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TVs.- liter death their sweet enjoyments lost,
VThen in hell's spacious barge their ghosts had crolt
TV infernal river, and unhonour'd all, 51
To ether heir* their Tad possessions fall;
Aad these among the miserable train
Had long in clarkness and oblivion lain,
Had not tic Ccan muse cxtoll'd their name,
Attii'd his sounding lyre, anJ giv'u them death-
les* fame [meed,
Verse imm the raee-horse with fair honour'*
That in the field has lignaliz'd his speed.
Vhc hii the Lycian thiefs, and Trojan known,
Or Cycoos,delicate with milk-white crown, 60
Hid not the Sard delighted to rehearse
Their bold achievements in heroic verse?
Ul.ffcsne'er had endless glory gain'd.
Though (01 ten tedious summers he suftain'd
t!nron>ber*d toiN, while he observant stray'd
From clime to clime, and men and states survey'd;
£»'o rfecagh he 'scap'd the Cyclops' gloomy cell,
Aod quick descended to the realms of hell:
PfeiJffriai and Eamius with the dead
Had lain a* nameless as the beasts they fed; 70
And brave Laerteo with liis parting breath
Kad dy'd, but Homer suatch'd their names from
deali.

AU human fame is by the muses spread,
Aod heirs consume the riches of the dead.

':i» as easier task, when tempests roar, Tj cans the waves that ceasclesi lash the shore: Tn ei£er far to bleach the Ethiop soul, Than turn the tenor of the miser's foul. Carte on the wretch, that thu» augments his store! indm;c& possessing, may he wilh for mure! 80 'fia? prefer fair same, with better sense, iai, more than riches, mens bcnevulcr.ee. Aadyet.ahs '. what guardian (hall I choose, Thj: princely chief to patronize^my muse bi perilous paths the race of poets rove, fibiocs their fate, without the aid of Jove, hit still the fun rolls glorious in the skies'; Aid future victors in the race will rise-:

The chief will rife, who (hill my numbers claim,
Eqtial to great Kacid'S in fame, 90
Equal to Ajax on the Phrygian plains,
Where lllus' tomb near Simois' stream' remains.
The bold Phœnicians, sons of Libya far,
Shrink at the rumour of approaching war:
For lo '■ their spears the ayracusians wield,
And bend the pliant fallow to a shield:
These Hiero leads, superior to the rest,
And on his helmet nods the horse hair crest.

0 Jupiter, and thou Minerva chaste.

And Proserpine, to our protection haste, IOO
With Ceres thou delighted to partake
Those fair built walls by Lysimelia's hike:
Oh, may the sates, in pity to i^ur woes,
)n the Sardonian main disperse our sots!
And let the few that reach their country tell
Their wives and children how their fathers fell!
AnJ let, the natives dwell in peace and reft
In all the cities which the foes p'jssest! .
May swains, along the pastures, fat and fair,
In flocki of thousands tend their bleating care! II©
And lowing herds, returning to the stall,
Wind o'er the plain, as flow as foot can fall!
May the crops flourish, and with feeble voice.
On leafy shrubs the grashopaer rejoice I
While spiders stretch their webs along the shore,
And war's dread name be never mention'd more!
May godlike poets, ill undying strain,
Bear Hiero's praise beyond the Scythian main,
Beyond the walls, with black bitumen r.nde.
Where proud Semiramis the sceptre fvfay'd. 110

1 am but one ; Jove's daughters fair regard
With sweetest favour many a living bard;
These shall Sicilian Arethusa sing,

The happy people, and the valiant king. .

Ye Graces Eteoclean, who reside

Where Minyas, curst by Theban«, roils his tide,

Utulk'd I'll rest; yet not, if raH'd, refuse

With you to bring my sweet ass mate muse:

Without you what to men can pleasures give?

Oh 1 may 1 ever with the Graces live! 130

NOTES ON LDYLLIUM XVI.

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Or will (he choose to strike the lyre

Devoted to the gods in hymns of praise?

Ver 5.

Qnu tibi Mæcenas? quis mine erit aut Proculeiu», Aut Fabius? quisCotta itcrun i q iis Lfntulus alter.' Juv. Sat. 7. 94.

