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Tie fields, as yet untill d, their fruits afford, And there the choicest fruits adorn the fields, And fill a lumptuous, and unenvy'd board : And thrice the fertile year a harvest yields. Thus, crowu'd with happiness their ev'ry day, 170 O! would I had my hours of life began Scrise and joyful, pass'd their lives away.
Before this fifth, this sinful race of man; Włen in the grave this race of men was laid, Or had I not been callid to breathe the day, Sao was a world of holy demons made,
Till the rough iron age had pass'd away : deral (çiri's, by great Jove design'd,
For now, the times are such, the gods ordain, To be on earth the guard ans of mankind; That every moment shall be wing'd with pain; lov:oble to morial eyes they go,
Condemn'd to sorrows, and to toil we live; 240 Ani muš our actions, good, or bad, below; Reft to our labour death alone can give; Th' inimartal (pies with watchful care preside, And yet, amid the cares our lives annoy, And thrice ten thousand round their charges | The gods will grant fonie intervals of joy : glide :
Buc how degen'rate is the human state They can reward with glory, or with gold; 180 Virtue no more diftinguishes the great; A pow'r they by divine permission hold.
No safe reception shall the stranger find; Wore than the firft, a second age appears,
Nor shall the ties of blood or friendship bind; Which the celestials call the silver years.
Nor Mall the parent, when his sons are nigh, The golden age's virtues are no more;
Look with the fondness of a parent's eye, Nature grows weaker than she was before; Nor to the fire the fon obedience pay, 250 Lo frength of body mortals much decay; Nor look with rev’rence on the locks of gray, And taman wisdom seems to fade away.
But O! regardless of the pow'rs divine, An handred years che careful danies employ, With bitter caunts shall load his life's decline. Beore they form’d to man th' unpolish'd boy; Revenge and rapine shall respect command, Who when he reach'd his bloom, his age's prime, The pious, just, and good, neglected stand. Foand, meafur'd by his joys, but short his time. 191 | The wicked shall the better man distress, Men, prone to ill, deny'd the gods their due, The righteous suffer, and without redress; And by their follies, made their days but few, Stri& honesty, and naked truth, shall fail, The altars of the bless'd neglected stand,
The perjur'd villain in his arts prevail. Without the off'rings wbich the laws demand; Hoarse envy shall, unseen, exert her voice, 26. But angry Jove in dust this people laid,
Attend the wretched, and in ill rejoice, Retaule no honours to the gods they paid. At last fair miodefly and justice fly, This second race, when clos'd their life's short span, Rob'd their pure limbs in white, and gain the sky, t'as bappy deene'd beyond the fate of man ; 199 From the wide earth they reach the bleft abodes, Thee lancs were grateful to their children made; And join the grand assembly of the gods, Each paid a rev'rence to his father's shade. While niortal men, abandon'd to their grief, And now a third, a brazen people rise,
Sink in their sorrows, hopeless of relief. Unlike the former, men of monstrous size :
While now my fable from the birds I bring, Strong arms extensive from their shoulders grow, To the great rulers of the earth I fing. Their limbs of equal magnitude below;
High in the clouds a mighty bird of prey 270 Potent in arms, and dreadful at the spear,
Bore a melodious nightingale away; They live injurious, and devoid of fear :
And to the captive, shiv'ring in despair, Os the crude flesh of beasts they feed alone, Thus, cruel, spoke the tyrant of the air. Savage their nature, and their hearts of lone; Why mourns the wretch in my superior power? Their houses brass, of brass the warlike blade, 210 Thy voice avails not in the ravish'd hour; Iros was yet unknown, in brass they trade : Vain are thy cries; as my despotic will, Fericus, robuft, impatient for the fight,
Or I can set thee free, or I can kill. War is their only care, and fole delight,
