Sivut kuvina

-Tantorum ingentia septem

Terga bourn plumbo insuto, ferroque refsebant.

Æn. B. 5.

SeTen thick bull-hide?, (heir volumeshugedispread, Ponderous with iron and a weight of lead. Pitt,

Amycus ii said to have invented the combat of the caestus.'

Ver. 19. Archbishop Patter observes. " When the two lambent flames, about the head* of Castor and Pollux, appeared together, they were esteemed an excellent omen, foreboding good weather." Thus H race,

Ciarum Tyndaridx fidus, &c. B. 4. Odi 8.

Thus the twin-star«, indulgent, Cave
The shatter'd vessel from the wave. Dunumhc.

And B. 1. Ode II. Quorum simul alba nautis Stel-
la rcfulsit, &c.
Soon as their happy stars a-pear,

HusiVd is the storm, the waves subside, The clouds disperse, the skies are clear,

And without murmurs sleeps th' obedient tide.


Ver. 24 According to Aratus, there is a little cloud in the shell os the crab, between the shoulder", on each fide of which is a star, called the djsa, the intermediate cloud therefore is properly styled their Manger.

Ver. 2p. See Idyllium xiii. ver. 27 and note.

Ver. 31 A country near Bithynia in Asia, bounded on the north by the Euxine sea.

Ver. 35.

Tune littore curvo Extruimui toros.


Ver. 37. We may look upon every circumstance relating to this remarkable combat to commence here, the preceding lines being chiefly a noble encomium on these illustrious twin son< of Jupiter, and then it is observable, that this conflict in Theocritus takes up to3 verses, and the episode on the same subject in Apollunius 97.

Ver. 45.

Qua pious ingens, albaque prpulus. " Hor.

Ver- 49. Virgil, speaking os the Cyclops, fays, Nee visu facilis, nec dictu assabilis ulli.

Æ«. 3. 6n.

A savage fiend! tremendous to the sight. Pitt.

Ver. 57. This is surely a new and noble thought, to compare the protuberant muscles of a giant to the rocky shelves under water, that are worn smooth and round by the;transparent stream.

Ver. 6t. Diomed is thus arrsy'd II. B. 10. This said, the hero o'er his shoulder flung A lion's spoils, that to his ancles hung. Post.

Ver. 95. Before trumpets were invented, conchs used to found the signal'for battle.

Ver. 97 Thus in Virgil, the rustics are ftlrrci up to war by Alecto.'

Turn vero ad vocem celcres, &c. Æn. 7. Jij.
Then the mad rustics caught the dite alarmi,
And at the horrid signal flew to ar ot.
Nur les* in succour os the princely boy,
Pour forth to battle all the troops of Troy, tit.

Ver. 101.

Satus Auchif a exstus pater cxtulit œquos, &c.

Æn. J. 4»4, j

Then the great prince with equal gauntlets bound Their vigoroushands,and brae'd their arms around ,


Ver. 105. Theocritus has Hornet frequently in view in describing the combat of the escstuj. See II. 23- 63j.

Er filcrm <tyii*.

Amid the circle now each champion stands. Jtyts

Ver. 113. .

Et< V veyvrc litet ET<»f,

At length Epeus dealt a weighty blow, rull on the cheek of his unwary foe. tfff

Ver. 115.

sum pudor incendit vires. JEn. j. 453"

Ver. 117.

It clamor cœlo, &c 451.

At once the Trojans and Sicilians rife,
And with divided clamours rend the skies. Pitt.

Ver. 121. Thus Virgil,
Creber uttaque manu pulsat versatque Dat eta.


says of Miscnus, Eed turn forte cavi dum personat xquora concha,

JBn. B. J.


Ver. 126. Thus Homer,
Aifut mc%fl srr»»»Tsi.

His mouth and nostrils pour the clotted gore. Post

And Virgil, Crassumque cruorem Ore ejectantem.

Ver 137.
Acrior ad pugoam, &C.

Improv'd in spirit te the fight he came.

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Ver. I 59.

Multa viri nequicquam inter se vulnera jactant, Multa cavo lateri ingemioant, ct pecture vacto* Dant sonitus. 43.

Ver. 14J. Eppua'

Wx.ttiii Ik pulhitn. It. B. 43. 6!

Andpainfulsweat fromall their membersflows./'e

Ver. 150. These addresses to the muse- are si quent in the best poets.