All these great men were celebrated for their generosity and liberality to the Muses.

Ver. 7.

Nemo cibo, nemo hospitia, tectoque juvabit.

Ju-v. Sat. 3. ill. Through the wide world a wretched Vagrant roam, For where can starving merit find a home In vain your mournful narrative disclose, While all neglect, and most insult your woes.

6'- J'.knfan* i were said to hold their

Ver. 9. The protection os princes is the greatest incentive to the diligence of poets, and often of more avail than the inspiration of Apollo, " Et "spes & ratio (ludiorum in Cæsare tantum." Juvenal says,

Tœdia tune subeunt animos, tune seque, suamque
Terpsichoren oditfacunda & nuda senectus. Sat. 7.

Last, crusiVd by age, in poverty ye pine,
And sighing curse the unavailing nine.

Bur. Grunt.

Ver. 17. hands in

Ver. ZQ. The Greek is avurtev tj yew xvapta, My leg is further off than my knee. 1 would not recollect an Englilh proverb more correspondent to the original than what I have substituted ; the Romans have one similar,

Tunica pallio proprior. PlantMy waistcoat is nearer than my cloak.

Ver. 13.

Priores Mæonius tenet
Sedes Homerus. Hor. B. 4. CJ< <j.

Ver. 2j.
Nullus argento color est, avaris
Abditæ terris inimice lamnæ
Crispe Sallusti, nisi temperato

Splendcat usu. Hor. B. 1. Oit !■

My Sallust's generous thoughts disdain
The sordid miser's hoarded gain;
Since silver with no lustre glows,
But what a moderate use bestows. Duncoatr.

Ver. 28. Horace has something similar;
Cur eget indignus quisquam te divete .' &c.

B. 1. S. 3.

Then, like the sun let bounty spread her ray,
And shine that superfluity away.
Oh, impudence of wealth! with all thy store.
How dar'st thou let one worthy man be poor?

Post.

Ver. 34. Here arc some admirable precepts for

social life; some of them seem to be borrowed from Homer's Odyssey, B. 15. which I shall give in Mr. Pope's version.

True friendship's laws are by this rule exprest,
Welcome the coming, speed the parting guest.

Which he has adopted in his imitation of the ad satire of the id book of Horace.

Ver. 38. The sense os the original is," Like "some ditcher, who by labouring hard with his *' spade, has rendered his hands callous."

Ver. 40.

Nunc et pauperiem 5c duros perferre labores.

Æn. B. 6. 636.

Ver. 41. Antiochus was king of Syria: the Alenadæ and Scopadæ reigned in Thcssaly and the neighbouring islands.

Ver. 44. Anciently the masters of families used to distribute to their slaves, every month, such a measure of corn as would keep them the mooth, which they called Dimmsan , thus Terence,

Quod ille unciatim vix de detnenso sud,
Suum defraudans genium, comparsit miser.

Pbor. AS I. St-1.

Ver. 48. Cranon was i city of Theflily.

Ver. 50.

Et ferruginci subvectat corpora cymba.

Æn. 6. 304.

Ver. fz.

Linqucnda tcllus,et domus,et placens

Uxor Hor. B. J. OJt 14.

Ver. 53.

—Omnes illachrymabiles Urgentur, &c

Hor. B. 4. Oi 9. Vain was the chief's, the sage's pride! They had no poet, and they dy'd. In vain they schem'd, in vain they bled! They had no poet, and arc dead. Post.

Ver. 53. Simonides, a native of Ccoi, an island in the Ægean Sea. He was a moving and a pas-' sionate writer, and succeeded chiefly in defies; he gained as much honour as he gave by his poenn on the four celebrated battles at Marathon,Thermopylæ, Salami* and Platæa.

Ver. 59. These were Sarpcdon and Glaucos: Cycnus, the son of Neptune, was slain by Achilles and turned into a swan: Hesiod, according tothi Scholiast, describes CycnUi with a white head.

Ver. 65. Thus Horace, Multorum providus urbes, Et mores heminum inspexit, latumque per æqnw I him sibi, dum soeiis reditum paiat, aspera mulu Pertulit. B.\.Bf'.