Unwisely who provokes his abler foc, To the dark shades of death this race descend, Conquest fill fies him, and he strives for woe. By civil discords, an ignoble end! [ed might, Thus spoke th' enslaver with insulting pride. 280 Strong though they were, death quell'd their boaft 0! Perses, justice ever be thy guide : And fore'd their ttubborn Souls to leave the light. May malice never gain upon thy will,
To these a fourth, a better race succeeds, Malice that makes the wretch more wretched Of godlike heroes, fam'd for marcial deeds;
ftill. Them demigods, at first, their matchless worth 220 The good man, injur'd, to revenge is flow, Proclaim aloud all through the boundless earth, To him the vengeance is the greater woe. Thele, horrid wars, their love of arms defroy, Ever will all injurious courses fail, Semne at the gates of Thebes, and some at Troy. And justice ever over wrongs prevail; These, for the brothers fell, detelted Arife! Right will take place at last, by fic degrees; For beauty those, the lovely Grecian wife! This truth the fool by sad experience fees. To these does Jove a second life ordain,
When suits commence, dishonest strife the cause, Same happy fuid far in the distant main,
Faith violated, and the breach of laws, 29 Where live the hero-shades in rich repat, Ensue; the cries of justice haunt the judge, Remote from mortals of a vulgar cast :
Of bribes the glutton, and of fin the drudge. There in the island of the bless'd they find. 230 Through cities then the holy demon runs, Where Sacurn reigns, an endless calm of mind; Unseep, and mourns the manners of their sons,
Dispersing evils, to reward the crimes
But by reflection better taught, I find 469
Trust to the will of Jove, and wait the end,
And good shall always your good acts attend.
300 These doctrines, Perses, trcalure in thy heart,
But be the will of Jove in these obey'd,
In there the bruce creation men exceed,
They, void of reason, by each other bleed,
While man by justice should be keep'd in awe,
But he that will not be by laws confin'd,
A wound immortal shall that man receive;
0! Perses, foolish Perses, bow thine ear
Short is the way, and on an easy ground.
Wisely consid'ring, to himself a friend, 390
Nor is the man without his hare of praise,
Who well the dictates of the wise obeys;
Ever observe, Perfes, of birth divine,
Like drones, the robbers of the painful bee, 401
Him famine follows with her train of woes.
The man industrious ftranger is to need,
The flothful man, who never work'd before,
349 Shall gaze with envy on thy growing store,
Strictly observe the wholesome rules I give,
O! when I hear the upright man complain, Ne'er to thy neighbour's goods extend thy cares,
Nor be neglectful of thinc own affairs.
Let no degen'rate shame debase thy mind, 420
Shame that is never to the needy kind;
The man that has it will continue poor;
He must be bold that would enlarge his fose.
But ravish aot, depending on thy might, | So to yourself will you secure a friend;
He never after will refuse to lend.
Neglect a fordid, and ungrateful mind.
The man who gives from an unbounded breast, Pollutes with joys unclean his brother's bed; Though large the bounty, in himself is bless'd: Or wbo, regardless of his tender trust,
Who ravishes another's right thall Gnd, To the poor helpless orphan proves unjust ; Though linall the prey, a deadly sting bchind. Or, when the father's fatal day appears,
Content, and honestly enjoy your lot,
And often add to that already got;
And of thy toil the fruits salute thine eyes.
Thele precepts be thy guide thrs' life to leer: To view our neighbour's bliss without delire, Next leara the gods immortal to revere :
l'o dread pot famine, with her aspect dire ! With popolluced bands, and heare sincere, Be these thy thoughes, to these thy heart incline, Let from your herd, or flock, an off'ring rise; And lo! these bleflings shall be surely thine. of the pute vidim burn the white fat thighs; When at your board your faithful fricod you And to your wealth confine che sacrifice,
greet, Let the rich fumes of od'rous incense Ay,
Without reserve, and lib'ral be the treat: A gratefol favour, to the pow'rs on high; To fine the wine a frugal husband fhows, The due libation nor negled to pay,
When from the middle of the calk it flows.'
