Sivut kuvina

Snnnihaot, defending on thy might, Injurious to thyself, another's right. Who, or by open fnree, or secret stealth, Or pcrbr'd wiles, amasses heaps of wealth, Ssch rainy ire, whom thirst of gain betrays, Ths gods, ill feeing, shall o'erclnud his days; Hiswiit,t.ij children, and his friends, shall die, 43O Aai, li: 1 dream, his ill-got riches fly: Nor led, or to insult the suppliant's cries, Tie gaiit, ar break through hospitable ties. Is there who, by incestuous passion led, Poesies with joys uncle-an his brother's bed; Or who, regardless of his tender trust, To the poor helpless orphan proves unjust; Or, when the father's fatal day appears, His body bending through the weight of years, A Cod who views him with undutcous eyes, 440 And »ori> of comfort to his age denies, Great Jirrt vindictive fees the impious train, And, njaal to their crimes, inflicts a pain.

There precepts be thy guide thru' life to steer :~l Sat leira the gods immortal to revere: > With tuipolhited hands, aud heart sincere, J Let from yi-ur herd, or Sock, an off'ring rife; T Of the pare victim burn the white fat thighs; > And to your wealth confine the sacrifice. J Let the rich fames of od'rous incense By, A grateful favour, to the pow'rs on high; The due libation nor neglect to pay, VTten ev'rung doses, or when dawns the day: Then uutt thy work, the gods thy friends, succeed;

Then nuy yo» purchase farms, nor fell through need.

Enjoy thy riches with a lib'ral foul, Plenteous the /eafl, and smiling be the bowl j

So si-ier.d forget, nor entertain thy foe,

Nor let thy neighbour uninvited go.

Happy the mm with peace his days:are crownM, 460

Wliose house an honest neighbourhood surround;

Of foreign harms he never sleeps afraid,

They, always ready, bring their willing aid;
CteerkV stiould he some busy pressure feel,
Thrj lead an aid beyond a kindred's zeal;
They sever will conspire to blast his fame:
Seem he walks, sinfully'd his good name:
Vehtppj man, whom neighbours ill surround,
tei Oxcb die oft" by a treach'rous wound,
•Tare "er you borrow of your neighbour's store,

Basra the fame is weight, if able, more; 471

I So to yourself will you secure a friend;
He never after will refuse to lend.
Whatever by dishonest means you gain,
Yon purchase an equivalent of pain.

To all a love for love return: contend
In virtuous acts to emulate your friend.
Be to the good thy favours unconfin'd;
Neglect a fordid, and ungrateful mind.
From all the gen'rous a respect command, 48*
While none regard the base ungiving hand -.
The man who gives from au unbounded breast,
Though large the bounty, in himself is blefs'd:
Who ravishes another's right shall find.
Though small the prey, a deadly sting behind.
Content, and honestly enjoy your lot,
And often add to that already got;
From little oft' repeated, much will rise,
And of thy toil the fruits salute thine eyes.
How sweet at home tohave what life demands, 49*
The just reward of our industrious hands,
To view our neighbour's bliss without desire,
To dread not famine, with her aspect dire 1
Be these thy thoughts, to these thy heart incline,
And lo! these blessings shall be surely thine.

When at your board your faithful friend yon greet.

Withrut reserve, and lib'ral be the treat:

To stint the wine a frugal husband shows.

When from the middle of the cask it flows.'

Do not, by mirth betray'd, your brother tiust,

Without a witness, he may prove unjust: y: I

Alike it is unsafe for men to be.

With some too diffident, with some too free.

Let not a woman steal your heart away,
By tender looks, and her apparel gay;
When your abode she languishing inquires,
Command your heart, and quench the kindling

If love she vows, 'tis madness to believe,
Turn from the thief, she charms but to deceive:
Who does too rashly in a woman trust, jlw>
Too late will find the wanton proves unjust.
Take a chaste matron, partner of your breast,
Contented live, of her alone possese'd;
Then shall you number many days in peace,
And with your children fee your wealth increase;
Then shall a duteous careful heir survive,
To keep the honour of the house alive.

If large possessions are in life thy view,
These precepts with assiduous care pursue.


Ver, r. Aristarcous, and some others, sre Cot hiring this exordium left out, as not a part «" tie poem. Praxiphanes, a scholar of Tneopkraftos, fays, he had a copy which begun from tiis verse.