Ver. 69. It is here worth observation, that a! ter the enumeration of these great heroes, Thei critus docs not forget his pastoral capacity, < omit to mention the swineherd Eumxus, and tl neatherd Philactius. See Homtrt OJ^Jfry.

Ver. 73.

Dignum laude virum musam vetat roori.

Hor. B. 4. OJt '.

Ver. 74.

—Extructis in altum Divitiis potietur hseres.

Hor. B. a. Ode . Ver. 75. Virgil seems to have imitated this pal sage:

Quern qui scire velit, &c. Ceor. B. %. IC<

Or tell the billows, as they beat the shores, When all th' Ionian sea with raging; Boreas roar

ffarto

Ver. 88. Thus Virgil:
Alter erit Tiphys, et altera quae vebat Argo
Delectas hcroas: erunt etiam altera bella,
Atque iterum ad Trojan magnus mittetur Achilli

Another Tiphys shall new seas explore.
Another Argos land the chiefs on shore;
New wars the bleeding nations shall destroy,
And great Achilles find a fecund Troy.

Dryd. ami W

Ver. 91. Homer has,

Suinjinini Iak. JliaJ, B, II. 4'

From ancient llu,' ruin'd monument. T>

[graphic]

Ver. 96. Thai Virgil, Flectuntque Cil^guas

^taWmni crates. Æn. B. 7 632.

And (or the shield" the ptian' fallow bend. Pitt.

Pindar seems to make an allusion to this circanulasce, in his first Pythian Ode, which I (hall pre in the excellent transtation of the late Gilbert West, Esq.

And do thcra aid Sicilia'* hoary lord,
To form and rule his son's obedient mind;

And still in gntden days of sweet accord,
And mutual peace the friendly people bind,

Then grart, O son of Saturn, grant my ptay'r!
The bold Phœnician on his shore detain, &c.

Ver. 9S.

—Cri£a hirsatot equina. Æn. 10. $69.

Higb on his head the crested helm he wore. Pitt.

Ver. 09. Ai yxs, "Liu xvhttt saris s. <. A. This verse is an imitation of that of Homer;

i- pater Hie dcurn faciat, fic altus Apollo.

Æn. 16. 87J.

S". may great Jove, and he, the god of light. Pitt. Ter. IOC. These deities were worshipped by the

Ver. ici. A lake not far from Syracuse. Ver. lea. These were the Carthaginians, who ■fas frnjoently to invade Sicily.

Ver. 105. The Greek is niifmmi, numerabiIn. o£ r« /*/</, which is elegantly used sur a fiv: Horace ha» the same expression, '* Quo "lace populus numerabilia, utpote parvui.

Art. Put. 2c6.

Ter. 110. Thus the Psalmist, " That our stocks

* asay bring forth thousands and ten thousands in

* «r streets;" that is, in their pastures or walks; *, asay they increase so as not only to fill our r^hnit but the streets of our villages.

Vtr. 114.
fab ardent! resonant arbusta cicadis.

Virg. Eel. a.

Ver. tie.
In foribus laxos suspendit aranea casset.

Vug. Gcorg. 4. 447.

Ver. 119. Thus Ovid;

Ubi dicitur altam

Coctilibus muris cinxisse Semiramis arbem.

Met. 4. 57. ———Where proud Semiramis, for state, RaU'd walls of brick magnificently great. EtsJen.

Ver. 125. By the Graces are meant the Muses: Eteocles was the rider son of Oedippus by Jocasta: he is said to have first sacrificed to the Muses at Orchonienos: whence they are called the Eteoclean Deities, or Graces. Homer mentions the river Minyas Ilia!, B. II.

Soft Minyas rolls his waters to the main. Ptf*.
Ver. 130. Milton seems to allude to this,
These deHghts if thou cast give,
Mirth, with thee 1 mean to live.

