Sivut kuvina

-Tantorum ingtntia septem

Terga bouai plunibo insuto, serroque regebant.

Æm. B. 5. Seven thick bull-hides, their vplumrshugedisprrad. Ponderous with iron 2nd a weight of lead. Pill.

Amycus it said to have invented the combat of the ultus.'

Ver. 19. Archbiflinp Potter observed. " When the two lambent flames, about the heads of Castor and Pollux, appeared together, they were esteemed an excellent omen, foreboding good weather." Thus H .rate,

Ciarum Tyndaridæ fidus, &c. B. 4. Ode 8.

Thus the twin-stars, indulgent, Cave
The fhatter'd vessel from the wave. Dumamie.

And B. I. Ode 11. Quorum simul alba nautis Stel-
la rcsulsit, &c.
Soon as their happy stars a-pear,

Hulh'd is the storm, the waves subside, The clouds disperse, the steles arc clear,

And without murmurs sleeps th' obedient tide.


Ver. 24 According to Aratus, there is a little cloud in the shell of the crab, between the shoulders on each fide of which is a star, called the AJsa, the intermediate cloud therefore is properly styled their Manner.

Ver. ip. Set Uyllium xiii. ver. 17 and note.

Ver. JI A country near Bithynia in Asia, bounded on the north by the Euxine sea.

Ver. 35. Tune littore curvo Extruimus toros. Firg.

Ver. 37. We may look upon every circumstance relating to this remarkable com!>at to commence here, the preceding lints being chiefly a noble encomium on these ill-strious twin fun* of Jupiter, and then it is observable, that this conflict in Theocritus takes up I0,< verses, and the episode on the lame subject in Apollouius 07.

Ver. 45. Qua pinus ingeni, albaque p.-pulus. " Hor,

Ver- 49. Virgil, speaking of the Cyclops, fays, Nee visu facilis, nee dictu asi'auilis ulli.

Æm. 3. 6ll. A savage fiend! tremendous to the sight. Pitt.

Ver. 5 7. This is surely a new and noble thought, to compare the protuberant muscles of a giant to the rocky shelves under water, that are warn smooth and round by the,transparent stream.

Ver. 61. Diomed i> thus arrsy'd II. B. 10. This said, the hero o'er his shoulder flung A lion's spoils, that to his ancles hung. Pose.

Ver. 95. Before trumpets were invented, conchs were used to sound the signal for battle. Virgil says of Mifcnui,

Bed turn forte cavi dum personat zquora concha.

jƫ. B. J.

Ver. 97 Thus in Virgil, the nifties arc stirred np to war by Alecto.'

Turn vero ad vocem celeres, &c. Æm. 7. 51a.

Then the mad rustics caught the dire alarms,

And at the horrid signal flew to ar us.

Nor IeGi in succour os the princely boy,

Pour fonh to battle all the troops of Troy. Pitt.

Ver. IOI.
Satus Anchifi exstus pater extulit tequns, &c.

Æm. 5. 424.

Then the great prince with equal gauntlets bound Their vigoroushands,and brae'd theirarms around

Pitt, Ver. 105. Theocritus has HomeT frequently in view in describing the combat of the cacltus. See H. 13. 685.

Ef tilTTov ctyziX.

Amid the circle now each champion stands. Yo£e

Ver. 113. .

Eti f aorvro tilts Em;,
Ko'^i et *cc~rr,:cr.v7x xsejmsr.

At length Epeus dealt a weighty blow,

hull on the cheek of his unwary foe. Pose.

Ver. IIj. sum pudor incendit vire*. Æm. 5. 455.

Ver. 117. It clamor tœlo, &c 431.

At once the Trojans and Sicilians rife,

And with divided clamours rend the Ikies. Pitt.

Ver. lar. Thus Virgil,
Crcber uttaque manu pulsat versatque Dateta.

46c. Ver. usi. Thus Homer, Aifut, or*%v Xt»o»t«.

