Sivut kuvina

"Hurl flily midst their ranks a rough hard stone, "And they, like dogs contending for a bone, IIJI "Will flay each other: thou with speed renew "The glowing fight, and conquest will ensue. "Thus shalt thou bear from Æa's realms to M Greece,

"If such thy fix'd resolve, the golden fleece."

This said, her eyei were six'd upon the ground, And her fair checks with streaming sorrows drown'd;

DtfponJing anguish seiz'd her gentle mind,
Lest he sliould leave her comfortless behind.
E-nbolden'd thus, him by the hand she prefs'd,
Awl in the language of her foul addrefs'd: 1141

"1( fafeJy htnee thou sail'st, O, think of me! "As 1 for ever shall remember thee '. "And freely tell me, to relieve my pain, "Where lies thy home beyond the boundless ■ main?

"Sir, i< Orchomenos thy native foil? "Or dwell'st thou nearer on th' Æsean isle? "Let me that far-fam'd virgin's name inquire, "Who boasts the fame high lineage with my "sire."

She said ; her tears his soft compassion won, 1150 And thus the chief, by love infpir'd, begun: 'While on my fancy bright ideas play, 'Thy image never from my foul shall stray, ■ If safe I sail, preserv'd by thee, to Greece, 'Nor heavier labours interrupt my peace. 'But if the distant country where I dwell 'Thy will demands, my rtady tongue shall tell. 'A land there is which lofty hills surround, 1 For fertile pastures and rich herds renown'd, 'Where from Prometheus good Deucalion came, 'His royal heir. Harmonia is the name. 1161 'Deucalion here the first foundation- laid 'Of towns, built fanes, and men ^y empire sway'd; 'There my Ioicks stands, and man;- more 'Fair ample cities, that adorn the (hore. 'What time, as rumour'd by the voice of fame, 1 Æoliin Minyas to that country came, 'He built, close bordering on the Theban ground, 'Orchomcqos, a city far renowti'd. 1169 'Eut why your wonder should 1 vainly raise i 'My birth-place tell, and Ariadne's praise? 'For this the virgin's name you now inquire, 1 A lovely maid, arid Minos is her sire. 1 Oh! may, like her's, your Cre propitious prove 1 Who honour'd Theseus with his daughter's love!"

Complacent thu* he footh'd her sorrowing soul; Yet anxious cares within her bosom roll. "Perchance in Greece" (the pensive maid re joiu'd)

"Oaths are rever'd, and solemn compacts bind.
"But Minos greatly differs from my sire, 1180

* Nor I to Ariadne's charms aspire.
"Then mention hospitality no more;
"But, safe conducted to thy native shore,
"Giant this, 'tis all I ask, Oh! think of me,

* As I for ever shall remember thee,
"Id my great sire, the Colchian king's despite:
"But if thy pride my ardent passion slight,
"Fame, or some bird the hateful news will bring;
? Then will 1 chafe thee on the tempest's winjr,

Brand' thy false heart, thy curs'd familiar "be, HO* And prove thou ow'st thy life, thy all to me." Medea thus, and tears abundant shed; And mildly thus the sen of Æson said: [soar 'In vain, dear nymph, thy missive bird shall 'Through air sublime, in vain the tempest roar. 'But if towards Greece thou deign'st thy course * to bear,

1 Immortal honours shall attend thee there; 'There husbands, brothers, sons, so long deplor'd, 1 Safe to their native land by thee reftor'd, 1 Shall as a goddess reverence thy name, 1200 1 And pay thee rites which only gods can claim. 1 But would'st thou grace my bed with bridal '. state,

'Our love can only be dissolv'd by fate.'

His words with raptures all her soul subdue; Yet gloomy objects rife before her view, Ordain'd, ere long, I'hcsfalia's realms to fee; For such was Juno's absolute decree, That soon to Greece the Coichian maid should go, To Pelias source of unremitting woe.