There is a beautiful passage in my friend Mr. William Whitchead's excellent poem called, " The "Danger of Writing Verse," which 1 (hall beg leave to transcribe, at the subject it the same with this Idyllium, und the last line refers to our next poem, "The Encomium of Ptolemy:" complaining that the great showed no regard to the Muses, he fays,

Vet let ev'n these be taught in mystic rhyme,
"Tia verse alone arrests the wings of time.
Fast to the thread of life annex'd by fame,
A seulptur'd medal bears each human name:
O'er Leslie's streams the fatal threads depend,
The glittering medal trembles as they bend;
Cl»se but the (hears, when chance or nature calls,
The birds of rumour catch it as it falls;
A while from bill to bill the trifle's tost,
The waves receive it, and "tia ever lost.

But should the meanest swan that cuts the stream, Confign'd to Phœbus, catch the favour'd name. Safe in her mouth she bears the sacred prize, To where bright Fame's eternal altars rise: 'Vis there the Muse's friends true laurels wear, There * Egypt's monarch rcignt, and great Augustus there.

Ptaltmy Pbiladi'fbui.

IDYLLIUM XVII.

PTOLEMY.

Tilt ARCUMENT. *

TrucmiTus rises above his pastoral style when he celebrates the praises of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the sett of Ptolemy Lagus and Berenice: he derives his race from Hercules; enumerates his mans oties; describes his immense treasures, and though he extols him for his military preparations, he cammendt his love of peace: but above all he commemorates his royal munificence to the foot ef tie Mssa.

Viti Jove begin, ye nine, and end with Jove, I But if of noblest men the song ye cast,
Vaac'er ye praise the greatest god above; j Let Ptolemy be first, and midst, and last.

Heroes of o!J, from demigods that sprung,
Chose lofty poets who their actions fung:
Well slciU'd, I tune to Ptolemy my reel;
Hymns are of owls above the honour'd meed.
To Ida, when the woodman winds his way,
Where verdant pines their towering 'ops display,
Doubtful he stand', with undetermin'd look, II
Where first to deal the meditated stroke:
And where shall I commence r new themes arise,
Deeds that exalt his glory to the Ikies.
If irom his fathers we commence the plan,
Lagu*, how great, how excellent a man!
Who to no earthly potentate would yield
Tor wisdom at the board, or valour in the sit Id:
Him with the gods Jove equals, and has given
A golden palace in the realm-, of heaven; 20

Near him fits Alexander, wife and great,
The fell destroyer of the Per fun state.
Against them, thron'd in adamant, in view
Alcides, who the Cretan monster slew,
Reclines, and, as with gods the feast he shares,
Glories to meet his own descendant heirs,
from age and pain's impediments r«rpriev'd,
And in the rank of deities receiv'd.
for in his line are both these heroes clas»'d,
And both deriv'd from Hercules the last. 30

Thence, when the nectar'd bowl his love inspires,
And to the blooming Hebe he retires,
To this his bow anil quiver he allots,
To that his iron club, distinct with knots;
Thus Jove's gre3t son is by his offspring led
To silver.footed Hebe's ros) bed.

How Berenice (hone! her parents pride;
Virtue her aim, and wisdom was her guide:
Sure Venus with light touch her bosom prest,
Infusing in her snlt ambrosial breast 40

Pure, constant love : hence faithful records tell,
No monarch ever lov'd his queen so well;
No queen with such um'ying passion Surn'd,
For more than equal fond less she return'd.
Whene'er to love the chief his mind unbends,
To his son's care the kingdom he commends.
Unfaithful wives, dissatisfied at home,
Let their wild thoughts on joys forbidden roam:
Their births are known, yet of a numerous race.
None shows the features of the father's face. .50
Venus, than all the goddesses more fair,
The lovely Berenice was thy care;
To thee 'twas owing, gentle, kind and good,
She past not Acheron's woe-working flood.
Thou cinght'st her e'er she went where spectres

dwell,
Or Ohar.n, the grim ferryman of hell;
And in thy temple plac'd the royal fair,
Thine own high honour's privilege to share.
Thence gentle love in mortals she inspires,
And soft solicitudes, and sweet desires. 60

The fair Dcipyle to Tydcus bare
Stern Diomed, the thunderbolt of war:
And Thetis, goddess of the azure wave,
To Pcleus brought Achilles, bold and brave:
But Berenice nobler praise hath won,
Who bore great Ptolemy as great a son:
And sea-girt Cos ieceivd thee soon as born,
When lir^k thine eyes beheld the radiant morn.

