Sivut kuvina

Ver. 6. « The Greek* perfumed their birds, as W. perfume our lap-dogs.' Madam Dacicr.

Ver. II Bathylhis was a young Samian of great beigry, acri admired by Anacreon. See Ode 19th. Horace has taken notice of this passion:

Non aliter Samio dicunt arsissc Bathyllo

Anacreonta Teium,
Qui fen^pe carva tcstudine flevit amorem,

Nou eliboratum ad pedem. Efoi. 14.

Sad) vis the fate Anacreon prov'd

So fooc/y he Bathyllus lov'd,

Acca&om'd his complaints to suit

la easy measure 1 to the lute. Duncomlc.

This youth was also a favourite of Polycrates, who erected a statue to him that represented ApoUc playing upon the lyre.

Ver if, 16. The poet could not pay himself a ■tore delicate compliment, than by saying that VeIu, the mother of the Graces, was giad to purchase a little hymn of his composing at the price of one of her favourite doves This passage is a proif, that Anacreon wrote hymns in honour of tiie god'; which are all lost, except, perhaps, part of the jeth and 53d odes to Bacchus, the 58th to Copid, the 60th to Diana, and the 64th to Apollo. Ttc bid ode is also an hymeneal hymnVer. 35. The dove praises the liberality of Ms suitr for admitting him to drink of the fame wine •t himself, which was an indulgence the ancients rr*s allowed to any but their favourites. Thus steer introduces Achilles entertaining Ajax, UJriet, anH Phœnix, Iliad 9. ver. io*.

With that the chiefs beneath his roof he led,

And plac'd in feats with purple carpets spread.

1>en thu»—Patroclus, crown a larger bowl,

Mi purer wine, and open every foul.

Of all the warriors yonder host can fend,

Toy friend most honours these, and these thy friend.



The commentators observe, that Anacreon makes •>.is ynting country man speak in the Doric dialect, which was the most rustic, to ridicule the unpolite:d» of a p-rson who could be so insensible of the charms of love, as to wish to part with his images.

Ver. II. In the Greek, the price offered is a drachm, an Attic coin, value about sevenpence halfpenny English.

Ver j 6. Barnes observes, that it was usual for the ancient heathens to treat the images of their pci well or ill, just as they fancied they had been efed by them. The modern Indians chastise their •oak with scourges, whenever any calamity befalls iesn. There is a passage in the seventh Idyllium •< Theocritus, similar to this of our poet, where a ferfon, after having made his supplication to the tod P*n, pleasantly enough threatens him;

■• V «X>w; n'.n«, *«]• /»«> Xf" W*?t oiii^irm

iztrifiWf tnnil, ». T. X.

But may'st thou, if thon dar'st my boon deny,
Torn by fell claws on beds of nettles lie;
All the cold winter freeze beneath the pole,
Where Heber's waves down Edon's mountains roll;
And in the scorching heats of summer glow,
Where under Blemyan rocks Nile's boiling water*


That natural facility of thought,and that sweet, simplicity of expression, which are so deservedly admired in the writings of Anacreon, abound in the original of this beautiful ode. Horace gives us his true character, when he tells us he wrote, "non elaboratum ad pedem," in unlaboured verse; verse that flows with so much ease, that it seems to have cost him no care or trouble. He played upon his lyre, and the numbers came; therefore he fays of him it\ another place:

Nec, si quid olim lusit Anacreon,

Delevit anas Hor. L. 4. Oi. 9.

and blithe Anacreon's sportive lay Still lives, in spite of time's destructive sway.


We have an imitation of this ode in an epigram of Palladas, in the 47th chapter of the ad book of the Anthologia.

rigaXiep fti Xvvauxi; «<rwj£«w]tf*'i, Xtyafa

Elf TO KKTityow oca.* Xu^awi/ nXinuif.
AX*.' ryv ti Xii/xor 0}4-{i^;«f, nn piXaivof,'

Of* aXf^Af, fT^Of TiXflf Cf£4pllr0?.

Kffl [iptutv ZffKW fgSvJsMf dsyaKtxs.

To me the wanton girls insulting say,
* Here in this glass thy fading bloom survey
Just on the verge of life, 'tis equal quite,
Whether my locks are black, or silver white;
Roses around my fragrant brows I'll twine,
And dissipate anxieties in wine. •

Ver. 6. The hair was always esteemed by the ancients the principal ornament of beauty. ApuIcius has this remarkable passage in the second book of his Milesiacks: " Even Venus herself, if "she was destitute of hair, though surrounded by "the Graces and Loves, would not have charms to "please her own husband Vulcan." Longepierre quotes a passage from Petronius, where Eumolpui calls the hair the chief grace of beauty:

Quod fummum formæ decus, cecidcre capilli,
Vernantesque comas tristis ablgit hyems.