Meanwhile apart her anxious handmaids stay, In silence waiting till the close of day: 1211 Such pleasing transports in her bosom roll, His form, his words so captivate her soul, On feather'd feet the hours unheeded fled. Which warn'd her home : ' Hence (cautious Jason 'said),

'Hence let us hasten unperceiv'd away,
'And here curaptur'd pass some future day.'
Thus the blest hours in converse sweet they

And both unwilling from the temple went;
He to his comrades bordering on the main, 1220
The fair Medea to her virgin train.
Her train approach'd, but stood unnotie'd by:
Her soul sublime expatiates in the Iky.
Her rapid car (he mounts; this hand sustains
The polifh'd thong, and that the flowing reins.
Fleet o'er the plain the nimble mules convey'd
To Æa's walls the love-transported maid.
Meanwhile Chalciope astonilh'd stands.
And instant tidings of her sons demands;
In vain: fad cares had clos'd Medea's ears, H30
No answers gives she, and no qucHions hears;
But on a footstool low, beside her bed,
All bath'd in tears she sits; her hand sustains her

There sits she pondering, in a pensive state,
What dire distresses on her counsels wait.
But Jason, eager to return, withdrew
With his two friends, and jain'd his social crew,
Who throng'd impatient round, while he display'd
The secret counsels of the Colchian maid,'
And Ihow'd the potent herbs . Idas apart 124a
Conccal'd the choler rankling in his heart.
Meanwhile the rest, when glimmering day-light,

Wrapp'd in the mantle of the night repos'd.
Next motn they sent Æthalides the son
Of Mercury, and valiant Telamon,
(For thus in council had the Greeks decreed!
Of fierce Æeta to demand the feed,'


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The serpent's teeth, whose ever-wakeful fight
Watch'd o'er the fountain of the god os fight.
This baneful monstur was by Cadmus slain, i 250
Seeking Europa o'er the Theban plain;
An heifer to his feat of regal sway,
So will'd prophetic Phœbus, led the wiy.
These teeth Minerva from the monster rent,
And part to Cadmus and Æeta sent:
Sow'd on Bo otia's ample plains, from those
A hardy race of earth-born giants rose.
To Jason these he gave, a precious spoil j
Nor, though his matchless arm the bulls mi

Deem'd he, that victory would crown his
The fun now sinking with a feeble ray
To distant Ethiopians slop'd his Way;
Night yok'd her steeds; the Grecian heroes spread
Around the halsers and the fails their bed.
The northern Bear was funk beneath the hills,
And all the air a solemn silence fills: ,
Jason to lonely haunts purfu'd his way;
(All ritet adjusted the preceding day):
'I" was Argus' care a lambkin to provide.
And milk, the rest the ready ship fupply'd. 1170
A sweet fequester'd spot the hero sound.
Where silence reigns, and swelling streams a-

bound; And here, observant of due rites, he laves His limbs immerging in the cleansing waves: Then o'er his moulders, pledge of favours past, The gift of fair Hyplipyla he cast, A fable robe: a deep round soft he made, And on the kindling wood the victim laid: The mix'd libation pouring o'er the flame, l.oud he invok'd infernal Brimo's name: 1180 Then back retires: his call her ears invades, And up she rises from the land of shades: I iiakcj, wreath'd in oaken boughs, curl'd round

her hair, And gleaming torches cast a dismal glare. To guard their queen the hideous dogs of hell Rend the dark welken with incessant yell; The heaving ground beneath her footstep" shake"; l.oud shriek the Naiads of the neighbouring lakes. And all the fountain-nymphs astonish'd stood Where Amaranthine Phafis rolls his flood. I ic.» Fear feiz'd the chief, yet backward he withdrew, Nor till he join'd his comrades, turn'd his view. And now on Caucasus with snow o'erspread, The rising morn her silver radiance shed, When proud Æeta, earlier than the rest, The feming corflet buckled to his breast, The spoils of Mimas of gigantic race. Whom Mar< had vanquiih'd on the plains of

Thrace: His golden helmet to his head he bound, With four fair crests of glittering plumage crown'd, Bright as the fun new rising from the main; 1301 His nervous arm a mighty spear sustain: From his broad-shoulder beams his sevenfold shield, Which not a chief of all the Greeks could wield, Since great Alcides, of his friend bereft. Was (fad mischance! on Myla', borders left. I Us. son hard by with ready chariot stands; 'I he king ascends; the reins adorn his hands;

Fierce to the field he hastes in regal state,
And crowds of Colchians round their monarch
wait. 13K

As ocean's god, when drawn by rapid steeds,
To Isthmian games, or Calaureia speeds,
To Txnarus, or rocky Pctra roves,
Dr where Gerxstus boasts her oaken groves,
Onchestus" woods,or Lerna's limpid spring;
So to the combat drives the Colchian king.

