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the king, Behold the head of Ish-bosheth | Ziklag, 'who thought that I would have the son of Saul thine enemy, which sought given him a reward for his tidings: thy life; and the LORD hath avenged my 11 How much more, when wicked men lord the king this day of Saul, and of his have slain a righteous person in his own seed.
house upon his bed ? shall I not therefore 9 | And David answered Rechab and now require his blood of your hand, and Baanäh his brother, the sons of Rimmon take you away from the earth? the Beerothite, and said unto them, As the 12 And David commanded his young LORD liveth, who hath redeemed my soul men, and they slew them, and cut off their out of all adversity,
hands and their feet, and hanged them up 10 When 'one told me, saying, Behold, over the pool in Hebron. But they took the Saul is dead, 'thinking to have brought good head of Ish-bosheth, and buried it in the tidings, I took hold of him, and slew him in 'sepulchre of Abner in Hebron. • Chap. d. 4, 15. • Heb. he was in his own eyes a bringer, &c. • Or, which was the reward I gave him for his tidings. + ChoP. 8. 8.
Verse 3. " Bed."-See the note on Deut. iii. 11, where we have mentioned the duan or divan, as the usual, but not exclusive seat as well as bed of the Orientals. We now give a portrait of Seyd Mustapha Pasha, seated on such a divan ; a part of it only is exhibited, but enough to show what is intended. A divan, then, consists of a cushion placed under the wall of a room, upon a bench or platform, often very slightly raised ahove the floor, and frequently upon the floor itself-rith other cushions agarust the wall to support the back. These duans often extend along the upper end and two sides of the apartment, particularly in rooms where the master of the house receives friends and visiters. The Persians, despising the luxury of cushions, have only a breadth of thick felt spread upon the carpeted floor, and have generally no cushions between the back and the wall, unless when lounging in their private apartments. We have said already that the Orientals generally take their afternoon nap, and have their beds at night on these duans, or on ibe floor itself, and have also noticed exceptions. It will be observed that the Pasha is seated in the corner. This is the place of honour in the East; and it seems to have been so among the ancient Hebrews; for we read in 1 Sam. XX. 25, that Saul's usual seat was “by the wall,” which may probably be understood as near the corner.
12 « Cut off their hands and their feet.”—The mutilation of the hand or foot for particular crimes seems to be implied in the ler talionis—“Hand for hand, foot for foot," &c. And, in Deut. xxv. 12, excision of the hand is expressly assigned to a particular offence. In all such directions there seems an idea of retaliating on the offending member. Thus, the crimes which the hand or foot are instrumental in committing, are punished with the loss of the kand or foot. In the present instance, the hands and feet of the assassins are cut off after death, perhaps with a reference to the crime of the foot in entering the king's bedchamber, and the crime of the hand in shedding innocent blood. It is remarkable that mutilation only remains in the letter of our own law as a punishment for offences against the majesty of the king—the loss of the hand being ordained for striking within the limits of the king's court, or in the presence of his judicial representative. At present, in the East, mutilation is, in common with other punishments, inficted, according to no specific rule, on those whose situation renders them obnoxious to the operations of arbitrary pover. But in other cases, where the law is left to its own operation, the excision of the hand is usually for offences of ibe hand, as theft, forgery, &c. In Persia, robbery and theft have of late years been punished with death. But the lay only prescribes mutilation; and this law was so much observed by the early Mohammedans, that, as we perceive in Arabian tales, the loss of the hand was a permanent stain on a man's character, as an evidence that he had been punished for theft. The law of this subject, as stated in the Mishat-ul-Masibih,' from a tradition given by Abuhurairah, is, that a thief is to have his right hand cut off; if he offends a second time, he is to be deprived of the left foot; if he steals again, he is to lose his left hand; and if a fourth time, his remaining foot is to be taken from him.
blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in
hither: "thinking, David cannot come in i The tribes come to Hebron to anoint David over larael. 4 David's age. 6 He taking Zion from
hither. the Jebusites dwelleth in it. 11 Hiram sendeth 7 Nevertheless David took the strong to David. 13 Eleven sons are born to him in Je hold of Zion: the same is the city of David. rusalem. 17 David, directed by God, smiteth the Philistines at Baal-perazim, 22 and again at the
8 And David said on that day, Whosomulberry trees.
ever_getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth
the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, TAEN 'came all the tribes of Israel to David that are hated of David's soul, 'he shall be unto Hebron, and spake, saying, Behold, chief and captain. "Wherefore they said, we are thy bone and thy flesh.