Nunc umbra nudata fua jam tempora mcerunt,
Areaque attritis nidet adusta pilis.

O fallax natura desim! qua; prima dedisti
Ærati nostræ gaudia, prima rapis.

Infelix modo crinibus nitebas

Phœbo pulchrior, & sorore Phœbi:

At nunc l.xvior ære, vel rotundo

Horti tubere, quod creavit unda,

Ridentes fugis & times pueUat.

Ut mortem citius venire eredas,

Sciio jam capitis perisse partem. FatTn is thy hair, for woeful winter hoar Hu stol*n thy bloom, and beauty is no mire; Thy temples mourn their shady honours (horn, Parch'd like the fallow, destitute of corn. Fallacious gods! whose blessings can betray; What first ye give us, first ye take away. Thou, late exulting in thy golden hair, As bright ai Phœbus,, or as Cynthia fair, Now view'st, alas I thy forehead smooth and plain As the round fungus, daughter of the rain; Smooth as the surface of well-polish'd brass, And'fiyft with fear each laughter-loving lass. Death hastes amain ; thy wretched fate deplore; Fall'n is thy hair, and beauty is no more.


Ver. 6. The poet very judiciously endeavours v. terrify the swallow with the mentiou of Tereus, whose palace, as the ancients have remarked, was carefully avoided by those birds. Pliny fays," Arx "Regum Thraciæ, a Terei nefasto crimine invisa ** Huundinibns." See also Solinus. From this passage of Anacreon it should seem, that Philomela was changed into a swallow, and aot Progne, as Ovid and others have asserted.

Ver. 10. Madam Dacier says, tkat this passage, and another in the eight ode

Intent on love, I strive to greet The gamesome girls with kisses sweet, And, as on pleasure's brink I seem, Wake, and, behold! 'tis all a dream, undoubtedly fumisticd Horace with that beautiful sentiment in the first ode os the fourth book:

Nocturnis te ego snmniis
Jam captum teneo; jam volucretn sequor

Te per gramina Martii
Campi, te per aquas, dure volubiles.

Which Mr. Pope has admirably imitated:

Thee dress'd in fancy's airy beam,
Absent 1 follow through th' extended dream;

How, now I seize, 1 clasp thy charms,
Aud now you burst (ah cruel!) from my arms;

And swiftly flioot along the Mall,
Or softly glide by the Canal,

Now shorn by Cynthia's silver ray,
And now on rolling waters snatch'd away.

Argrntarins imitates this passage in an epigram, in the first book of the Autholugia, which begins,

Og»;, T< pet v itm atynprunis i r}v J,

T.,~OH>.01 XMTOC t?\l7 «T»37illO«.

Invidious swallow, with thy horrid scream
Why hast thou wak'd me fratn so sweet a dream?
Stunn'd by thy noise fair Pyrrha, like the wind,
Flew from, my arm:, just yielding to be kind.

[ocr errors]


Ver. a A young Phrygian of great beauty.beloved by Cybele the mother of the gods, who nude him her priest, on condition that he should live chaste: but he broke hit vow, and as a punishment, she afflicted him with madness, in the transports of which he deprived himself os the distinction of his sex. and would have killed himself,had not Cybele, moved with compassion, transformed him into a pine-tree.

Ver. 5. Claros was a city of Ionia near Colophon, rendered famous for a fountain consecrated to Apollo, who from thence was called Clarius. Tacitus gives an account of it in the second book of his Annalsrwhere, speaking of Germanicus, he fays, " Apcllitque Colophona, ut Clarii Apollinis "oraculo uteretur. Non femina illic, ut apud "Delphos; fed certis i samiliia, & ferme Milctc "accersitus facer Jot. numerum modo consultaiv "tium &nomina audit: turn in specum degressw "haufii sontit arcani aqui, ignarus plerumque li "terarum occarminum,cdit responfa versibus ccra "positi* super rebus quas quis mente concepit.He landed at Colophon, to consult the oracle c Apollo at Claros. The person that delivers tr oracles there, is not a woman, as at Delphos, but man selected aut of certain families, and freenjen ly from Miletus. This priest only inquires 0 number and names of those that consult the deit After that, having entered his grotto, and drank the mysterious water, he answers the question his inquirers in verse, though he is generally U terate, and unacquainted with the muses.