Meanwhile, instructed by the magic maid, The chief his shield, his spear and trenchant blade With unguents smear'd: the Greeks approaching

nigh In vain their efforts on his armour try; I 310 Bur chief the spear such magic charms attend, No force can break it, and no onset bend. Idas enrag'd deals many a furious wound, But, as hard hammers from an anvil bound, So from the spear his sword recoiling sprung: The distant vales with loud applauses rung. Next, with the potent charm the chief anoints His well-turn'd limbs, and supples all his joints. And, lo! new powers invigorate his hands, And arm'd with strength intrepidly he stands. I'jO

As the proud steed, exulting in his might, Erects his ears, impatient for the fight, And pawing fnusss the battle from afar; So pants the hero for the promis'd war. Firmly he moves, incapable of fear; One hand his shield sustains, and one the spot. Thus, when black clouds obscure the darko

ing day, And rains descend, the living lightnings play.

And now the fight draws near; the (jkcue train Sail up the Phasis to the martial plain; '34° Which from as far the towers of Æi stand, As when the chicstans, who the games command For some dea • king, the bounding barriers pl»" For steeJs or men contending in the race. Æcta there they found,of mind elate; On Phasis' banks his chariot rolls in state. On the Caucasian summits, that command I he field of Mars, the crowded Colchians standNow Argo moor'd, the prince invades the field, Arm'd with his magic spear,and ample shield; 11" With serpents' teeth his brazen helm was fior'd, And cross his shoulder gleam'd his glittering

sword: Like Mars the chief enormous power difplay'd, Or Phoebus brandishing his golden blade. O'er the rough tilth he cast his eyes around, And soon the plough of adamant he sound, And yokes of brass: his helm (approaching neir) He plac'd on earth and upright fix'd his spear. To find the bulls he farther went afield. And trae'd their steps, arm'd only with his shield. In a dark cave which smoky mists surround, 1361 Horrid and huge their safe retreat he sound. With rage impetuous forth the monsters came. And from their nostrils issued streams of flameFear seii'd the Greeks, but he their fury brave); Firm as a rock, defies the roaring waves; Screen'd by his shield, intrepidly he scorns The bulls loud- bellowing, and their butting horns;

Collected firm he wards each threatening Mow.
At at the forge where melting metals glow, 1370
While now the bellows heave, now sink by turns,
The flame subsides, or with fresli fury burns;
Stin-'d to the bottom roars the raging fire:
So roar the bulls and living Same respire,
That fierce as lightning round the hero play'd,
In vain,now shelter°d by the magic maid.
One bull he seiz'd, that aim'd a deadly stroke,
Seiz'd by the horns, and dragg'd him to the y»ke;
Then hurl'd the roaring monster on the ground;
Ad equal fate his fellow-captive found. 1380
Loos'd from his arm he stung his shield aside,
And the two monsters manfully he ply'd,
Dragg'd on their knees his fiery foes o'ercame,
And shifting artfully escap'd the flame
Æeta v'rew'd him with aslonilh'd eyes;
When lo! the sons of Tyndams arise,
Aserft it was decreed, and from the land
Hcar'd the strong yokes and gave them to his

These o'er the bulls' low-bended necks he flung;
The brazen beams by rings fulpended hung. 1391
The youths retreating from the burning field,
The chief rtfum'd his loaded helm, his shield
Behind him thrown ; then grasp'd his massy spear,
(shus arm'd the hinds of Thessaly appear,
V'ith long (harp goads to prick their bullocks'

And the firm plough of adamant he guides.
The resiiss bulls with indignation fir'd,
Fntatheir broad nostrils living flames expir'd,
Loud as the blasts when wint'ry winds prevail,
And trembling sailors furl the folding fail. 1400
L'rj'd by his spear the bulls their talk fulfil,
IVove their own prowess, and the ploughman's

Asthesliarp coulter cleft the clodded ground,
The mughen'd ridges sent a rattling sound.
Firm o'er the field undaunted Jason treads,
Aod scattering wide the serpent's teeth he spread:
Yet oft looks back, suspecting he should find
A legion rising up in arms behind:
Uawcaried still the bulls their toil pursue;
Their brazen hoofs the stubborn foil subdue. 1410
When now three portions of the day were spent,
And weary hinds at evening homeward went,
The chief had till'd four acres of the foil;
He then releas'd the monsters from their toil,
Away they scamper'd wildly o'er the plain;
Himself rejoin'd his delegated train,
Till on the field his earth-born foes appear:
The Greeks their animated hero cheer.
He in his helm, replenish'd at the springs,
To flake his burning thirst fresh water brings. 1420
His limbs renew'd with forceful vigour play,
His heart beats boldly and demands the fray.

