the above extract, and in the other descriptions of Homer, the er the arrow is drawn home to the breast, rather than to the right ear, as in Egyptian and Persian figures, and is more modern practice both of the east and west.-The length of the ancient bows seems to have been very va but so far as we can collect, those intended for efficient use, and not merely for teaching archery, were seldon than four feet long, or more than six. Somewhat above five feet may have been the average proportion of its leng
The bowstring was, among the ancients, formed of leathern thongs, horsehair, and the sinews of oxen.—The a were usually either of reed or light wood, headed with bone, ivory, sharp stone, brass, or iron. They were some simply pointed, but oftener barbed, or leaf-shaped, like a spear-head. Arrow heads of bronze have been fou Egypt, triangular, in the shape of an elongated cone, with a barb at each angle. The horrible practice of pois the points of arrows, which now exists among many barbarous nations, is very ancient. Ulysses is represent Homer, as having made a voyage to the island of Ephyre
"In his swift bark, seeking some pois'nous drug,
Wherewith to taint his hrazen arrows keen,
Gave to him, for he loved him past belief." It is thought that St. Paul alludes to such poisoned weapons when he exhorts the Ephesians to take “the shi faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darls of the wicked.” But more probably the allusion another use of arrows,—which was, to fasten combustibles to them, and so send fire against the enemy or amon dwellings of a besieged place, or the works and engines of a besieging army. There seems a most distinct refe to poisoned arrows in Job vi. 4: and to the custom of shooting combustibles in Ps. cxx. 4; and perhaps the reference may be detected in the figurative language which compares lightning to the arrows of the Almighty x. 14). The pestilence, and other sudden, devastating and unavoidable calamities, are also described as the arro God." Arrows were usually feathered, generally with the wing feather of a goose or other large bird ; hence, and reference to their swiftness, there was a two-fold propriety in the poetical epithet of “winged," so often applied to destructive missiles.
The arrows were kept in a quiver, which was generally either round or obeliscal, and wider at the open than closed end, as the feathered ends of the arrows, which were uppermost, required more room than the points. It was to the back, so that the archer by putting his hand over the right shoulder could easily take them out as wanted ems to have been closed by a lid or an over-looping flap of skin, when no immediate occasion for the arrows emplated. The bow also had its case, in which it was kept, under similar circumstances. It was usually of r cloth, and was commonly suspended from the girdle, as represented in the hindermost figure of the cut in 513. Taking it from the case, in preparation for action, is what Habakkuk alludes to in—" Thy bow was made ced” (ch. ii. 9). The bow when out of its case was usually carried on the left arm or shoulder; but in a : at Tackt-i-Bostan, a king is represented with his bow about his neck, in such a fashion as might have sugle Turkish use of the bowstring in strangling state-offenders. of the above particulars are strikingly illustrated in the account which Homer gives of the archery of Panad we cite it with the more satisfaction on account of the proximity of the date of the Trojan war to the times ar consideration: “He complied,
Should fly to smite him ere the wound were giv'n. at the word uncas'd his polish'd bow,
His quiver's lid displaced, he chose a dart horn of a salacious mountain-goat.
Unflown, full-fledg'd, and barb’d with bitterest woe; t goat, forth issuing from his cave, himself, He lodgʻd it on the cord, but ere it flew, mbush placed, had stricken in the breast,
To Lycian Phæbus vow'd, at his return back into his cave supine he fell.
To Zelia's walls, in honour of his aid, sixteen palms his measur'd length of horn
A hecatomb, all firstlings of the flock. spir'd aloft ; the bow-smith, root to root,
Then, seizing fast the reed, he drew the barb pted each, shav'd smooth the wrinkled rind, Home to his bow, the bowstring to his breast. i polish'd all, and tipp'd the points with gold. And when the horn was rounded to an arch, bow he strung, and, stooping to his task,
He twang’d it. Whizz’d the bowstring, and the reed ared it well for use, behind a fence
With fell impatience started to the goal.” şcian shields, lest, seeing him, the Greeks,
Iliad, iv. 110–133. Cowper. was however by no means generally used in the Trojan war; though it was preferred by some individual The spear seems to have been considered the more honourable weapon in battle. It would seem, however, that the bow was cultivated as an accomplishment, useful in the chace and in occasional combats. Achilles and te know to have been able archers, though we do not find them use the bow on the field of battle. In later find bodies of archers in the armies of Greece, Persia, and Rome, as well as in that of the Hebrews. The ad Persians were the most famous archers of antiquity. The latter are spoken of in Scripture (Isa, xiii. 8; 35; 1. 9, 14, 29, 42), which will therefore afford us another opportunity of noticing their archery; and of le manner in which skill and power with the bow were obtained, and also the manner in which they were disbe present note being chiefly intended to illustrate the instrumental and manual parts of a subject which the so frequently brings under our notice.