Ver. 6. The Greek is imf xftswsm, laurel-weari Phœbus; because when Daphne escaped hit pi suit by being changed into a laurel, he consccril that tree to bimscls. Ovid Al'ttunorft,

Cci Deus, At qnoniam conjux mea n<>n potes esse,
Arbor eris certe, dixit, mea: semper habebunt
Tc coma, te citbaras, tc nostrse, JLaure, pharetras.
To whom the God—M Because thou canst not be
"My mistress, I espouse thee for my tree:

* Be thou the prize of honour and renown,

• Tac deathless poet and the poem crown."



The subject of thi» ode ii to (how the irresistible r.atore of love. In this little piece, Anacreon discorer* a wonderful delicacy of invention: Nothbg can be imagined more entertaining than dm combat, the preparation for it, the issue of it, aci that natural ana admirable reflection with which it concludes.

Ter. !}. Anacreon arms himself with a spear and siiicld, to contend with love. In an ancient epigram of the Anthi logia, book 7. we have an account of a c.mbatant, who put on the breastflate of reason, to withstand the attacks of this dugerous enemy.

{IxktTftMi ~f t{*T«e Tip fl'x'n 'tylTfitr,

OvJi iu tmnru, wilts tm ar(*i iiK.
6 *rec J* mtttHTi rvnMvrtfuu' it fimtty

Tri love 1 war, and reason is my shield,
Soever, match'd thus equally, will yield:
'A ixAu* joins his aid, too great the odds;
Ose asortal cannot combat two such gods.

Ter. 19, %o.

Tie author of an epigram, in the seventh book of tht Anthosogia, complains, in like manner, that lat had exhausted his quiver by shooting at baa.

i..,- uci /.x.%j»; Ef«; i&piMttrii cXjy.

Hi more let Cupid's (hafts the world appal,
Ix in my bosom he has lodg'd them all.

Ver. II. This thought is very beautiful and injerioss. It is taken from an ancient piece of gal—• Tt, which ought not to be passed over in sikace. The heroes of antiquity, when in any desperate engagement they sound their darts fceat, their strength exhausted, and saw no probee: of surviving long, would collect all their •pints and strength, and rush headlong with aœziog impetuosity upon their enemies, that fto in death the weight of their bodies, thus *-«cntly agitated, might bear down their advrfwiea. Examples of this kind of heroism are Cf^cent in L,ucan. Book 3d, speaking of a brave 'reran:

Turn vulnere multo

Kogientem animam lapsos collegit in artus atmiraque contendit toto, quicunque manebat, •atmine, et huslilem, defessis robore membris, b^tiiat solo nociturus pondcre puppin.

fi. 3. Ftr. *}%*.

And, book 6. ver. 104. speaking of Scatva:

tot munera belli

Solus obit, denramquc seretis in pectore sylvam Jam gradibus ferns, in quern cadat, elegit hostena. Encumber'd sore with many a painful wound, Tardy and stiff he treads the hostile round; Gloomy and fierce his eyes the crowd survey, Mark where to fix, and single out the prey.



Ver. 1. Gyges was the favourite of Candaulei, king of I.)din, whose queen was remarkably beauciful, and passionately admired by her husband* In his vanity, he extolled her charms above measure to Gyges, and, to convince him of her beauty, determined to show her to him naked; which he effected, but not without the queen's discover* ing that affront; who next morning sent privately for Gyeei, and resolutely told him, he must: either suffer immediate death for what he had done, or dispatch Candaules, and take her and the kingdom of Lydia for his recompense. The choice. wa> difficult, as he greatly valued his master: However, the love *>f life prevailed—he stahhe.J Candaulen, married the queen, and took possession of the kingdom.

Ver. 2. There is an epigram in the second book of the Anthologia, that has the lame turn: fins, x.-si ivpgttiw ri 7*5 nvfict a Tt To, fiui*;;

Ot>d«c ytMPratW* pen T£t%i, *»n «iru, 'sts ivttmu £x{iroci, aunts1*;, fftytt Bvtfrtt

Ts £»» T* fir) fy)t viu i>u: x-rty/i. fix; i ,.J.«; Jcicto! J6T>1» *s«»»» ay TTfe/XuSi) Tff.

A > 0; S«»>)C, ITfJV TTXtTX, (TV J' Xtf;> i%Ctf.