Thus the fell boar disdains the hunter-bands,
I oams, whets his tulks, and in defiance stands.
Now rose th' embattled squadron in the field.
In glittering helms array'd, with spear and shield,
Bright o'er the martial train the splendors rife,
And dart in streams of radiance to the ikies.
Thus, when thick snow the face of nature shrouds,
And nightly winds dispel the wint'ry clouds, 1430
The stars again their splendid beams display;
So shone the warriors in the face of day.
But Jason, mindful of the maid's command,
Seiz'd a vast rock, and rais'd it from the land:
Not four stout youths, for strength of limbs rc-

Could lift a weight so ponderous from the ground:
This 'midst his foes, embattled on the field,
He hurl'd, and safe retir'd behind his shield.
The Colchians shout, as when the raging main
Roars round tremendous rocks, but roars in vain.
In silence six'd, Æeta stands aghast 1441
To fee the fragment with such fury cast.
The host, like dogs contending o'er their prey,
With curs'd ferocity their comrades flay.
Then leave on earth their mangled trunks be-

Like pines of oaks uprooted by the wind.
As shoots star from heaven's ethereal brow,
Portending vengcince to the world below,
Who through dark clouds descry its radiant light:
Thus Jason rufh'd, in glittering armour bright.
His brandilh'd falchion fell'd the rising foes:
Succinct in arm', some half their lengths disclose,
Some scarce their shoulders; others feebly stand,
While others, treading firm, the fight demand.

As on the bounds which separates hostile
Eternal source of battle and debates, [states,
The cautious hind the cruel spoiler sears,
And reaps his wheat with yet unripen'd cars;
Ere yet the spikes their wonted growth attain,
Ere yet the fun-beams have matur'd the grain:
So Jason's arms the rising squadrons mow'd; 1461
Their blood profusely in the furrows stow'd.
Some sidelong fall on earth, and some supine.
Some prone lie grovelling and their lives resign,
Like whales incumbent on the buoyant main;
Some wounded perish ere they tread the plain;
As late in air they held their heads on high,
So lowly humbled in the dust they lie.
Thus tender plants, by copious torrents drown'd.
Strew their fresh leaves uprooted from the
ground; 14 7*

The tiller views with heart-corroding pain
His fostering care, and all his labours vain.
Æeta thus with wild vexation burn'd,
And with his Colchians to the town rcturn'd.
Some weightier task revolving in his mind:
Thus dos'd the combat, and the day declin'd.


Ver. a. Apollonius, with great propriety, in- I fairs. For this book contains the loves of Medea talc* Erato, the mnfe who presided over loye as- | and Jason, and abounds with the most beautiful

sentiments descriptive of the tender passion. Virgil'.! invocation of Erato, Nune age, jui regei, Erato, tSt. i« a transcript of Apollonius, E< i' in »5» "E{*Ti, &c. Virgil seems to have copied our poet in this instance, at the expence of his judgment; for it is difficult to assign a reason for his invocation of this muse, when lie was about to sing, as he informs us, reget et tempora return.

I he fourth book of Virgil, Servius tells us, i» borrowed from this of Apollonius khoilius Virgil's Æneid.says Hoclzlinut, would not have been enriched with the episode of Dido, had not the amours of Hypsipyla and Medea been worked up ready to his hand by Apollonius.

Ver. 10. Having conducted his heroes to the banks of the Phasis, our poet shifts the scene, and takes occasion to introduce the two goddesses, Juno and Pallas, consulting for the safety of Talon. There is a necessity for such machinery, in order to preserve the dignity of epic poetry. And the propriety of its introduction in this place will be acknowledged, if we recollect, that on the successful application of these goddesses to Venus, the future fortunes of Jason depend. There needs no greater proof of the beauty of this passage, than that it has been imitated by Virgil in that part of his first book, where Cupid is commissioned by his mother to kindle in Dido's breast a passion for Æneas.