His mouth and nostrils pour the clotted gore. Pose.

And Virgil, "\ Crassumque eruorem Ore ejectantem. 469,

Ver. 137. Acrior ad pugnam, &c. 454

Improv'd in spirit ta the fight he came. Pitt,

Ver. 139. Multa viri nequicquam inter sr vulnera jactant, Multa cavolatcri ingeminant, ct pectore vastoa JJjnt sonitus. 433'

Ver. 145

E|ipw «' t&tvc

TluiTottt Ik fuXXwr. 1L B. 33. 688

Andpainfulsweatfromall their mcmbersflows./>eo*><

Vcr. 150. These addresses to the muses are frequent in the best poets.

Vindite nunc Helicona, Dec, &c. Æm. 7. 641 Et meminictis enim, Dine, ct memorare potetlis

Ver. 156. Virgil follows very dose; OAecdit dextram insurgent Entcllus, et al'„c.

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ed, and submitted to the discretion of the victor; thus Turnus in Virgil:

Vicisti, et victum tendcre palmas Ausonii vicercu

Thine is the conquest; lo! the l.atinn bands
Echuld their general stretch his suppliant hands.


I shall finish my observations on this Idyllium, with a translation of a Greek opinion of l.ucillius, showing that the consequences of these kind of battles were sometimes very terrible, though the combatants might escape with their lives and limbs.

On a Conqueror in the Czstus, Amtbtl. B. 3.

This victor, glorious in his olive wreathe.

Had once eyes, eye-brows, nose and ears, and teeth;

But turning crestus champion, to his cost,

I hese and still worse! his heritage he lost;

For by his brother su'd, disown'd at last,

Confronted with his picture he was cast.


P At T If.


Csstm sad Pollux had carried off Phœbe and Talaira, the daughters of LeiKippus, brother of the tVcrafrd ApiWrus, who were betrothed to Lynccus and Idas, the sous of Apharcus; the husbands ravlVrsi the ravishen, and claimed their wives ; on this a battle ensued, in which Castor kills Lyncrai jod Idas is slain by lightning. Ovid relates the event of this combat very differently. See the Note.

Paixarz, thy name has dignify'd my song:
To C«sVr now the lofty lays belong;
lo.'4 for bright armour on th' embattled plain,
Aie, *arsitr>c; Seeds obedient to the rein.

TV b»-k3 twin funs of Jove by slt alth had led
Lruppcs' i'aughttrs to their lawless bed.
LracrsB ard Ida-, much for strength renown'd,
Lmg by promise to the damsel* bound,
A^&avceV ton*, the foul dishonour view'd,
Aae tr*rl with wrath the ravilhers pursued. I:
ba when they reach'd deceu'd Alphareu*'tomb,
L^«SBpas«'d round with venerable gloom,
Lies reio leap'u impetuous frrm his car,
AJ ar: "d, and well ai pointed for the war.
Lyccru aloud beneath his helmet spoke:

• Why wilt ye frantic t' us the fight provoke?
'(as other* wives why make unjust demands t
'Thy gleam die r aked faulchions in your hands?
'T-» s» L-ructppu. has betroth'd them both
'1 cr, fence, *d4 scald the contract with an oath:
'Its iafe to make of other- wive« your j rey, 21

At4 brar their riches, mules, and lowing herds '*w»y,

T» tlreat the tire with force, or bribe with * wealth.

Aid £eae oo others properties by stealth.