The blind and the lame shall not come into 2 Also in time past, when Saul was king the house. over us, thou wast he that leddest out and 9 So David dwelt in the fort, and called broughtest in Israel : and the LORD said to it the city of David. And David built round thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and about from Millo and inward. thou shalt be a captain over Israel.
10 And David 'went on, and grew great, 3 So all the elders of Israel came to the and the LORD God of hosts was with him. king to Hebron; and king David made a 11 9 And Hiram king of Tyre sent mesleague with them in Hebron before the sengers to David, and cedar trees, and carLORD: and they anointed David king over penters, and 'masons: and they built David Israel.
an house. 4 9 David was thirty years old when he 12 And David perceived that the LORD began to reign, and he reigned forty years.
had established him king over Israel, and 5 In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven that he had exalted his kingdom for his years and six months : and in Jerusalem he people Israel's sake. reigned thirty and three years over all Israel 13 | And "David took him more concuand Judah.
bines and wives out of Jerusalem, after he 6. And the king and his men went to was come from Hebron : and there were yet Jerusalem unto the Jebusites, the inha- sons and daughters born to David. bitants of the land : which spake unto Da- 14 And "these be the names of those that vid, saying, Except thou take away the were born unto him in Jerusalem; Shammuah, and Shobab, and Nathan, and Solo- | LORD hath broken forth upon mine enemies mon,
1 Coron. 11. 1. * Psalm 78.71. Chap. 9. 11. • Or, saying, David shall not, &c. Or, because they had said, even the
blind and the lame. He shall not come into the house. 7 Heb. went going and growing. . Heb. hewers of the stone of the wall. 101 Chron, 3.9,
s 1 Chron. 11. 6.
& Chron. 14. 1.
11 Chron. 3.5.
before me, as the breach of waters. There15 Ibhar also, and Elishua, and Nepheg, | fore he called the name of that place "Baaland Japhia,
perazim. 16 And Elishama, and Eliada, and Eli- 21 And there they left their images, and phalet.
David and his men is burned them. 17 But when the Philistines heard that 22 And the Philistines came up yet they had anointed David king over Israel, again, and spread themselves in the valley all the Philistines came up to seek David; of Rephaim. and David heard of it, and went down to 23 And when David enquired of the the hold.
LORD, he said, Thou shalt not go up; bui 18 The Philistines also came and spread fetch a compass behind them, and come themselves in the valley of Rephaim. upon them over against the mulberry trees.
19 And David enquired of the LORD, say- 24 And let it be, when thou hearesi the ing, Shall I go up to the Philistines ? wilt sound of a going in the tops of the mul. thou deliver them into mine hænd? And the berry trees, that then thou shalt bestir thyLORD said unto David, Go up: for I will self: for then shall the LORD go out before doubtless deliver the Philistines into thine thee, to smite the host of the Philistines. hand.
25 And David did so, as the LORD had 20 And David came to "Baal-perazim, commanded him; and smote the Philistines and David smote them there, and said, The from Geba until thou come to Gazer. 12 I Chron. 11. 16, and 14. 8. 14 That is, The plain of breaches.