Pandite nunc Helieona, Dese, 8tc. Æn. 7. 61 Et meministis enim, Divz, et memorare potet

Ver. 156. Virgil follows very cluse; Oftudit dextram, icsurgerjs Entcllus, et a,l'„c. fcful't: Are ictum venientem a vertice velox hzvidit, cclerique elapsus corpore ceflit.

Æn. 3. s- 443

Ver. l6j.

——Emique nm et tcmpora circnm lr:br» cusg>: duro crcpitant sub vulnere malæ


With swift repeated words their hands fly round Their heads and cheeks; their crackling jaws resound. PittVer. i6i- The Greek Terse consists of seventeen syllables.

Is !t p&Mt tu/jitt tuts Xm]s£«0 ^iwvjfjf,

led was certainly intended to image the trickling rf the Ncod. which I hare endeavoured to preserve in an Alexandrine.

Ver tea. It was customary in the ancient combats for the vanquished person to stretch out his hands To the ce<no,ueror, signifying that hcdeclinid eke battle, acknowledged that he was conquer

ed, and submitted to the discretion of the victors thus Turnus in Virgil:

Vicisti, et victum tendcre palmas Ausonii viderew

Thine is the conquest; lo! the Latian bands Behold their general stretch his suppliant hands.


I (hall finilh my observations on this Idyllium, with a translation of a Greek opinion of Lucillius, showing that the consequences of these kind of battles were sometimes very terrible, though the combatants might escape with their lives and limbs.

On a Conqueror in the Czsius, Antbd. B. z.

This victor, glorious in his olive wreathe,
Had once eyes, eye-brows, nose and ears, and teeth;
But turning c.xstus champion, to his cost,
I hese and still worse! hi* heritage he lost;
For by his brother sii'd, disown'd at last,
Confronted with his picture he was cast.




Zastoi and Pollux had carried off Phœbe and Talaira, the daughters of Leucippus, brother of the deceased Apharrus, who were betrothed to Lynceus and Idas, the sous of Aphareus; the husbands rorfued the ravilhers, and claimed their wives; on this a battle ensued, in which Castor kills Lyncros and Idas is stain by lightning. Ovid relates the event of this combat very differently. See the Note.

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'Oft, though ungrae'd with eloquence and art,

I Thus have I spoke the language of my heart :* *' Princes, my friends, should not on any score

"Solicit miidsthat are espous'd before:

"Sparia for virgins, Elis for swift steeds

"Are fam'd, large flocks and lien's Arcadia breed's;

"Mtssenc, Argos numerous na'ivcs boast, 31

** And fair looks Corinth on the sea-beat coast:

"There nymphs unnumbered bloom, a lovely race,

"Acknowledg'd beauties both of n:md ai:d face t

II There yc may . ain the dames your faneieschoose; 11 No parents will the rich and br^ve refuse.

"For you the love of noble deeds inspires;

"Yc are the sons of honourable sires.

"JLet us our nuptials und'.sturb'd pursue,

"And we'll unite to find fit brides for you." 40

1 My words ne'er mov'd your unrelenting minds,

'The waves receiv'd them from the driving winds.

1 Yet now, cv'n now your deeds let justice guide;

'We both are cousins by the father's side.

'But if mad rage's you not to yield,

'And arms mull fix the fortune of the field;

'Let Idas and brave Pollux both refrain

1 From the sell combat on the listed plain:

'And only I and Caitor prove our might,

'By birth the youngest in decisive fight. 30 * Why should we give our parents cause to grieve,

* And their fond arms of all their sons bereave:

* Let some survive our drooping friends to cheer, 1 Ajid mate the virgins whom they held so dear, 1 The wise with prudence their dimensions state,

'And Usser ills conclude the great debate.'

Thus he, nor thus in vain ; for on the ground Pollux and Idas plac'd their arms around. Lynceus first march'd undaunted to the field, And (hook his spear beneath hit ample shield. 6o Castor to war his brandish'd lance addrest; And on each helmet wav'd the nodding crest. First with their spears began the dreadful strife, .Each chief explor'd the avenues of life. But thus unhurt the battle they inaintiin'd, Broke in their shields the spears sharp points remain'd: [drew. Then fro'll their sheaths their shining swords they And fierce to fight the 'aging hcroe* flew: On Lynceus' buckler Cistor boldly prest. And his bright heimet with the triple crest; 70 l.ynceu-. sharp-sighted, kept his foe at bay, And Ihuck his helmet's purple plume away; Who quick, retreating all his art display'd, And-Viof the hand that held the glittering blade: Down dr< pt he sword; to his sire's tomb he flew, Wr-crc Idas fat the fatal fight to view; Close sol.uw'd C.iltor, all his sorer apply'd, And furious drove the faulchion in his side, Out^ulh'd his bowels through the gaping wound, And vanquished Lynceus ptest the gory ground;