Oft, though nngrae'd with eloquence and art.
Thus have I spoke the language of my heart :*
1 Princes, my friends, should net on any score
; Solicit maids that arc espous'd before;
'Sparta sur virgins, Elis for swift steeds
'Arc sam'd lar^e flock* and hen's Arcadia breed's;
1 Mtffcne, Argos numerous na'ivcs boast, 31

'And fair looks Corinth on the sl-a-1>cat coast:
1 There nymphs unnumber'd bloom, a lovely race,
■ Acknowledged beauties both of mind ar.d face 5
There yc may , ain the dames your faiicieschoose;
No parents will the rich and brive refuse.
For yru the love of noble deeds inspires;
Ye are the sons of honourable sires.
Let us our nuptials undisturb'd pursue,
And we II unite to find fit brides for you." 40
My w. rds ne'er mov'd your unrelenting minds.
The waves receiv'd them from the driving winds.
Yet r.'iw, ev'n now your deeds let justice guide;
We both are cousins by the father's side.
But if mad rage impe's you not to yield.
And arms must six tiic fortune of the field;
Let Idas and brave Pollux both refrain
From th- fell combat on the listed plain:
And only I and Caitor prove our might.
By birth the youDjest in decisive fight. -#

• Why should v/e give our parents cause to grieve, 'And their fond arms of all their sons bereave:

• Let somr survive our drooping friends to cheer, 'Ajid mate the virgin* whom they held so dear,

1 The wise with prudence their dissensions slate, 'And Ksser ills conclude the great debate.'

Thus he, nor thus in vain ; for on the ground
Pollux and Idas plnc'd their arms around.
J.ynceu* first march'd undaunted to the field,
And shook his spear beneath hi* ample shield. 60
Castor to war his brandifh'd lance addrest;
And on each helmet wav'd the nodding crest.
First with their spears began the clreailtul strife,
Each chief explor'd the avenues of life.
But thus unhurt the battle they maintain'J,
Broke in their shields the spears sharp points re-
main'd: [drew.

Then from thrir sheaths their shining swords they
And firce to fight the rag*ng iieroe* fkw:
On LynceuV buckltr Cistor boldly prest.
And liis bright helmet with the triple crest; 70
I.ynceu*, sharp-sighted, kept his foe at bay,
And struck his helmet's purple plume away;
Who quick retreating all his art display'd,
And-tnTiprhe hand that held the glittering blade:
Down 'he sword; to his sire's romb he flew,
W^erc Mas fat the fatal sight to view;
Close sol.ow'd Cistor, all his fo.-Cc apply'd,
And furious drove the faulchiun in his side,
Our^ulh'.i h's bowels through the gaping wound,
And vanquished Lynceus prest the gory ground;

In dim, dark mists the shades of death arise, Si
And in eternal slumber seal his eyes.
Nor was brave Idas by his mother led,
Laocoofsa to the nuptial bed:
For he, vindictive os sall'n Lynceus' doom,
Tore up a column from Aphareus' tomb,
Aiming at Castor, dreadfully he stood,
The bold avenger of his brother's blood;
Jove interpos'd, and with the forked brand
Quick struck the polish'd marble from his hand \
He wreath'd convulsive, scorch'd on every side.
And in a peal of rattling thunder dy'd. 9*

Thus shall the brothers be with conquest

crown'd, |

Brave of themselves, and sprung from chiefs re

nown'd. Hail, Leda's valiant sons I my muse inspire, And still preserve the honour of my lyre. Ye, and fair Helen, to all bards are dear. With joy the names of those bold chiefs they hear. Who in the cause of Menelaus drew Their conquering swords, proud Ilium to sub.

due. 100

Your praise, O kings, the Chian muse recites
Tr.jy's famous city, and the Phrygian fights,
He sings the Grecian fleet renowu'd afar,
And great Achilles, bulwark of the war.
I bring the tribute of a feebler lyre,
Sweet warbling what the rapturous nine inspire,
The best I may; verse to the gods belongs;
The gods delight in honorary songs.