16 Or, took them away.
13 Isa, 28. 21.
15 I Chron. 14. 12.
Verse 3. “ King David made a league with them...before the Lord.”-It is important not to let this escape our attention, as it shows that the Hebrew monarchs were by no means absolute, in the strongest sense of the term ; but that there were certain conditions which they pledged themselves to observe. These leagues and covenants, which we find newlyelected kings entering into with the people, formed what would, in our days, be called a constitution. The terms of these covenants are not expressed ; but a careful study of the historical books will enable the reader to discover several very important privileges of royalty as well as restrictions on the royal power. The covenant probably stated the rights of the king on the one hand, and those of the people on the other. This is not the only instance of such a covenant. On the election of Saul, Samuel wrote " the manner of the kingdom” in a book, and laid it up before the Lord; and this book probably stated the rights and limitations of the kingly power, and formed the basis on which the Hebrew government was established. The covenant was not renewed at the commencement of every fresh reign, as probably every succeeding king was considered, without any formal stipulation, to stand on the same ground as his predecessors. Hence we only read of such covenants in the cases of Saul, the first king; of David, the founder of a new dynasty; and of Joash (2 Kings xi. 17), who succeeded after an usurpation. It seems, however, that the people retained the right of proposing, at the commencement of a new reign, even in the ordinary course of succession, such further stipulations as ibeir experience under former reigns suggested: and the refusal of Rehoboam to listen to any such proposal, gave occasion for ten of the cribes to secede from their allegiance to the house of David, and establish a new and independent kingdom.
5. “ Jerusalem."-As Jerusalem henceforth becomes of importance in the history of the Jews, we shall here state such particulars concerning it, as may conduce to the better understanding of the references to it, in the history of the kingdom of which it was the capital; purposing, in the New Testament, to resume the subject, with a view to the illustration of such references to its then existing and then foreseen future state, as occur in that portion of the Holy Seriptures.
The Scriptural history of Jerusalem we shall not here give. This would be essential in any other work; but in notes to the Bible it seems a supererogatory undertaking to repeat that which the text itself sufficiently states. To the time of Ezra and Nehemiah the history of Jerusalem is found in the Scriptures ; and will for that period be unnoticed, unless as the several prominent circumstances of that history occur in the sacred narrative. But in our future notes, we shall supply all that part of its history concerning which the Scripture contains no information. This will be from the termination of the Old Testament accounts to the time of our Saviour, with a view of the subsequent desolations which He foretold ; and this will lead to some notice of its present condition. All therefore we have now to do, is to convey some general impressions concerning the site and immediate environs of this renowned city; and even this duty is further limited by the occasion which we shall find to notice, sepa, mately, the particular spots which are historically mentioned in the Scriptures. In such a general ichnographical giance as we have now to offer, it is desirable, as far as possible, to abstain from noticing such circumstances as have praeeded from the hands of man and the alterations of time—that is, to render the view, as far as possible, natural caly
. But it is impossible altogether to exclude such circumstances ; since all our topographical notices are of much later date than the historical statements in the Old Testament, We cannot
do better than commence our statement
with the following extract from Tasso, the topographical accuracy of which is vouched by the descriptions of all travellers: “ Jerusalem is seated on two hills
There grow few trees to make the summer's shade, Of height unlike, and turned side to side,
To shield the parched land from scorching beams, The space between a gentle valley fills,
Save that a wood stands six miles from the towa,
By East. among the dusty valleys, glide
The silver st-eams of Jordan's crystal flood , So art helps nature, nature strengtheneth art.
By West, the midland sea, with bounders tied
Of sandy shores, where Joppa whilom stood;
The golden calf was rear'd in Bethel wood;
Bethlem by South, where Christ incarnate was,
FAIRFAX. Edit. 1817. Windsor. The earliest topographical description is that given by Josephus, in B. v. c. 4, of his “ Jewish War.” We must quote this, because it has formed the basis of all statements concerning the site of Jerusalem. We take Whiston's translation. “The city of Jerusalem was fortified with three walls, on such parts as were not encompassed with impassable valleys. The city was built upon two hills which were opposite to one another, and have a valley dividing them asunder: at which valley the corresponding rows of houses on both hills end. Of these hills, that which contains the upper city is much higher, and in length more direct. Accordingly it was called the Citadel by king David. ....But it is by us called the Upper Market place. But the other hill, which was called Acra, and sustains the lower city, is in the shape of the moon when she is horned. Over against this there was a third hill; but naturally lower *** than Acra ; and parted formerly from the other by a broad valley. However, in those times when the Asamoneans reigned, they filled up that valley with earth; and had a mind to join the city to the temple. They then took off part of the height of Acra, and reduced it to be of less elevation than it was before, that the temple might be superior to it. Now the valley of the Cheesemongers, as it was called, and was that which, as we told you before, distinguished the hill of the upper city from that of the lower, extended as far as Siloam. For that is the name of a fountain which has sweet water in it, and this is in great plenty also. But on the outsides these hills are surrounded by deep valleys; and by reason of the precipices on both sides, are every where impassable." Recurring to the walls mentioned in the first sentence, the historian says:— Of these three walls the old one was hard to be taken; both by reason of the valleys, 45 and of that hill on which it was built, and which was above them. But besides that great advantage, as to the place where they were situate, it was also built very strong: because David, and Solomon and the following kings were very zealous about this work." After some further account of the walls, which has no immediate connection with our 1 present subject, he adds that "the city, in its ultimate extension, included another hill, the fourth, called Bezetha, to the north of the temple, from which it was separated by a deep artificial ditch.” But this part of the city belonging to the New Testament history, will not at present engage our attention.