Ver. 46. The Greek is NrtVsio wXmymrit,. Homer has a similar expression, 11 Awtj iri nets. Odyss. X- 3

A floating isle, high rais'd by toil divine. Fuse.

Ver. 50. This whole passage is imitated by Claudian, who, speaking of Venus, fays,

Cæfariem tune forte Venus subnixa corusco
Fingebat solis: dextra Iævaque sorores
Stabant Idaliæ: largos hæc nectaris inibres
lrrigat; hæc morsu numerosi dentis eburno
Multisidum discrimen arat: fed tertia retro
Dat varies nexus, et justo dividit orbes
Ordine, neglcctam partem studiosa relinquens.

Ver. 74. He, for making love to Juno, and boasting afterwards that he had dishonoured Jupiter, was hurled headlong by him into Tartarus, and bound to a wheel, which he was doomed to turn without intermission

Ver. 79. It was the opinion of the ancients, that the gods frequently assumed the human shape. Thus Homer, Odyjs. xvii. v. 485.

They (curious oft of mortal actions) deign
In forms like these to round the earth and main,
Just and unjust recording in their mind,
^Vnd with sure eyes inspecting all mankind.


m summo delabor Olympo,

Et Deus humana lustro sub imagine terra*.

Ov. Met. I. X.

Ver. 131. The Greek is, ir omiyiMri. Homer has the fame expression, II. xxtii, 88. but it is 0mitted in Pope's translation.

Ver. 141. She wa« nurse to Jove when an is, fant. Thus Callimachus:

ffi It Ktt/lirtv Ai£;'fft»

Aixv'm iw xgi/fiai. Hym. ad y&v. v. 47,

Ver. 149. It is partly from the wanton and playful character of these little Cupids, thai they are almost always given us under the figure ot children.

Thus Ovid:

Et puer es, nec te quicquam nisi ludere oportet: Ludc, decent annos mollia regna tuts.

Ov. Ren. Ab.

In conformity to this puerile character. Vena promises to reward her favourite boy with playthings. ,

Ver. 210. See the preface.

Ver. 127. These extraordinary rites of the OJchians are mentioned by Ælian, in his fourth bool. The earth and air are said to be the principal objects of their worship. Hoel-z. and Scbol.

Ver. 2 (7. Thus Pallas spreads a veil of air 1round Ulysses, and renders him invisible:

Propitious Pallas, to secure her care,
Around him threw a veil of thicken'd air.'

Homer1 OdyJ.B.ii.

Thus Venus conceals Æneas and hii nions:

At Venus obscuro gradientes sere sepsit.

firg. A. Li

Ver. 151. The Pleiades are said to be daiightrn of Atlas by the nymph Pleione. They werese«n in number. Their name is derived, either from their mother, or from their number; or, more probably, from the Greek word, which signifies tnfail. They are called in Latin fergi/U, from the vernal season when they rise. They rise about the vernal equinox, and set in autumn. !>et> further account os them in the note on ver. 44S. B. ii.

Ver. 260. The battle between the gods and giants is Supposed to have been fought at Phlegm near Pallenc, in Thessaly.

Ver. 299. These sons of Phrixus and Chalciopt had sailed from Colchis to Orchomenos, a city of Bceotia, to receive the inheritance of their grandfather Athamus.

Ver. 327. Virgil seems to have copied this Cmilc from Apolioriius. Æn. viii. 408.

What time the poor, laborious, frugal dame,
Who plies her did ass, stirs the dying flame:
Employs her handmaids by the winking light.
And lengthens out their tasks with half the night;
Thus to her children she divides the bread,
And guards the honours of her homely bed. W1

Ver. 356. One of those islands called the Strophades, in the Ionian sea.

Ver. 387. The Sarmatians, or Sauramaue.wrrt Scythians, who dwelt in the country that lies between the river Tanais and the BurystheoeSi

Vtr. 4tj. The table was looked upon by the indent! as a sacred thing; and a violation of the ,'ivs of hospitality was esteemed the highest proiinaticn imaginable.