In dim, dark mifb the shades of death arise, St
And in eternal slumber seal his eyes.
Nor was brave Idas by his mother led,
Laocooffa to the nuptial bed:
For he, vindictive of fall'n Lynceus' doom,
Tore up a column from Aphareus' tomb,
Aiming at Castor, dreadfully he stood,
The bold avenger of his brother's blood;
Jove interpos'd, and with the forked brand
Quick struck the polish'd marble from his hand;
He wreath'd convulsive, scorch'd on every side,
And in a peal of rattling thunder dy'd. 93.
Thus (hall the brothers be with conqudt

Brave of themselves, and sprung from chiefs renown'd.

Hail, Leda's valiant sons! my muse ihspire,
And still preserve the honour of my lyre.
Ye, and fair Helen, to all bard* are dear.
With joy the names of thole bold chiefs they htar
Who in the cause of Menclaus drew
Their conquering swords, proud Ilium to fob
due. lot
Vour praise, O kings, the Chian muse recites
Troy's famous city, and the Phrygian fights,
He sings the Grecian fleet renown'd afar,
And great Achilles, bulwark of the war.
I bring the tribute of a feebler lyre,
Sweet warbling what the rapturous nine inspire,
The best I may; verse to the gods belongs;
The gods delight in honorary longs.


Ver. 5. Ovid's account of this battle begins at verse 700 of the 5th book of his Fasti; "Abstulerant raptas Phceben," &c.

The sons of Tyndarus, with conquest crown'd,
For boxing one, and one for steeds renown'd,
Had ftol'n, injurious, as their lawful prey,
L-;ucippus' daughters from their mates away;
Lynceus and Idas claim superior right,
Long since affiane'd, and prepare for fight.
Love urges both to combat on the plain,
These to retake, tbe othrrs to retain.
The brother-twins might well escape by speed,
But held it base by flying to succeed.
All on an open plain the champions stood,
Aphidrra nam'd, sit place for scenes of blood.
Castor by Lynceus' sword receiv'd a wound
Deep in his side, and lifeless prest the ground;
Avengeful Pollux, quick advancing near,
Through Lynceus' shoulders drove the forceful

On him prest Idis, but Jrve's flaming brand
Dafh'd the pois'd javelin from his lilted hand.

F. F.

Ver. 16.

Quo, quo scelesti, ru'tis? aut cur dcxteri3 Aptantur enfes conditi i Hor. Efaie 7.

Say, ye vile race, what phrenzy draws
Your darling faulchions in sedition's cause?


Ver. 33. Thus Æneas fays, , , Sunt alix innuptæ Latio & Laurcntibn* agris, Ncc genus.indecores. Æn. B. 12.

Ver. 38.

Turnus avis atavisq. potens. Æn. 1.

Ver. 47TcucrAm arma quiescant Et Rutilum; noltro dirimamus sanguine bellu

Æn. II.

The celebrated ballad called Chevy Chace, the same thought;

Let thou and I the battle try,
And set our men aside, &c.

Ver. 51. Thus Nisus addresses Euryalus in

fame fense,

Neu matri miserœ tanti Cm causa doloris.

JEn. 9*

Why should I cause thy mother's foul to knoi Such heart-felt pangs '. unutterable woe!

Ver. 60. Thus Mezentius in Virgil, At vero ingentum quatiens Mezentius hast am Ingreditur campo. Æn. 10.

Ver. 6t. In almost all heroic duels, the comi-.tnts ririt threw their spears, and then made use »! their swords, shos Hector and Achilles, Iliad, B. 10- and ii. Menelau> and Paris, B. 3. and the rcS of the heroes attack one another. Ptlttr.

Ver. 6*.
Pines rimafur a pert as,

Qui Tulnos lethale ferat. Virg. Æn. B. II. 748.
Ver. 6«.

Vajici'jx cavi fulgentem diripit enfem.

Æn. B. 10.

And from the sheath the shining faulchion drew.


Ver. 71. Horace says,
Noc poSs ocuio quantum contendere Lynceus.