Alike it is unsafe for men to be,
Let not a woman steal your heart away,
By tender looks, and her apparel gay; Plenteous the feast, and smiling be the bowl; When your abode the languishing inquires, No friend forges, nor entertain thy foe,
Command your heart, and quench the kindling Nor let thy neighbour uninvited go.
fires; Happyrbe mad with peace his days are crown'd,460 If love the vows, 'tis madness to believe, Whole house an honelt neighbourhood surround; Turn from the thief, the charms bue to deceive: Of foreiga harnis he never llceps afraid,
Who does too rafhly in a woman trust,
510 Thes, always ready, bring their willing aid; Too late will find the wanton proves unjust. Cheerful thould he some busy pressure feel, Take a chalte matron, partner of your breast, They lend an aid beyond a kindred's zeal; Contented live, of her alone poffefs'd; They never will conspire to blast his fame : Then thall you number many days in peace, Secure be walks, unfully'd his good name : And with your children see your wealth increase; Unhappy man, whom neighbours ill surround, Then thall a duteous careful heir survive, His oren die oft' by a treach'rous wound, To keep the honour of the houle alive. Whate'er you borrow of your neighbour's store, If large poflellions are in life thy view, Return the same in weight, if able, more ; 471 | These precepts with alliduous care pursue.
NOTES ON THE FIRST BOOK OF THE WORKS AND DAYS.
Ver. I. ARISTARCOUS, and some others, are The reason which Proclus aligns for it not being (or having this exordium left out, as not a part writ by Hefiod, is, that he who begun his Theogoof the poem. Praxiphanes, a scholar of Theo ny, with an invocation to the muses from Helicon, phraftus, says, he had a copy which begun from and who was himself brought up at the foot of chis verte.
that mounsain, would never call on the Pierian
muses. A weak obje&ion, and unworthy a critic! As here on earth we tread the maze of life. che distinction is as follows. The muses are said
to be the daughters of Jove, that is, of that power “ contend, for honour's fake, with their rivals; by which we are enabled to perform. Pieria is “ and with all who have passions and defires like faid to be the birth-place of the muses, and the “ themselves, there is a necessicg that they must seat of Jove, that is, the mind, whence all our con “ 'envy such ;" hence it has been said, xai xipa pesus ceptions arise. Helicon is a place of residence to
κεραμει κοτεει. . the muses, where they celebrate the praises of Ver. 55. The fin of Perses was reckoned by the their father, and search into the knowledge of an. ancients one of the most heinous. Seneca begs he tiquity. In this work Hesiod instructs his brother may know to divide with his brother, as if he in the art of tillage and moralicy, all which doc-esteemed it one of the most necessary duties of trines proceed from his own experience, his own This custom of dividing the father's patri. natural senriments, and therefore he invokes the mony by lot among all the children, is likewise muses from Pieria ; his account of the Generation alluded to in the Odysses of Homer, Book 14. of the Gods, being received, partly from books, Ver. 59. What a noble triumph is this over the and partly from oral tradition, he invokes them avarice and injustice of his brother, and the parfrom Helicon. Tzetz. Here the Scholialt talks ciality of the judges ! How much like a philosopher as if he did not doubt these lines being genuine. is this greatness of soul, in his contempt of ill got
Ver. 13. This exordium was certainly admired riches ! What a cor quest has he gained, though by Horace, who, in one of his odos, has elegantly he lost the cause, and suffered by the wickedness translated this part of it.
of his adversary! He not only shows himself a Valet ima summis
happy man, but teaches him by whom he is most Mutare, et infignem attenuat, deus,
injured to be so too. I have taken the liberty to Obfcura promens
add this line, which is not in the original, as an I must acknowledge, after all, what Pausanias says, which, and no other, I am certain mut be his
explanation of this famous passage of our poet, in his Berics, that this beginning was not in the
meaning : copy which he saw in lead, is a great argument against those who think it of Heliod : and Plu How bless’d the frugal, and an honest board. tarch likewise, in his Sympofiacs, begins this poem
The μελαχη and ασφοδελος, the frit of which we according to Pausanias.