Cease from thy cares and toils, be sweetly gay,
And drink—to-morrow is a distant day:
Improve on time; to bliss each moment give;
Not to enjoy this life, is not to live:
Our goods are now our own, but when we die*]
They come to others, whilst in dust we lie, v
And then, alas! have nothing to enjoy. )

Horace expresses himself in the same mannur, Book t. Ode 9.

Quid sit futurum eras fuge quxrere: et
Quern sors dierum cumque dabit, lucre
Appone: nec dulces amores
Sperne pucr, ncque tu choreas;
Dum virenti canities abest

To-morrow and her works defy;

Lay hold upon the present hour, And snatch the pleasures passing by,

To put them out of fortune's pow'r Nor love, nor love's delights, disdain, Whate'er thou gett'st to-day is gain. D>yh.

ODE XVI. Ver. 1. Anacreon alludes to the famous war of the seven captains against Thebes, occasioned by Eteocles, the son of Œdipus and Jocasta, refusing hi» brother Polynices his share in the government, though they had previously agreed, after their father's death, to rule alternately year by year. Æschylus wrote a tragedy on this subject.

Ver. 3. Ovid has imitated this passage—Amor. L. ». Eleg. 18.

Vincor, et ingenium sumptis revocattir ab arm is,

Resque domi gestas, et mea bella cano. I'm conquer'd, and renounce the glorious strain Of arms and war, to sing of love again: My themes are acts which I myself have done, And my muse sings no battles but my own.

Ver. 9. Nonnus calls the eyes the archers of love, axavr/rfifff %^urm: and there is something similar to this in an epigram of the Anthologia, book 7.—which, speaking of love, fays,

Of ft I M*.l)txc,
T«|«T«, Zflra^iAflSs tfifutn x{«TTOue>«;.

Insidious archer, not unseen you lie,
Though ambuslj'd close in Zenephelia's eye.


This elegant ode is quo'ed by Gellius, who fays it was fung and played upon instruments at an entertainment where he was present.

Ver. 9. The poet alludes to the constellations, which Vulcan described on the shield of Achilles. See Homer's Iliad, book 18. There Ihone the image of ihe master-mind: There earth, there heav n, there ocean, he design'd;

Th" unweary'd fun, the moon completely round, The starry lights that heaven's high convex crown'd,

The Pleiads, Hyads, with the Northern Team,
And great Orion's more refulgent beam,
To which, around the axle of the sky.
The Bear revolving points his golden eye,
Still shines exalted on th' ethereal plain,
Nor bathes his blazing forehead in the main.


Ver. 10. Anacreon calls Orion, rnym, odious, because he is the forerunner of tempests, and therefore dreadful to mariners. Horace calls him insejui, Epode 15.

Dum pecori lupus, et nautis infestus Orion.
As long as wolves pursue the fearful sticep,
And stern Orion rages o'er the deep.

ODE XVIII. Ver. 19. It is not without reason that Anacreon, after having mentioned Venus, introduces love among the graces; being sensible, that, though beauty alone might please, yet, without the aid us other charms, it could not long captivate the heart.

Beauty without the graces may impart
Charms that will please, not captivate the heart;
As splendid baits without the bearded hook
Invite, not catch, the tenants of the brook.

Ver. 13. The poet desires that Apollo may nol be described upon his bowl, because he was fe unfortunate as to kill his favourite Hyacinthus, 11 he was playing with him at quoits.

ODE XIX. Ver. 5. The original is, ritvei 9«Xarra o* *v£z\ 'The sea drinks up the air.' All the comnitn tators are silent hire, except Dr. Trapp, wh owns he did not understand the cxpresGoi Might I venture to make an easy alteration < the text, I would read, Tlmi SaXtuV 'The sea drinks up the river*.' Si.e Ode »i Am V O^iwk ft œwey^ftiy, 1 Through rapid rivers,' < 'torrents." It is likewise Used in the same sen! by the best authors. Moschus, Idyllium a Ji See also Hoelzinus on Apolloniu* Rhodius, Bo I. 9. This emendation makes the fense full at complete.

Ver. 10. The moon is said to drink up tl sun, because she borrows her light from tint It minary.