B. I. Ef. I.

Heocr the proverb of Lyncean eyes: Pindar tells as, Lynceus could discover Castor and Pollux hid in the trunk of a tree from the top of mount i"ay]frrr«: nay, he had so piercing a si^ht, that if we beHeve the poets, he could fee what was doing m heaven and hell : the ground of the fable was, that he understood the secret powers of natafe. Tfion;jT> it'may admit of a deubt, whether this i« the sharp sighted Lynceus that attended the A'go-ivmtic expedition ; from the poet's words, j a«pC*i -ai^an \vyx>.tis, 1 think it manifest that he was. • ■

Ver. y».

taroaufq. excuflit vertice crista«. Æn. II. 492 Bat the swift javelin strikes his plume away.


Vrr. 74.

Ssjtnonio dextram sulgenti diripit ense.

Æn. B. 10. 4T4.

Tbe saalch-on lops his hand.
Ver. 81.

Gui dura quies octilos, et ferreus urget
>iaum>; in xternu.u clauduutur lumira nocterru

Æn. 10. 74J.

Ver. 94.

fortes Creantnr sortibus. Hor, B. 4. Ode 4,

Ver. 99.

QciocuDque Iliacos serro violavimus agros.

Æn. ir. a .55.

Ver. 101. I do not remember that Homer any where mtntions Castor aud Pollux, except in the rturd book of the Iliad, where the commemoration of them by their sister Helen is finely introduced, mi in the true spirit os poetry. I sli.ill beg leave to transcribe the whole passage in the admirable

translation of Mr. Pope, because I think it at beautiful and pathetic as almost any part of the whole work;

Yet two are wanting of the numerous train. Whom long my eyes have fought, but sought ia vain;

Castor and Pollux, first in martial force.
One bold on foot, and one renown'd for horse S
My brothers these; the same our native shore,
One house contain'd us, and one mother bore.
Perhaps the chiefs, from warlike toils at ease,
For distant Troy refus'd to sail the seas:
Perhaps their sword some nobler quarrel draws',
Aiham'd to combat in their sister's cause.

So spoke the fair, nor knew her brother's doom, Wrapt in the cold embraces of the tomb; Adorn'd with honours in their native shore, Silent.they slept, and heard of wars no more.

As Theocritus both here and in the ;th IdylHum, styles Homer the Chian Bard, Xis» Atisr, we have reason to conjecture, that Chios has the, honour of being the place of his nativity: Simonide;< in his Epigram on Human Life, calls him the Man of Chios; for quoting a verse of Homer, he says,

F.v 3( ro xaXfyvn "Kioj uint m?£. The Chians pleaded these ancient authorities for Homer's being born among them: they mention a race they had, called the Homerida? whom they accounted his! posterity; they cast medals of him; they show to this day an Homerium, or temple of Homer, near Bolissus; and dole their argument! wish a quotation from the hymn to Apollo (which is acknowledged for Hcmer's by Thucydides/, where he calls himself, '* she blind man that inhabits Chios." One cannot avoid being surprised at the prodigious veneration for his character, whiih-could engage mankind with such eagerness in a point so little essential; that kingsshuuld send to oracles for the inquiry of his birth-place; that cities should be in sense about it; that whole lives of l.arncd men should be employed upon it; that seme should write treatises, others call up spirits jbout it; that thus, in short, heaven, earth and hell, should be sought to, for the decision of a question which terminates in curiosity only. Thus lar Mr. Pope, in his Essay on Homer. Yet, though this point is not essential, and only matter of curiosity, we may observe, that these inquiries, disputes, and contentions, plead strongly in favour of the mules, and set the character os a poet in the most eminent and exalted station.




A* unhappy lover, despairing to gain the affections of his mistress, by whom he is dcsp;sed. makes away with himself: the cruel fair is soon aster killed by the image os Cupid, that sell upon her as (be waa bathing.

A.» imorons shepherd lov'd a cruel fair; I She lotb'd the swain, nor aught her breast could

Tac tau^bty beauty plung'd him in despair: 1 She storn'd the lover, and the god os love; [move NOTES ON IDYLLIUM XXIII.

Nor knew the puissance of his bow and dam,

To tame the stubborness of human hearts.

With gold disdain (he griev'd the shepherd sure,

The more he sigh'd, (lie scorn'd him still the more.

No solace she afforded, no soft look.