As here 00 earth, we tread the maze of ljfe.

The reason which Prochis assigns for it sot being writ by Hesiod, is, that he who begun his Theogony, with an invocation to the muses from Helicon, and who was himself brought up at the foot of that mountain, would never call on the Pierian muses. A weak objection, and unworthy a critic! the distinction is as .follows. The muses are said to be the daughters of Jove, that is, of that power j by which we are enabled to perform. Pieria is said to be the birth-place of the muses, and the | feat of Jove, that is, the mind, whence all mir con- j ceptions arise. Helicon is a place of residence to the muses, where they celebrate the praises of their~father, and search into the knowledge os antiquity. In this work Hesiod instructs his hrother in the art of tillage and morality, all which doctrines proceed from his own experience, his own natural sentiments, and therefore he invokes the muses from Pieria; his account of the Generation of the Gods, being received, partly from books, and partly from oral tradition, he invokes them from Helicon. Tzetz. Here the Scholiast talks as if he did not doubt these lines being genuine.

Ver. 13. This exordium was certainly admired by Horace, who, io one of his odci, has elegantly translated this part of it.

Valet ima summit

Mutare, et insignem attenuat, deus,

Obscura proment.

I must acknowledge, after all, what Pausaniassays, in his Booties, that this beginning was not in the copy which he saw in lead, is a great argument against those who think it of Hesiod: and Plutarch likewise, in his Symposiacs, begins this poem according to Pausanias.

Ver. z.i- The words of Hesiod are these; " there * it not one kind of contention only on earth, hut "there are two, which divide the mind." In the Theogony he makes but one contention, and that sprung frem night, sexin aster the birth of the fates, and other evil deities, which are of the fame parent. From contention sprung all that is hurtful to gods and men, as plagues, wars, secret bloodshed, slander, &c. The second contention, emulation, which was planted in the womb of earth by Jove, must be after the invention of arts; for before was uo 100m for emulation. The contention 6rst mentioned, was before rhe wars of the giants. Of that fee farther in the notes to the Theogony.

Ver. 59. The truth of this will plainly appear, when we consider the necessity of many of our actions, which, though involuntary, are rendered necessary by the eause By involuntary I do not mean without the consent of the wiil, because it is certain that must precede the action, but what vc had rather we hid no occasion to do.

Ver. 43. Hear I'iato on this passage; his words are these: " And so it is necessary," fays Hefiod, or according to Hesiod, " it should be among all of the same profession, that they may be silled with envy, and coiitcutian." Plato certainly mistakes the poet in this, when he imagines that Hefiud thinks it absolutely necessary for the better government of the world. All that he means is, he finds it so in nature; and, from our appetites natural to us, we cannot avoid it. The rest of the note by Mr. Theobald Aristotle in his second book os Rhetoric, in the chapter on envy, quotes this passage of Hesiod, though he does not name the author, whh this introduction, " because men

"contend, for honour's fake, with their rivals; "and with all whj have passions and desires like "themselves, there is a necessity that they must "envy such ;" hence it has been said, auu nlffunf *t}*fut xorut.

Ver. 55. The sin of Perfes was reckoned by the ancients one of the most heinous. Seneca begs he may know to divide with his brother, as if he esteemed it one of the most necessary duties of man. This custom of dividing the father's patrimony by lot among all the children, is likewise alluded to in the O 'vises of Homer, Book 14

Ver. 59. What a noble triumph is this over tluf avarice and injustice of his brither, and the partiality of the judges! How much like a philosopher is this greatness of foul, in his contempt of ill got riches! What a conquest has he gained, though he lost the cause, and suffered by the wickedness of his adversary! He not only shows himself a happy man, but teaches him by whom he is most injured to be so too. I have taken the liberty to add this line, which is not in the original, as an explanation of this famous passage of our poet, which, and no other, I am certain must, be his meaning:

How bless'd the frugal, and an honest board.