Ver. 5. Ovid's account of this hattle begins at verse 700 of the 5th book of his Fasti; "Abstulerant raptas Phccben," &c

The sons of Tyndarus, with conquest crown'd,
For boxing one, and one for steeds renown'd,
Had stol'n, injurious, as their lawful prey,
L'.ucippus' daughters from their mates away;
Lynceus and Mas claim superior right,
Long since aflbnc'd, anil prepare for fight.
Love urg.'s both to combat on the plain,
These to retake, the o'hrrs to retain.
The brother-twins might well isra; e by speed,
But held it base by flying to succeed.
All on an open pi iin the champions stood,
Apbidna nam'd, sit place for scenes of blood.
Castor by Lynceus' sword receiv'd a wound
Deep in his side, and lifeless prest the ground;
Avengeful Pollux, quick advancing near.
Through Lynceus' shoulders diove the forceful

On him prest Idis, bnt Jove's flaming brand
Dafh'd the pois'd javelin from his lilted haud.

F.F. Ver. 16. Quo, quo scelesti, ruitis f aut cur dexteris Aptantur enscs conditi? Her. EfuU J.

Say, ye vile race, what phrenzy draws
Your darling laulchions in sedition's cause-?

Daimwdr. Ver. 33. Thus Æneas fays

Stint ali.-e innuptæ I.atio & Laurcntibn* agris. Nee genus;indccorc*. Æm. B. IS. 14

Ver. 38.
I'm mis avis atavisq. potent.' JF.n. 7. 56

Ver. 47.
Teucrum arraa quiescant

Et Rutilum; noltro dirimamus sanguine bellum.

■ft*. I a. 7S.

The celebrated ballad called Chevy Chacc, hai the same thought;

Let thou and I the battle try,

And set our men aside, Sec.

Ver. 51. Thus Nisus addresses Euryalus in the fame sense, Neu matri raisers: tanti Cm causa doloris.

JBn. 9. »i6. Why should I cause thy mother's foul to know Such heart-felt pangs '. unutterable woe! Pitt,

Ver. 60. Thus Mezcntius in Virgil, At vero ingentum quatiens Mezcntius hasiam Ingreditur campo. Æm. 10. ?6:.

Ver. 63. In almost all heroic duels, the comUtina first threw their spears, and thrn made use if their swords, shot Hector and Achilles, Iliad, H. ;o. and ii. Mercian- and Paris, B. 3. and the rei of the heroes attack one another. Pttttr.

Ver. 6*.
Vanrs rimatnr apertas,
Qui valaas lethale frrat. Virg. Æn. B. II. 748.

Ver. b*.
Vagavia* cavi sulgentem diripit ensem.

Æn. B. 10. Asd t-iin the {heath the shining saulchion drew.

Pitt. Ver. -1. Horace say*, Nos Jsj5» oculo quantum contendere Lynceus.

B. I. Ef. I.

Keoe; the proverb of Lyncean eyes: Pindar teBsu, Lynceus could discover Castor and Pollux kid fa the trunk of a tree from the top of mount Tarrrrcs: nay, he had so piercing a sij;ht, that H we be*ieve the poets, he could fee what was on'xg in heavrn and hell : the ground of the fable •as, that he understood the secret powers of naWe- ^ '.tm^ it may admit of a doubt, whether tins i« tr- sharp sighted I.ynceus that attended the A'% '.-iirric expedition ; from the poet's words, iy%i -r^MT- Avj-xm;, I think it manifest that he was. • •

Ver. 71. tsaeauif. rrcuffit Venice crista«. Æn. I a. 491

fenfce swift javelin strikes his plume away.

Pill. Ver. T4. StrytaorJc dcxrxam sulgenti diripit ense.

Æn. B. 10. 414. The faa'ch:on lops his hand.

Ver. f 1. Oil dara quiet oculot, et ferreus urget aataxas; ia ztexumu daudumur lumira noctem.

Æn. to. 745. Vrr. 94. fertn Ocantnr fortibus. Htr, B. 4. Ode 4.

Ter. 99 t^tacaBqiic Iliacos serro violavimus agros.