For there thy mother to Lucira prayM,
Who fends, to those that suffer chiM-'oed.aid. ;j
She came, and friendly To the genial bed,
A placid, sweet tranquillity she sited
O'er all her limbs: and thus serene and mild,
Like his lov'd sire, was born the lovely child.
Cos law, and fondling in her anus the boy.
Thus spnkc transported, with the voice os joy;
"Quick rise to light, auspicious ba^e be burn!
11 And me with equal dignity ail rn
11 As Phccbu; De-los;—on sani'd Triop's brow,
"And on the neighbouring Dorian race bestow £<■>
"Just honours, and as favourably Guile, [ifle."
"As the god views with joy Rhenxa » fertile
The island spoke; and thrice the bird of Jove
His pinions clang'd, resounding from above;
Jove's omen thunderM from his eagle's wings;
Jove loves anil honours venerable kings.
But whoniin infancy his care befriends,
Him power, and wealth,and happiness attends:
He rule* brlov'd unbounded tracts of land,
And various oceans roll at his command. 9*

Unnumber'd nations view their happy plains,
FrtshiertllizM by Jove's prolific rains:
But none, like Kgypt, can such plenty boast.
When genial Nile o'trflows the humid coast:
No realm for numerous cities thus renown'd,
Where arts and fam'd artificers abound:
Three times ten thousand towery towns obey
lllulhious Ptolemy's pacific sway.
He o'er Phœnicia, Syria, Libya reigns,
Ar.ilian deserts, Ethiopian plains, IC*

Pamrhjlians, and Cilicians hold 10 war,
And tariausbrave, and I.ycians fam'd afar;
The distant Cyclades c< nfels his rtign.
Whose fleets assert the empire of the main;
So far his Blips their conquering flags display,
Hiru seas, and lands, and sounding floods obey.
Horsemen and I pear men guardthemonarch round,
Their arms resplendent send a brazen sound;
Such tributes daily aggrandize his store,
No king e'er own'd such boundless wealth be-
fore. ll»
His peaceful subject* ply at ease their toil,
No foes invade the fertile banks of Nile,
Nor pitch their carrps along the peaceful plains
With war to terrify the village swains:
No pirates baunt the shore in cjuelt of prey,
Nor bear by stealth the lowing herds away;
For graceful Ptolemy rcnownM in arms,
Guards his extended plaint from hostile harm',
Like a wife king, the conquests of his sire
He knows to keep, and new Otks to acquire, is*
And yet he hoards not up his useless store.
Like ants stilllabouring, still amassing more;
The holy slirines and temples are hi- care,
For they the first fruits of his favour share:
To mighty kings his bounties he extends,
To states confederate, and illuulrious friends-
No bard at Bacchus' festival appears,
Whose lyre has power to charm the ravish"d ears.
But he bright honours and rewards imparts.
Due to his merits, equal to his arts: 13*
At;d poets hence, for deathless song renotvn'dj
The generous fame of Ptolemy resound.

it what mare glorious cn,n the wealthy
Than thin to purchase fair and laling fjmc?
The greac Atridz this alone enjoy.
While all the wealth and spoil of pluoder'd
Troy,

That fcay'd the raging flame, or whelming

I.ie» katitd in oblivion's greedy grave.
Close trade great Ptolemy, at virtue's call,
His father's footsteps', but furpast them all. 140
He rur'd the fragrant temple, and the (Urine,
And to his parent* offer'd rites divine:
Wtnse form* iu gold and ivory are design'd,
And sr->rstiipp'd as the guardians of mankind.
Taere »ft a? circling moons divide the year,
•a the red altar bleeds the fatten'd steer;

His hands the thighs for holy flames divide,
Fair blooms the lav'd Arsinoe at his side;
Than whom no nobler queen of mortal race,
A greater prince detains in fond embrace; 150
And, as kind nature the soft tie approves,
Dearly the brother and the husband loves.
Such are the nuptials in the blest abodes,
And such the union of immortal gods:
Iris, who still retains her virgin bloom,
Whose raJiant fingers breathe divine perfume,
For Jove prepares the bed, where at, his side
Fair Juno steeps, his sister and his briJe.
Hail, noble Ptolemy! illustrious king!
Thee peer to mighty demigods I'll sing; ifio
And future ages (hall the verse approve:
Hail; aud fair virtue only a(k of Jove.