Nor e'er the words of sweet compassion spoke: lo

Hereye.her check, ne'er gluw'dher flame to prove,

No kiss she gave, the lenient balm os love:

But as a lion, on the desert plain,

With savage pleasure views the hunter train;

Thus in her scorn severe delight she took;

Her words, her eyes, were fierce, and death was

in her look. She look'd her foul; her face was pal'd with ire; Vet she was fair ; her frowns but rais'd desire. At length, he could no more, but sought relics From tears, the dumb petitioners of grief; ao Before her gate he wept, with haggard look, And, kissing the bare threshold, thus he spoke: * Ah, savage fair, whom no entreaties move! Hard heart of stone, unworthy of my love! Accept this cord, 'tis now in vain to live, This friendly gift, the last that t shall give; I go where doom'd ; my love, my life are o'er, No more I grieve, and you are teaz'd no more; I go the last kind remedy to prove. And drink below oblivion to my love. 30

But, ah! what draughts my fierce desires can Or quench the raging fury of my flame .' [tame, Adieu, ye doors! eternally adieu! I fee the future, and I know it true. Fragrant the rose, but soon it fades away; The violet sweet, but quickly will decay; The lily fair a transient beauty wean; And the white snow soon weeps away in tears: Such is the bloom of beauty, cropt by time, Full soon it fades, and withers in its prime. 40 The days will come when your bard heart shall 'burn 'In scorching flames, yet meet no kind return.

'Yet grant this boon, the last that I implore: 'When you shall fee, suspended at your door, 1 This wretched corse, pass not unheeding by, 'But let the tear of sorrow dim four eye: 'Then loose the fatal cord, and from your breast 'Lend the light robe, and screen me with your

'vest: 'Imprint one kiss when my fad foul is fled ;' 'Ah, grudge not thus to gratify the dead! 50 'Fear not—your kisses cannot life restore: 'Though you relent, yet I shall wake no more. 'And last, a decent monument prepare, 'And bury with my love my body there;

* And thrice repeat, " Here rests my friend his


• Or rather add, " My dearest lover's dead." 'With this inscription be the stone supplied; "By Cupid's dart this hapless shepherd dy'd; "Ah! passenger, a little moment spare

"To stop, and say. He lov'd a cruel fair." Ct

This said, he tries against the wall to shove

A mighty stone, aud to a beam above

Suspends the cord, impatient of delay,

Fits the dire noose, and spurns the stone away;

Quivering in air he hung, till welcome death

Securely clos'd the avenues of breath.

The fair one, when the pendant swain she saw,

Nor pity felt, nor reverential awe;

But as she pass'd, for not a tear (he shed,

Her garments were polluted by the dead. 7°

Then Co the circus, where the wrestlers sought.

Or the more pleasing bath of love me sought;

High on a marble pedestal above,

Frown'd the dread image of the god. of love,

Aiming in wrath the meditated blow.

Then sell revengeful on the nymph below;

With the pure fountain mix'd her purple blood—

These words were heard emerging from the flood:

"Lovers, farewell; nor your admirers ssrght;

"Rcfign'3 I die, for Heav'n pronounces right."

The argument of this Uyllium is similar to the argument of Virgil's second eclogue, though this is more tragical: I have taken the liberty to make a general transformation, which renders it a thousand times more natural, decent, and gallant.

Ver. 1.
Pormol'um pastor Corydon ardebat Alexim.

Firg. Ec. %.
Young Corydon with hopeless lova sdor'd
The fair Alexis, favourite of his lord. Wartat.

Ver. 7. Ovid fays of Anaxarete, Spernit et irridet; factisque immitihus addit Vetba superba ferox; ct J'pe quoque sraudat amantem. Met. B. 14. 714.

Ver. 16. The Greek is, E<^i» ■k^hi, or, as Heinsius more plausibly reads, Ei3i» xtxyxxt," (he looked necessity," that i», death or sate; thus Horace has,

Semotique prisis tarda necessitas
Lcthi corripuit gradum. S. I. 0. '•

And, Te semper anteit fieva necessitas. B. I 0. 3.1 Which elegant use of the word +ejfitat he ha taken from the Grecians: Pindar has, •*;'{« »»*7 xx: and Euripides, hint aiayxn, exact! the dira narjjitai of Horace, B. 3. O. 14.

Ver. al. Thus Ovid, speaking of Iphii, Non tulit impatiens longi tormenta doloris Iphis, ct ante fores bsc verba noviffimu dixit.

Mtt. B. I Ver. 30. Virgil fays of fouls that endure tran migration,

Lethxi ad fiuminisundam
Sccuros latiecs, et longa oblivia potant. Æn. B.
To yon dark streams the gliding ghosts repair,
And quass deep draughts of long oblivion there


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