Æn. It. 1SSVer. 101. I «fe not remember that Homer any wVre ntions Castor aud Pollux, except in the trjri back of the Iliad, where tbe commemoration rftntta by their sifter Helen is finely introduced, asaia the true spirit os poetry. I shall beg leave u insUribc the whole passage in the admirable

translation of Mr. Pope, because I think it at beautiful and pathetic as almost any part of the whole work;

Yet two are wanting of the numerous train, Whom long my eyes have sought, but sought ia

vain; Castor and Pollux, first in martial force. One bold on foot, and one renown'd for horse; My brothers these; the fame our native shore, One house contain'.! us, and one mother bore. Perhaps the chiefs, from warlike toils at ease, For distant Troy refus'd to fail the seas: Perhaps their sword some nobler quarrel drawl, Ashatn'd to combat in their sister's cause.

So spoke the fair, nor knew her brother's doom, Wrapt in the cold embraces of the tomb; Adorn'd with honours in their native shore, Silent.they slept, and heard of wars no more.

As Theocritus both here and in the 7th Idyllium, styles Homer the Chian Bard, X;*» Aiiir, we have reason to conjecture, that Chios hat the honour of being the place of his nativity: Simonides in his Epigram on Human Life, calls him the Man of Chios; for quoting a verse of Homer, he K,js,

Ky at To xak^ifOf Xioj tttrtt «t-£. The Chiais pleaded these ancient authorities for Homer's being born among them: they mention a race they had, called the Homcridx, whom they1 accounted his." posterity; they cast medals of him; they show to this day an Homerium, or temple of Homer, near BoliiTus; and close their argument s wirh a quotation from the hymn to Apollo (which ib acknowledged for Honier's by Thucydnies^, where he calls himself. " she blind man that inhabits Chios." One cannot avoid being surprised at the prodigious veneratioa for his character, which-could engage mankind with such eagerness in .1 point si little essential; that kings should send to oracles for the inquiry ol his birth-place; that cities should be in strife about it; that whole lives 1.! I.arned men should be employed upon it; that seme should write treatises, others call up spirits about it: that thus, in short, heaven, earth and hell, should be sought to, for the decision of a question which terminates in curiosity only. Thus lar Mr. Pope, in his llssay on Homer Yet, though thrt point is not essential, and only matter of curiosity, we may observe, that tluse inquiries, disputes, and contentions, plead strongly in savour ot the mules, and set the character ot a poet in the most eminent and exalted station.




As Tsharipy lover, despairing to gain the afsrctiont of his mistress, by whom he is despTed, makes away with himself: the cruel fair is soon aster killed by the image os Cupid, that sell upon her as he was bathing.

A» amrcoos shepherd lov'd a cruel fair; I She loth'd the swain, nor aught her breast could

Tie Lii^bty beauty plung'd him in despair: I She seorn'd the lover, and the jjod os love; [more

Nor knew the puissance of his bow and dam,

To tame the stubborness of human hearts.

With gold disdain (he griev'd the shepherd sure,

The more he sigh'd, (lie scorn'd him still the more.

No solace she afforded, no soft look.

Nor e'er the words of sweet compassion spoke: lo

Hereye.her check, ne'er gluw'dher flame to prove,

No kiss she gave, the lenient balm os love:

But as a lion, on the desert plain,

With savage pleasure views the hunter train;

Thus in her scorn severe delight she took;

Her words, her eyes, were fierce, and death was

in her look. She look'd her foul; her face was pal'd with ire; Vet she was fair ; her frowns but rais'd desire. At length, he could no more, but sought relics From tears, the dumb petitioners of grief; ao Before her gate he wept, with haggard look, And, kissing the bare threshold, thus he spoke: * Ah, savage fair, whom no entreaties move! Hard heart of stone, unworthy of my love! Accept this cord, 'tis now in vain to live, This friendly gift, the last that t shall give; I go where doom'd ; my love, my life are o'er, No more I grieve, and you are teaz'd no more; I go the last kind remedy to prove. And drink below oblivion to my love. 30

But, ah! what draughts my fierce desires can Or quench the raging fury of my flame .' [tame, Adieu, ye doors! eternally adieu! I fee the future, and I know it true. Fragrant the rose, but soon it fades away; The violet sweet, but quickly will decay; The lily fair a transient beauty wean; And the white snow soon weeps away in tears: Such is the bloom of beauty, cropt by time, Full soon it fades, and withers in its prime. 40 The days will come when your bard heart shall 'burn 'In scorching flames, yet meet no kind return.