The ittXax* anQ "tfiii:>.o;, the first of which we generally render in English the mallows, and the latter the daffodil, the names of which I have not translated, being of no consequence to the beauty of this passage. Plutarch, in his Banqnet of the Seven Wise Men, commends as the wholefomest of herbs; he mentions the xtttpiza, which Le Clerc tells us is a part of the arQiitXts: the fame critic also observes, fiom Scaliger, that it appears from this verse that the ancients did eat the daffodil, or

Ver. 67. What the pget means by this, and the preceding lines, is, if we knew how sew things are necessary for the support of life, we should not be so solicitous about it as we are; we should not spend so much time in agriculture and navigation as we do. This expression of laying the rudder over the smoke, alludes to the custom of laying it to harden over the smoke at those times in which they did not use it. Says Grxvius on this'verse, it was customary to hang the rudders in the smoke, when the season for sailing was passed ; by which they believed they were preserved from rotting, and kept solid till the next season. This we find likewise among the precepts in the second book of this poem.

And o'er the smoke the well made rudder lay.

Ver. 3*7

Which rule also Virgil has laid down in his Georgic, in his direction for tools of husbandry:

Et suspense focis exploret robora fumus. Lib. r.

Ver. 69. Hear the Scholiast on this passage, on the invention of arts; men, fays he, were at first, simple and unexperienced; the art of agriculture, and all other, were entirely unknown; they knew not diseases, nor the pangs of death; when they died rhey expired oh the ground, as if they knew not what they suffered They enjoyed the fruit ot the earth in common among them. Then were n.i rulers: for all were lords of themselves: hut when men grew . J-.-i^i, which is the ugniticatiao of Prometheus, more cunning, more apt to or.trtve, they departed from their primitive temperance, and consequently their serenity. Then tnc ale of fire was discovered, which was the source os all mechanical arts. Txttx.

Ver. 71. It is beyond dispute, that with the invention and improvement of arts, the luxury of men increase.!, and that diseases were the effects of luxury.

And the stol'n fire back to the skies he bore. This passage of the fable, most of the commentaxoes have left untouched, as not knowing what lo roikc of ic I think it must allude to the decay of arts and sciences; which the succeeding verse will farther explain.

Ver. 73. By Prometheus is surely meant, as before, — - .': ri;. wiser men, who were as forward to recover or revive lost arts, as to invent new.

Ver. 76. The original is i« K*i\u *xri*xt \ which expression is used again in the l'heogony, verse 567 of the original, and 847 of my translation: there is a curious comment on this passage in Touraesorc's account of rhe island of Skinosa, in bit Toy age into the Levant; which 1 shall here Itive as near a translation of as I can "This "island abounds with the ferula of the ancients; "the oki name of which is preserved by the nu>""lera Greeks, who call it Nartheca.sroru Hajfr,}: "ir his a stalk five feet in height, and three iucb"* ei thick: every ten inches it has a knot that is "branchy, and covered with a hard ba'k: the "hollow of the stalk is full of white marrow, "which, when dry, takes fire like a match ; whish ** fire continues a long while, and consumes the

■ marrow by llow degrees, without doing any da"mage to the bark; for which reason this plant

* is used for carrying tire from one place to ano

* thcr: our sailors laid in a large store of it: this

■ Lse of it is derived from early antiquity; and "may contribute to the explanation of a passage

* in Hcfiod, who, speaking of the fire which Prom metkeus stole from heaven, lays, that he brought

* it in MMstqnj, i* f. in Latin ferula; this fable "douutless arises from Prometheus discovering the "use of steel in striking fire from the .'lint: aud "Prometheus most probably made use of the mar.

* row of the ferula, and instructed men how to

* preserve fire in the stalk of this plant.1

Ver. 11 a. '* " The original is «*»s»t xc"""' m csWct xt**' They placed about her body orna*' meets ot gold. A strict regard ought always tu *" be paid to the original meaning of the ancient

* author; if a liberty is took by [he transtator, for the better embellishing the poem, it is pro

"per tu have a remark on chat occasion. The

* danger arising from such an omisiiou, is, that "the reader who depends on the translation may "be misled in facts; as from this passage he would 'take it for granted, diamonds were in the days

"of Hcfiod, which dots not appear from e^xovt "Xotitti^ji. This observation will be good in "greater points" • How far 1 may be indulged in the liberty I have taken with this passage I know not; but I am fore this part of her dress contributes more towards the beauty of the whole, than a golden necklace, which Valla has given her iu his following translation:

Aurea candenti posuere monilia collo.