From this account of Josephus, as compared with those furnished by others, it appears that Jerusalem stood on three hills, Mount Zion, Mount Acra, and Mount Moriah, on which the temple stood. Or we may consider them ag" two, after Mount Acra had been levelled, and the valley filled up which separated it from Mount Moriah. Of these hills Zion was the highest, and contained the upper city, the city of David, with the Citadel, the strength of which and of the position on which it stood, enabled the Jebusites so long to retain it as their strong hold, and to maintain their command over the lower part of the city, even when they were obliged to allow the Israelites to share in its occupation. This Mount Zion (which we are only here noticing cursorily) formed the southern portion of the ancient city It is almost excluded from the modern city, and is under partial cultivation. “It is nearly a mile in circumference, is highest on the west side, and towards the east slopes down in broad terraces in the upper part of the mountain, and nar. row ones on the side, as it slopes down towards the brook Kedron” (Richardson). The same author, confirmed by other travellers, observes that this mount is " considerably higher than the ground on which the ancient (lower) city stood, or that on the east leading to the valley of Jehoshaphat, but has very little relative height above the ground on the south and on the west, and must have owed its boasted strength principally to a deep ravine, by which it is en: compassed on the east, south, and west, and the strong high walls and towers by which it was enclosed and flanked completely round." The breadth of this ravine is about 150 feet, and its depth, or the height of Mount Zion above the bottom of the ravine, about 60 feet. The bottom of this ravine is rock, covered with a thin sprinkling of earth, and in the winter season is the natural channel for conveying off the water that falls into it from the higher ground. On both of its sides the rock is cut perpendicularly down; and it was probably the quarry from which much of the stone was taken for the building of the city. Other particulars concerning Mount Zion, as distinguished from the lower city, we must reserve for future notice; particularly as the site here assigned to it has been disputed by Dr. Clarke and Mr. Buckingham ; but it was necessary to state thus much at present.
Let us then understand the site of Jerusalem as a mass or ridge of hill, forming the southern end of a plain that extends northward towards Samaria, and of which Mount Zion forms the southern and most elevated part. The component hills of this mass are not now so distinctly marked as the description of Josephus would suggest. He himself describes one hill as having been levelled, and the valley which separated it from the adjoining hill filled up; and the present merely undulated appearance of the site may be owing either to the wearing away of the hills and the filling up of the valleys, or to the concurrence of both causes, the one producing the other. But the site, as a whole, without further attending to the distinction of hills, is surrounded on the east, west, and south by valleys of various depth and breadth, but to the north extends into the plain, which in this part is called “the plain of Jeremiah,” and is the best wooded tract in the whole neighbourhood. The progressive extension of the city was thus necessarily northward, as stated by Josephus. The town most probably, almost certainly, began at the southern or Mount Zion part of this site, and in its ultimate extension, according to Josephus, comprehended a circuit of thirty-three furlongs; whereas that of the modern town does not appear to exceed two miles and a half. The confining valleys are often mentioned in Scripture. Those on the east and south are very deep. The former is the valley of Jehoshaphat, through which flows the brook Kedron, and the latter is generally called the valley of Hinnom. This denomination is extended by some inquirers also to the western and least deep valley, while others call it the valley of Rephaim, or else the valley of Ġihon. The accuracy of these designations we shall not at present investigate. On the opposite side of these valleys rise hills, which are mostly of superior elevation to that of the site of the city itself. That on the east, beyond the brook