'Yet grant this boon, the last that I implore: 'When you shall fee, suspended at your door, 1 This wretched corse, pass not unheeding by, 'But let the tear of sorrow dim four eye: 'Then loose the fatal cord, and from your breast 'Lend the light robe, and screen me with your

'vest: 'Imprint one kiss when my fad foul is fled ;' 'Ah, grudge not thus to gratify the dead! 50 'Fear not—your kisses cannot life restore: 'Though you relent, yet I shall wake no more. 'And last, a decent monument prepare, 'And bury with my love my body there;

* And thrice repeat, " Here rests my friend his


• Or rather add, " My dearest lover's dead." 'With this inscription be the stone supplied; "By Cupid's dart this hapless shepherd dy'd; "Ah! passenger, a little moment spare

"To stop, and say. He lov'd a cruel fair." Ct

This said, he tries against the wall to shove

A mighty stone, aud to a beam above

Suspends the cord, impatient of delay,

Fits the dire noose, and spurns the stone away;

Quivering in air he hung, till welcome death

Securely clos'd the avenues of breath.

The fair one, when the pendant swain she saw,

Nor pity felt, nor reverential awe;

But as she pass'd, for not a tear (he shed,

Her garments were polluted by the dead. 7°

Then Co the circus, where the wrestlers sought.

Or the more pleasing bath of love me sought;

High on a marble pedestal above,

Frown'd the dread image of the god. of love,

Aiming in wrath the meditated blow.

Then sell revengeful on the nymph below;

With the pure fountain mix'd her purple blood—

These words were heard emerging from the flood:

"Lovers, farewell; nor your admirers ssrght;

"Rcfign'3 I die, for Heav'n pronounces right."


The argument of this Uyllium is similar to the argument of Virgil's second eclogue, though this is more tragical: I have taken the liberty to make a general transformation, which renders it a thousand times more natural, decent, and gallant.

Ver. 1.
Pormol'um pastor Corydon ardebat Alexim.

Firg. Ec. %.
Young Corydon with hopeless lova sdor'd
The fair Alexis, favourite of his lord. Wartat.

Ver. 7. Ovid fays of Anaxarete, Spernit et irridet; factisque immitihus addit Vetba superba ferox; ct J'pe quoque sraudat amantem. Met. B. 14. 714.

Ver. 16. The Greek is, E<^i» ■k^hi, or, as Heinsius more plausibly reads, Ei3i» xtxyxxt," (he looked necessity," that i», death or sate; thus Horace has,

Semotique prisis tarda necessitas
Lcthi corripuit gradum. S. I. 0. '•

And, Te semper anteit fieva necessitas. B. I 0. 3.1 Which elegant use of the word +ejfitat he ha taken from the Grecians: Pindar has, •*;'{« »»*7 xx: and Euripides, hint aiayxn, exact! the dira narjjitai of Horace, B. 3. O. 14.

Ver. al. Thus Ovid, speaking of Iphii, Non tulit impatiens longi tormenta doloris Iphis, ct ante fores bsc verba noviffimu dixit.

Mtt. B. I Ver. 30. Virgil fays of fouls that endure tran migration,

Lethxi ad fiuminisundam
Sccuros latiecs, et longa oblivia potant. Æn. B.
To yon dark streams the gliding ghosts repair,
And quass deep draughts of long oblivion there


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