Ver. 121. To pass over the poetical beauty of this allegory, let us come to the explication of ir. l o punisli die crime of Prometheus, Jupiter fends a woman on earth. How agreeable in the whole is the story conducts!I Vulcan first moulds her to form; that is after the use of sire was found out, of which Vulcan is called the god, by art men begun to embellish the works of natnre : then ail the inferior arts, which are meant by the other deities, conspire to render the beauties of nature still more charming, liy these means the desires of men grew stronger and impetuous, and plunged them on to such excessive indulgence of their senses. a« brought on them the miseries which tbc poet afterwards mentions.

Ver. 115. How admirable is the fable continued! Here is a virgin made of all the charms of arc and nature, to capiivate che eyes, and endowed with all the cunning of the sexto gain on the hearc, for that is the meaning of her being sent by Hermes. Thus formed, w«» "having received a tribute from all the gods" so complete her, well may the poet call her 3aA<>*a,ii,tr««?v,"a temptation that no art can withstand." Here Prometheus, that is rhe wife man, who for fe es the event of things, warns his brother i£pimetheus, that is, the man who is wile too late, to avoid the fight otsuch an assemblage of graces. Of liipecus, Prometheus, &c. and the deities here mentioued, lee farther in the The* ogony.

Ver. 140. Pandora's box may properly be took in the fame mystical lenfe, with the apple in the book of Genesis; aud in that light the mural will appear without any difficulty.

Ver. 146. With what a sorrowful solemnity these lines run, answerable to the icnle contained in them:

e\}\\u. di ftvptx Ayy»< Kxt tcvfyo&7rx; xXetXilcci, AAc</j fM» yxs yx*x Xkkoiv, vt?-u4 Se -j-c.xr.-x.

Some think the story of Pandora, and the account we have from Mofcs-of the fall of man, were took from the fame tradition. The curse, indeed, pronounced against Adam, in the third chapter of Genesis, is the fame wich chis in the ess.ot; but what weight this imagination may cany with it, I lhall not undertake to determine This story is imitated, and iu several lines cranslated by Qiitilet, iu his Callipsedia, and by the late Dr. Panicll, ill his poem, called, The Rile of Women.

Ver. 160. It is certain, from this passage, that, according to the system of our author in this po. em, the golden age preceded the creation of woman, flu being scut by Jupiter, who !iaJ then the government of heaven. And agreeable to this, ii the description of the felicity os human state, besore Epimetheua had knowledge of I'andora We must observe, that this dtien not coincide with hia account irithe rheogor>y, where, after Saturn'sreven^e on bis fattier, the Furies, Contention, and all the consequences of it, immediately appear

Ver. 173. The notion of guardian angels has prevailed am< n,' many in almolt all age*, and all countries. Passages of the like na-urc are freqicnt in both the Old and New sVIrarrienr, and in Ho mcr also; and, as Mr. Addilon observes, Milton doubtless had an eye on this part of Hcsiod, where he fays,

Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth

Unseen, both when we wake and when we sleep. Paradise i.tjl.

I cannot help taking particular notice of the beauty and use of our author's doctrine of guardi an angels ; he makes them w*rr»j fts^.'-.i It' Olio.*, "wandering all over the earth;" QvX&rtvtirtoiKxi, xxi ijy«, " they keep an account of actions,

both just and unjust." I'hcle sentiments grafted in the minds of the people, and received as a point of faith by them, W'iu!d make htm always on their guard; and there being <rX»;«5^a/," the disposers of riches," woi:ld be sufficient to induce them to good actions. The making them the instruments of Providence, to reward men according to their me. rits to each other in his life, isa doctrine so ami. able, that if the truth of it cannot he proved, it ought never to be publicly argued regain 11. Hire the pnet endeavours to deter his brother from any future injustice, by telling him all his actions are recorded; and that according to their merits, he shall be rewarded.

Ver. 18.5. Men of the former age were made of the earth, and the first clement*, therefore more strong of body than these of a mixed feed. The word {fun, here made use of fir nature, is a metaphor taken from tree* and plants. I'he veib is fv», to plant, &c. Tie/z. Not n uch unlike this is the account we have from Moles of the different generations of man in earlier times.

Ver 206 All the commentators which I ever saw, seem to have entirely mistook the fense os this line, nor have Valla and Frisius entered into the meaning of the port in their translations: the first translates i< ptO.Ixt

Dryadumque creata

Sanguine —

sprung from the blood of the dryads, or woodnymphs : and Frifius has it " qnercubus ex duri«," from hard oaks. I stiail use the comment which Mr. Theobald has furnished me with on this occ&sior, and in the lame words in which he gave it to me.