Ver. j6*. Virpil's description of the Massylian pridless is taken from this passage:

Hicfe carminibus promittit

y.iat aouam fluviis, et vertere sidcre retro '.

h'octenwsque ciet manes: mugire videbis

fsb jedibus terrain, et descendere montibus oros.

Æn. i. iv. 487,

Ver. 705. The chief power os disposing of their ciEgHteti in marriage, even among the heathens, w»i in their parents, without whose consent it was tot held lawful. This Hermione in Euripides

2fr<4ftip> tea x itx iftev xpitut T*o>.

Vtr. 707. Here Dr. Broomc's translation beji£»,aiid continues to ver. IC87; but not without considerable omissions which are supplied. Virgil has copied this exquisite description from c: author. Both the poets describe minutely the pnfajod calm and stillness of the night, in order ■ Bttnderthe agonies of the restless heroines more iftding by such a contrast. It is impossible to 1 pn aia more lively idea of their restless situation, 4:a by representing it in opposition to that getranquillity which prevails through the f»hnle creation. The silence of the night, which tfposej others to rest, serves to increase but their a.'5'jish, and to swell the tumult os their passion.

T«»t night; and weary with the toils of day,

It (oft repose the whole creation lay,

Tfce murmurs of the groves and surges die,

Cellars roll solemn, through the glowing sky;

Wile o'er the fields a brooding silence reigr.s,

Tie flocks lie stretch'd along the flowery ;>lains:

TWsrious savages that haunt the woods,

I n; painted birds, the fishes of the floods;

AH, all, beneath the general darkn«fs share

lo Beep a sweet forgetfulness of care;

AS but the hapless queen. Pitt.

That sudden and beautiful transition at the close I cs the description, At nun hfilix otiimi Pbamjfa, is "pei *ith the utmost exactness from the correspondent line in our poet,

v Mfl^uav vtr\ yXvxloif XtxZtr ttrro;.

Ver. 813. Virgil has imitated this simile, Æn. till.

Sicotaqui tremulum, &».

So from a brazen vase the trembling stream RtfleSs the lunar, or the solar beam: Swilt and elusive of the dazzled eyes, from will to wall the dapeing glory flies: sheect to the cieling shoot the dancing rays, Ando'ti;he roof the quivering splendor play?.


^er. jtt. Caucasus is called by Propertius, B. '•Q-H. the Pton-.cthcan mountain; because the

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Lecta Promethcis dividet herba jugis. Polltr.

Ver 935 We meet with this simile in the sixth hook of Homer's Odyssey, who applies it to Nausicaa sporting with her fair attendants in the meads. Virgil applies the fame simile to Dido, walking iu the midst of the city, with the Tyrian princes. See Pope's note on Od. 6. ver. 117. Some of the critics have thought that no passage has been more unhappily copied by Virgil from Homer, than this comparison. But, it should seem from fume circumstances in his simile, that the Roman pott rather imitated :his passage of Appollonius, than that of Homer.

Ver. 936. Or rather Amuisian, according to CalKmachus:

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Ver. IC05. No peet has succeeded better in any description than ApoUnnias has in the following. The anxiety with w hich Medea expects the arrival of Jason, expressed by her inattention and aversion to every other object, by her directing her eye> every way in search of him, and by her trembling at every breeze, arc admirable strokes of nature. The appearance of Jason, sluflied with all the bloom of youth, advancing hastily towards her, like the star, to which he is compared, rising from the ocean; the embarrassment which his presence occasion*, the silent admiration in which they stand gazing at each other, like two tall trees in a calm, are particulars w hich none but the imagination of a real poet could have put together, and can never be sussiciently admired.

Ver. I»99- We have here a curious account of the ceremonies made use of in their sacrifices to the infernal deities. Hecate the fame with, the moon or Diana, was so called, either from her being appeased by hecatombs, or from the power flic pnfltssed of obliging those who were unburied to wander an hundred years. Virgil applies to her the epithet of rrr gcixinam, and Horace that of triformii. She was called in heaven Luna, or the Moon, on earth Diana, and in hell Proserpina. Hecate, and Brituo, from her terrifying appearance.

It seems extraordinary that Diana, who is the goddess of chastity, should be represented as dispensing her favourable influence in illicit nmours. But the mythologists inform us, that Diana and Venus are but one and the fame divinity. The \ Scholiast on Theocritus, Id. ii. fay=, that it was customary, among the ancient", lor the men to

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