generally render in English the mallows, and the Ver. 23. The words of Hefiod are these;" there
latter the daffodil, tbe names of which I have not e is not one kind of contention only on earth, but
translated, being of no consequence to the beauty " there are two, which divide the mind.” In the
of this passage. Plutarch, in his Banqnet of the SeTheogony he makes but one contention, and that
ven Wise Men, commends as the wholesomest of sprung from night, foon after the birth of the herbs ; he mentions the zvlepixos, which Le Clerc fates, and other evil deities, which are of the same
tells us is a part of the wo@cdcaos: the same critic parent. From contention (prung all that is hurt
also observes, from Scaliger, that is appears from ful to gods and men, as plagues, wars, secret blood
this verse that the ancients did cat the daffodil, or Thed, ilander, &c. The second contention, emu
ασφόδελος. lation, which was planted in the womb of earth
Ver. 67. What the poct means by this, and the by Jove, must be after the invention of arts; for
preceding lines, is, if we knew how few things before was an room for emulation. The conten
are neceflary for the support of life, we should tion first mentioned, was before the wars of the
not be so solicitous about it as we are; we should giants. Of that Ice farther in the notes co the
not spend so much time in agriculture and naviTheogony.
gation as we do. This expreslion of laying the Ver. 29. The truth of this will plainly appcar,
rudder over the smoke, alludes to the custom of when we consider the neceflity of many of our
laying it to harden over the smoke at those times actions, which, though involuntary, are rendered
in which they did not use it. Says Grævius on necessary by the cause. By involuntary I do not
this verse, it was customary to hang the rudders mcan without the consent of the wil, because it
in the smoke, when the season for failing was palis cerrain that must precede the action, but what
sed; by which they believed they were preserved we had rather we had no occasion to do.
from rotting, and kept solid till the next season. Ver. 43. Hear Plato on this paslage; his words are these : “ And so it is neceffary," says Hefiod, fecond book of this poem.
This we find likewise among the precepts in the or according to Hesiod, “ it should be among all of the same profellion, that they may be filled
And o'er the smoke the well made rudder lay. and contention.” Placo certainly mis. takes the poet in this, when he imagines that He Which rule also Virgil has laid down in his Georfiud thinks it absolutely necessary for the better gic, in his direction for tools of husbandry: government of the world. All that he means is, he finds it so in nature; and, from our appetites
Et suspensa focis exploret robora fumus. Lib. 1. natural to us, we cannot avoid it. The rest of the Ver. 69. Hear the Scholiast on this passage, on note by Mr. Theobald Aristotle in his second the invention of arts; men, says he, were at first book of Rhetoric, in the chapter on envy, quotes fimple and unexperienced; the art of agriculture, this passage of Hefiod, though he does not name and all other, were entirely unknown; they knew the author, wish this introduction," becausc men not diseases, nor the pangs of death; when they
ded they expired on the ground, as if they knew “ of Hefiod, which does not appear from ogueous Dut what they suffered They enjoyed the fruit
This observation will be good in of the carth in common among them. Then were “ greater points” * How far I may be indulged Biralers : for all were lords of themselves : but in the liberty I have taken with this passage ! when men grew aroue nissepoo, which is the fignific know not; but I am sure this part of her dress catwo of Prometheus, more cunning, more apt to coucributes more towards the beauty of the whole, Oxirre, they departed from their primitive cem than a golden necklace, which Valla has given perance, and consequently their serenicy. Then her in his following tranílucion : the de of fire was discovered, which was the source of all mechanical arts. Tzelt.