NOTES ON IDYLLIUM XVH.

Tie common title of this Idyliism is " The

* Encomium of Ptolemy." Heinsins makes no coubc but that the inscription sh >uld be limply 'Ptolemy." for Theocritus had written two perm, one was called " Ptolemy," the other

* Berenice;" the first celebrated the virtues of 'i» illustrious monarch, the second those of his Knl mother, who at that time was enrolled a •

tie jfods. For Ptolemy's character, fee ICj.k^sxiv. and the note on verse 8x.

Per. I. The Greek is, E» Æ/jf ae%vum/cc, v/tiri are the very words with which Aratus beju» hit poem called Ptamminai a« Theocritus and Arams were intimate friends, and flourished nearly at the fame time, though the Sicilian hard was elder, ic » hard to fay which borrowed from the •ier: Virgil has, A Jive principium, Musæ. Eel. 3.

Ate principium, tibi defines. Ed. 8.

With thee began my songs, with thee sh.il ■ end.

Wart.

Ver. 4. Milton has,

Oa earth join all ye creatures to extol

Hiai first, him last, him midst, and without end.

Milton has greatly improved this by adding,

* and without end ;" as he is celebrating God, and Theocritus only a man,

Ver. 8.

Cirraite Dl super! placantnr, carmine mane*.

Ear. B. t. Ep. I.

Verse can the gods of heaven and hell appease' Ver. 16. Ptolemy Lagus was one of Alexander's captains, who upon that monarch's death, and the ivifino of his empire, had Egypt, Libya, and that part of Arabia which borders upon Egypt, allotted to bis share : but at the time of his death, he held several other countries, which are enumerated below. See ver. 9 7, &c. Ver. XX.

^os inter Augustus recumbent. Her. J3 3. 0. 3. Tm«««. IL

wist, kc] I would choose to read, tutf.cpiiTM, variuni cuufilium habcns,and notrja( with

Casaubon.

Ver. 14. , Tu Crcslia mactas Prodigia. Æn. 8. 194.

You flew the bull whose rage dispeopled Crete.

Pitt.

Ver. t S—Sic Jovis interest

Optatis epulis impiger Hercules. Hor. B. 4. OJe 8.

Ver. 26. The Greek is, A/warn 2s xaktnnt fati nToii; yiyctuns, which is rendered, ** immor"talcs vero vocantur Dii, sine pedum usu facti;" and being formed without feet they are called immortal gods. It is amazing how a dear and elegant passage should be corrupted into such nonsense: Hcinsitis undoubtedly reads right; tot *t<riIII yiyxnris, that is, xvry vnutot I Tij, ** those thaT "were his nephews;" he rejoices that his nephews are called (or are become) immortal.

Ver. jo.

Julius, a magno demiffum nomen Jiilo. Æji. I. ;S8* Ver. 31.

Purpureo bibit ore nectar. Hor. B. 3. 0. 3.
Ver. 33. Thus Ovid. Met. B. 3. 165.

——rNympbarum tradidit uni
Armigeræ jaculum, pharetramcjuc arcufjue
retentos.

Ver. 4j. Ptolemy made his son Philadelphia partner with him in the empire.

Ver. 49. The Greek is, rsv}jjrf}i yotai, which if wrong trailflated/'facilescj'iidcmpartussunt," their births are easy; whereas it should be rendered, aa Casaubon rightly observes," their birth" are »asily "to be judged of," viz. that they are adulterous; the latter part of the verse explains the former, '^ -11 Ji yarxi, riuva 5' war* tciKsra T«tji, u their "births are easy to be judged, for the children do "not resemble their father." The ancients imagined thuse children not to be legitimate wh»

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