FROM AN EGYPTIAN BAS-RELIEF AT THEBES. The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places.”—Jonathan is here intended, as appears from verse 25. “O , thou vast slain in thine high places." With Jonathan the poem begins, and with Jonathan, that tender and mous friend, it ends. The word ("tzebi) rendered “beauty” in the present text, and elsewhere “glory” Boer," means also the antelope or gazelle, which is regarded in Western Asia as the symbol of agility and It is probable that the animal comparison should be preferred, since the figure is then more sustained in the lause." It will then read, as in Boothroyd :-"O antelope of Israel! pierced on thy high place!” and that translator understands that the last clause refers to the habit among animals of the deer kind, when closely of running at last to their usual haunt and there awaiting the fatal stroke. We see the allusion repeated in and still with reference to Jonathan. There may also be a reference in this comparison to the swiftness for nathan was celebrated, for in verse 23, Saul and his son are described as being "swifter than eagles."—We tuntent with this single observation, without attempting to analyze this impressive elegy, or to expatiate on the izcumstances of beauty and true pathos which it offers.
serrants of Ish-bosheth the son of Saul, went
out from Mahanaim to Gibeon. I Darid. ly Goddirectin, with his company greth
13 And Joab the son of Zeruiah, and the up to Hebrim, where he is made king of Judah. 5 He commendeth them of Jabesh-gilead for their
servants of David, went out, and met 'toge. 6 Abner maketh Ish-trasheth ther by the pool of Gibeon: and they sat king of laroel. 12 A mortal skirmish between down, the one on the one side of the pool, tueire of Almer's and trelce of goat's men. 18 and the other on the other side of the pool. Avahel is slain. 25 At Alner's motion Joab
14 And Abner said to Joab, Let the spundeth a retreat. 32 Asahei's burial.
young, men now arise, and play before us. Asd it came to pass after this, that David And Joab said, Let them arise. enquired of the LORD, saying, Shall I go up 15 Then there arose and went over by into any of the cities of Judah?. And the number twelve of Benjamin, which pertained Lord said unto him, Go up. And David to Ish-bosheth the son of Saul, and twelve said, Whither shall I go up? And he said, of the servants of David. Into Hebron.
16 And they caught every one his fellow 2 So David went up thither, and his two by the head, and thrust his sword in his wives also, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and fellow's side; so they fell down together : Abigail Nabal's wife the Carmelite.
wherefore that place was called 'Helkath3 And his men that were with him did hazzurim, which is in Gibeon. David bring up, every man with his hous- 17 And there was a very sore battle that hold: and they dwelt in the cities of He- day; and Abner was beaten, and the men bron.
of Israel, before the servants of David. 4 'And the men of Judah came, and there 18 ( And there were three sons of Ze. they anointed David king over the house of ruiah there, Joab, and Abishai. and Asahel: Judah. And they told David, saying, That and Asahel was as light 'of foot 'as a wild
the men of Jabesh-gilead were they that roe. buried Saul.
19 And Asahel pursued after Abner; 5 | And David sent messengers unto and in going he turned not to the right the men of Jabesh-gilead, and said unto hand nor to the left from following Abner. them, Blessed be ye of the LORD, that ye 20 Then Abner looked behind him, and have shewed this kindness unto your lord, said, Art thou Asahel? And he answered, eren unto Saul, and have buried him.
I am. 6 And now the LORD shew kindness and 21 And Abner said to him, Turn theç truth unto you: and I also will requite aside to thy right hand or to thy left, and you this kindness, because ye have done this lay thee hold on one of the young men, and thing.
take thee his "armour. But Asahel would 7 Therefore now let your hands be strength-not turn aside from following of him. ened, and be ye valiant: for your master 22 And Abner said again to Asahel, Turn Saul is dead, and also the house of Judah thee aside from following me: wherefore have anointed me king over them.
should I smite thee to the ground? how 8. But Abner the son of Ner, captain then should I hold up my face to Joab thy of "Saul's host, took Ish-bosheth the son of brother? Saul, and brought him over to Mahanaim; 23 Howbeit he refused to turn aside:
9 And made him king over Gilead, and wherefore Abner with the hinder end of the over the Ashurites, and over Jezreel, and spear smote him under the fifth rib, that the over Ephraim, and over Benjamin, and over spear came out behind him; and he fell all Israel.
down there, and died in the same place: 10 Ish-bosheth Saul's son was forty years and it came to pass, that as many as came old when he began to reign over Israel, and to the place where Asahel fell down and reigned two ycars. But the house of Judah died stood still. followed David.
24 Joab also and Abishai pursued after 11 And the 'time that David was king in Abner: and the sun went down when they Hebron over the house of Judah was seven were come to the hill of Ammah, that lieth years and six months.
before Giah by the way of the wilderness of 12 | And Abner the son of Ner, and the Gibeon. 11 Mac. 2. 57. % 1 Sam. 31. 13. 3 Heb.be ye the sons of valour.
s teb. number of days, * Heb. them together. 7 That is, the field of strong men. 8 lleb. of his feet. Heb. as one of the roes that is in the field,
10 Heb. from after Abner,
* lleb. the host which was Saul's.