Aurea candenti posuere monilia collo. Ver. 31. It is beyood dispute, that with the Ver. 121. To pass over the poetical beauty of invention and improvenient of arts, the luxury of this allegory, let us come to the explication of ita men increased, and that diseases were the effects To punish the crime of Prometheus, Jupiter funds of luxury.
a woman on earth. How agreeable in the whole And the stol'n fire back to the skies he bore. is the story conducted! Vulcan firit moulds her
to form; that is after the use of fire was found This paillage of the fable, most of the commentests have left untouched, as not knowing what
out, of which Vulcan is called the god, by art men tu mas- of it. I think it must allude to the decay I began to embellish the works of nature: then all of arts and sciences; which the fucceeding verle
the inferior aris, which are incant by the other will farther explain.
deities, conspire to render the beauties of nature Ver. 73. By Prometheus is surely meant, as be
All more charming. By these means the desires fere, ansigai, wiser men, who were as forward
of men grew itronger and impetuous, and plunged to recover or revive loft arts, at to invent new.
them on to such excellive indulgence of their senses, Ver. 76. The original is s» xudd rz pinxr; which
as brought on them the mileries which the poet
afterwards mentions. ci prea is used again in the Theogony, verse
Ver. 125. How admirable is the fable conti. 567 of the original, and 847 of my translation : there is a curious coniment on this pailage in
nued! Here is a virgin made of all the charms of Touroesort's account of the island of Skinosa, in
art and nature, to captivate the eyes, and endowed Eis voyage into the Levant; which I Thall here
with all the cunning of the sex to gain on the heart,
for that the meaning of her being sent by Herfive as bear a translation of as I can " fand abounds with the ferula of the ancients;
Thus forned, wav dosar, “having received
a tribute from all the gods” io complete her, well "che old naine of which is preserved by the noodern Grecis, who call it Nartheca, from Nzemiz: that no are can withstand.' Here Prometheus, that
may the poet call her dudov a un cavoy, " a temptation * 1: has a stalk five feet in height, and three inch
is the wise man, who forfees the event of things, es thick : every ten inches it has a knot that is "brarchy, and covered with a hard bark : the
warns his brother Lipimetheus, that is, the man who hollow of the stalk is full of white marrow,
is wife too late, to avoid the fighe of such an allemwich, when dry, takes fire like a match ; which
blage of graces. Of läpetus, Prometheus, &c. and fire continues a long while, and consumes the
the deities here mentioned, lee larther in the Thce * marrow by flow degrees, without doing any da.
Ver. 140. Pandora's box niay properly be took mage to the bark; for which reason this plant " is used for carrying fire from one place to ano
in the fame myitical lense, with the apple in the *ther : our sailors laid in a large store of it: this
book of Genclis; and in that light the moral will * use of it is derived from early antiquity; and
appear without any dilliculty. " may contribute to the explanation of a pairage
Ver. 146. With what a forrowful solemnity in Heliod, who, speaking of the fire when Pro
these lines run, aufwerable to the Icnfe contained
in them : " metteus stole from heaven, fays, that he brought
it is vapnxı, i. c. in Latin ferula ; this table Αλλα δε μυρια λυγρα κατ' ανθρωπες αλαλήαι, ** doubtleis arises from Prometheus discovering the * use of steel in striking fire from the flint : and
Αλέ34 μεν γας γαια κακων, κλαη δε θαλασσα. * Prometheus most probably made use of the niar. Some think the story of Pandora, and the account * row of the ferula, and instructed men how to we have from Moles of the fall of man, were took
preserve fire in the Italk of this plant.' from the same tradition. The curse, indeed, proVer. 112 « • The original is one osus Zeus EkoUS
nounced againlt Adam, in the third chapter of "baseo xess. They placed about her body orna Genelis, is the lame with this in the effect; buc
meets of gold. A ftrid regard ought always to what weight this imagination may carry with it, I * be paid to the original meaning of the ancient shall not undertake to determine This story is * autbor; if a liberty is took hy the translator, imitated, and in several lines trandated by Quillet, * for the better embellishing the poem, it is pro in his Callipædia, and by the late Dr. Parnell, in " per tu have a remark on thac occalion. The his poem, called, The Rite of Women.
Cacger arising from such an onuflion, is, that Ver. 160. le is certain, from this passage, that,
the reader who depends on the translation may according to the system of our author in this po. "be milled in facts; as from this passage he would em, the golden age preceded the creation of wo. * take it for granted, diamonds were in the days man, ihu being loot by Jupiter, who had then the TKANI.