Ziu; J« irotriij Tfson ctXXe '/lit', fti^fxui srwv

Ex «£\:x>, n fC o/xZg^utv etflf tctxtt. ley utsAl swirl* >£ «cji>.f.

I think I may venture to affirm, from the comment* they have given it, that none of all the Greek commentators rightly understood this passage. I believe I may say the same of the Latin critics: Gtxvius, Le Clerc, and Hieisiu*, have passed the difficulty over in silence. Screvelius lalU into the interpretation us the Greek lcholiast=; and Guietus it i- plain, saw nothing of what I apprehended to be the meaning of the poet; because he make* an alteration of the text itself, changing tx into ix Ti, aksttum intrdinatum: this, too, he borrows from one of the conjectures of I'zetzes; who first together with Mofcopylusand Pr clus, tells u*,thac by (for they all make bu- one word 'fit), the poet intends to inform us, that this race was made out of astien-trees: that is to fay, of a firm and unperifhablc make: but was the fame generation brazen and wooden too? It might much more reasonably been called the wooden age, if Jupiter had formed the people out of trees. Hesi d, I am persuaded, had no thought of obtruding luch a generation on us: besides, it neither in the description of the g. hJen or silver age, the poet has given us any account of what materials the men were formed, why should he do it here? In short, let us rectify the pointing of the whole passage, aud take the context along wirh us, and a very little sagacity, I hope, will restore us the author's true meaning. I have a great suspicion the verses ought to be pointed thus:

Zitic it iraxt^ rent* »XXt yfyat fit^ttrut cttSfU


KccAx«o» iroiijs-', tot aryv^u xiit tfuut,
Ex un^Mt J:i>«» Ts y\ ouZ^ifM, tint «{i)»s
Efy IfilM v,

Sr> fcO.ittv ictier Tt xaj cpCnfiif, will be 11 potent
an 1 dr adfui at the fyear." Ex /uXmr is the Do-
ric genitive, instead ot nuo.t&iv MtXix i«< not on-
ly the ash tree, but is metaphorically used by He- .
mer, and other poets, for the spear: so Iliad 2. in
111 e description os the Abantes.

T»o uu. ctox.Ti; ntvTt Bca tftSir y-euo^ »;: , Aikuiitxi* wz&iTtf tqrtXTA'tt ftiXtiie-i 0(y£it*«; f>/j%.HV Ofti-jjy a.fipt fr&lTTt. Down their broad shoulders falls a length of hairi l heir hands dismiss not the long lance in air, Bu' wirh protended spears, in fighting fields, Pierce the tough corslets, and the brazen shields.


The Scholiast on the place, explains /ttkivfi by the word^ c^ettrif ectra atiXicct fylvyno/itvt-if. " spears made out of the ash tree " lo in our poet, ix AciAixv 2-i»oy [ take to be no more than Six T** ftiXt<K»,or raif piAizic }«>9i," terrible with lpears." Both the prepositions art indifferently used, in the fame manner, by the best prose writers, as well as the poets : so in ThucydideR we have ix vmomXui9 for in* Twj Lzti '.■> by force of arm/. It may not be unworthy a remark, and to strengthen this conjecture, that Ovid, who had an eye on Hefiod, in the description of the four ages, soon as he names the brazen age, likewise distinguishes it by this {rcpcasity to arms.

Tertia post illas successit acnca proles,

Sxvior iogeniis, et ad horrida promptior arma.

Ver. xo8. Here the poet, speaking of the giant rate,sap, mtt -n nr«» «y3ia», of which Schrevelius, Ttetits, and other commentators, fay they feed not on bread, or meat dressed, but tore and eat the limbs cf beasts.

Ver. 210. That there was a time when brazen arms were used, we may learn from Plutarch; who tells us when Cimon, the fm of Miltiades, carried the bones of Theseus from the isle of Scyro» to Athens, he found interred with him a sword, led the head of a spear, made of brass.