ODE XX. Ver. 4. Niobe was the daughter of Tantalo king of Phrygia, and wife of Amphion, king Thebes, by whom, according to Homer, havii six sons and six daughters, she became so proud her offspring and high birth, that she had the \ nity to prefer herself to Latona, the mother Apollo and Diana, who, to revenge the affn offered to their parent, in 'me day slew all I children; upon which Niobe was struck dui with grief, and remained stupid. For that r son, the poets have feigned her to be turned i a stone. The story is told by Ovid in the 0 book of the Metamorphoses; but perhaps be! by Pope, in his translation of the twenty-sol book of the Iliad, where Achilles is introdu thus speaking to Priam:

Nor thou, O father! thus consum'd with wti
The common cares that nourish life forego.
Not thus did Niobe, of form divine,
A parent once whose sorrows equal I'd thine;
Six youthful sens, as many blooming maids,
In one fad day beheld the Stygian shades;
These by Apollo's silver bow were slain,
Thole Cynthia's arrows stretch'd upon the p!
So was her pride chasti..'d by wrath divine,
Who match'd her own with bright Latona'sl
But two the goddess, twelve the queen enjoy
Those boasteil twelve the avenging two destn
Steep'd in their blood, and in the dust outfpr
Nine days neglected lay expos'J the dead;
None by to weep them, to inhume them non
(For Jove had turn'd the nation all to stone)
The god" themselves, at length relenting, ga'
Th' unhappy race the honours of a grave.
Herself a rock (for such was heaven's high w
Through deserts wild now pours a weeping 1

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

1 wrti myself a gentle breeze to blow,
O'rr your fair bosom unconfin'd I'd flow,
Aad wanton on those little hills of snow.
I wish myself a rose in purple drest,
That yon might place me on your snowy breast.
I i.i myself a lily, lovely fair,
That I might kiss your (kin, and gather whiteness


Ver. a. The Greek is, »ui i/wi. Amystis, u Madam Dacier observe-, was a manner of _ among the Thracians, so called from swallowing down a certain quantity of {•or without fetching breath, or shutting the oaotith. Horace takes notice of it in Book I.

** Neu multi Damalis meri "BaiTum Threicia vincat amystide." Bassos shall Damalis n'ercome, And drain the goblet at a draught.


Ver. 9. The reflection the poet here makes is exredingly natural, beautiful, and strong;" When 'love has once got possession of the heart, all ex*»finf rr-rrfi^r* will have: no effect aerreeablv

All defence to folly turns,
When within the battle burns.


This ode is by Anacreon addressed to Bathyllus; but the tranflatnr has, with more decency and gallantry, applied it to a lady.

Ver. 10. The original is, Xlnyn evttx ■aulut, a Fountain retting Pcrsunjisn, than which nothing can be more delicate or poetical, as most of the commentators have observed.

Longepierre quotes a beautiful epigram from the Anthologia, book I. similar to this ode; where the god Pan is supposed to speak.

EfXio xxt Xxt ifjLxv tiiv •arirm, i <ri (iOj%»n
n«f fitt*.ttxvt i%u xix\tu-iix £f^ugvr.

Rm 2i xxt xonirux fu\itmyttt iirfa /aiumrf
'JlSw, tjiifjMtiOii irm ay* xxXaptoif.

Rest here beneath my ihady pine reclin'd,
Whose tall top sweetly murmurs to the wind;
Here too a brook mellifluous flows along,
And woos me with its ever gurgling song;
Here on ray solitary pipe I play,
Or sweetly sleep the tranquil hours away.


One cannot but be surprised at the wretched taste of Fiber, who has rejected this ode as spurious, and not Anacreon's, when perhaps it is not inferior in beauty to the best of them; as Barnes and Trapp have amply proved by explaining a Greek idiom, with which it is scarce worth while to trouble the English reader.

Ver- 3,4. I'hese words seem to allude to an anecdote in the history of Anacreon, which I (hall explain. Stobxus tell us, that Anacreon,having received a present of five talents of gold from Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, was so embarrassed with cares and solicitudes about his treasure, that he could not sleep for two nights successively : Whereupon he sent back the present, with this apology to his patron, ' That, however valuable the sum * might be, it was not a sufficient price for the 'trouble and anxiety of keeping it."


Ver. 7. Tibulliis fays, " Ite procu! durum curat "genus, ite laboies."

Hence all ye troubles, vanish into air,
And all the wrinkled family of care.

Macedonius concludes an epigram with this distich, Anthologia, book 1. (q,,

T«v yttr Avaxglnrot IM trafiotr&tftri tpn\aeru

...i remedies will have no effect;" agreeably & the conclusion of the fourteenth ode:

[ocr errors]
« EdellinenJatka »