Pvifanias, who mentions this fact, tells us, that iron was then begun to be used in war; hut for brazen arms in heroicai times, he gives the instances of Pysaoder's ax, and the dart <»f Meriones, bo-Ji from Homer. He likewise alleges the authority of the spear of Achilles, preserved in the temple of Minerva at Phasehs, and the sword of Memnon.all of brass, in the temple of Æsculapius is Nicomedia. Lucretius is a voucher, almott in the words of our author, for the antiquity and use cf brass before that of iron.

Piisterius ferri vis est ærifque reperta, Sed prius tcriserat, quam ferri, cognitus iisus. The remarks from Paufanias and Lucretius, are VrMr. Theobald See farther in the observation osKse 153d of the Theogony

Ver. ai8 Exactly the fame is the distinction Moses makes in Genesis: fays he, " There were ■ giar.ts in the earth 111 those days;" and also aster that,1' when the sonsof God came unto the daugh** tees i f men, and they bare children to them, ** the fame became mighty men, which were of "old, men of renown. Chap. vi. ver. 4

Here are plainly the age us giants, and the age of heroesVer 130. The fortunate islands, by the Greeks rioeght to be the feats of g<»cd men. Homer, Lycoperrn. Plutarch, Phil stratus, and Dion, as well at riesiod, have mentioned,and unanimously agree, that they ate fragrant fruitful sitlds, and meadows, as lovely to the eye as the mind of man can imagine Tx/tz. AgreeaMe to this, is that beautiful description of Elysium in the Æi.eis of Virgil.

Devenere loos lætos, et am . na vircta
Fortcnat 1.. .. ncinorum.sedesqucbeatas. Lib. vi.

-They took their way,

Where long extended plains of pleasure lay
The blissful feats of happy fouls below. Dr Vden.

Pindar, in his second Olympic, comes nearer to cur poet, in his description os those seats of the lappy:


"Where the gales from the ocean, brrathe ':.'.rcugb the island eftht blessed." I must here

observe that Homer, in his account of Elysium, judged very wrong, when he niade Achilles say to Ulysses, " he would rather serve the poorest on "earth, than rule over the departed" Od. B. II. Speaking thus dreadfully of a future slate, and of the happiest condition os it, is no encouragement to the living.

Ver. 231. The original of this is omitted in many editions, hut Grrevius is for restoring it from a manuscript which he had seen.

Ver. 3^4 Here he cannoc mention the vices of his age without showing the utmost detestation to them. We see the same purity of manners, the fame air of piety, running through all his works. r*-e the Life

Ver. 246. This passage Ovid has beautifully translated in Ms Metamorphoses; and indeed several parts of Hcsiod are well improved hy that fine poet. In the division of the ages he differs from our author, and of five makes but four. ** It is

the opinion of some, that it would have been "better, if Ovid had paid as great regard to the "historical relations, as to the beauties of those *' whom he imitates.*'

Ver. 268 Here the poet likens himself to the nightinga'e, and the judges to the birds of prey. Tzelz. I'his transition, from the five ages to the fable ot the hawk and the nightingale, is a little abrupt. I he remaining part of this book contains a beautiful, though small body <s moral philosophy.

Ver. 316 By this an ithesis how lively is the slate of the righteous represented This it is gives such a beauty to the first and tMrty-seventh Psalms, where the natural slate of the just and unjust is truly described, and in many circumstances iike this of our po t

'Ver. j 25. Examples of this may be found in history. When a vengeance of this kind happens, the execution of it depends on the degree of the person guilty, and the nature of the crime committed, and against whom, as that of Fari-, who was the son of a powerful prince; and who, in breaking the laws of hospitality, osstndeda powtrsul people, by which he involved his country in ruin.

Ver. 326 He now turns the discourse from his brother to the judges, by whom likewise he had been injured He exhorts them to the pursuit of I justice, on these two considerations: jirjl. Because ths wicked man, who plots the destruction of ano her, at the lame rime works his own unhappi.* ness; and,sucnJIy, Because the gods are not only conscious ot all our actions, but our vet y thoughts.

Ver. 330. Fhis xc\ etttiou of the circumspection of the guardian angels, and ti e punishment of the i unrighteous, is to keep the crime of which they I were guilty fresh in the memory of his brother and thejudges Repetitions cf this nature arc frequent1 in the Greek poets, and more particularly in Homer than any other,

Ver. 341 The original has it, that Justice reminds Jove of human wickedness, and solicits him that the people may be punished for the offences us their rulcis.

. cPf? crxirtrTi

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