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Or somewhat, if you please, more nearly join'd ; And were the soul immortal, would the niind Because these two the closest ties do bind. 531 Complain of death; and not rejoice to find,
Lastly, both soul and body join d perceive, Herself let loose, and leave this clay behind ? Exere their nat'ral pow'rs, endure, and live :
As snakes, whene'er the circling year returns, Nor can the soul, without the limbs, dispense Rejoice to cast their ikins; or deer their horns. 590 Her vital pow'rs; nor limbs, without the soul, And why is not the foul produc'd in any part, have sense.
l'th' head, or hands? Why only in the heart? For as the eye grows ftiff, and dark, and blind, But that each being has its proper seat; When torn from off her seat; so foul and mind And there begins; theregrows mature, and great: Lose all their pow'rs, when from the limbs Thus fames ne'cr rise from waves, nor cold from disjoin'd;
heat. Because 'ris spread o'er all, and there preserves And if the soul's immortal; if she lives Her life, by vital union with the nerves. 540
Divided from the body; if perceives, Nor could the little feeds of loul comnience She must enjoy five senses fill: for who Those short vibrations, that are fit for fense, Can fancy how the soul can live below, Were the space great; which, strictly all en Unless 'tis thus endow'd? Thuszainters please, 600 clo 'd,
And poets too, to draw their fouls with thete. They well perform : but from the body loos’d,
But as without the soul, nor eye, nor ear, And to the wide inconstant air cxposid,
Nor either hand can touch, or sce, or hear, Could ne'er enjoy; because the air and mind o neither can this soul, this mind perceive Can Dever, as the soui and limbs be join'd; Without these hands, these eyes, thele ears; nar For could the thin inconftant air controul,
live. And keep in order too the fleeting soul,
Besides ; our vital sense is spread o'er all; And the chose motions too of sense maintain, 550 The whole composure makes one animal : Which now she does through ev'ry nerve and vein,
So that if sudden, vi'lent strikes divide And all our limbs; then we might juftly call This whole, and cast the parts on either side; The air a b dy, and an aniinal.
The soul and mind too suffer the same fate, 619 Thus then the soul, all naked and alone,
And part remains in this, and part in that.
Besides fince when the mind and soul are fied, so chariots arm'd on ev'ry fide, to wound,
Is scarce dillurb'd; scarce seems to feel, or know smoke :
His wound: and now but half a body grown, And therefore must the body's fabric fall, Still halles to fight, itill eagerly goes on ; Becanie the foul, that did preserve the all, Nor misles he his arm, dragg’d o'er the field, 620 Upheld, and strengthen’d it, is now tio more,
And by the chariots torn, much less his shield; But fled through ev'ry passage, ev'ry pore, Others, that lose their hands, that climb the Which shows the soul, as all her pow'rs decay,
wall, diffolv'd, dies scarter'd all away.
Reach on, or feel; and wonder at their fall: Nay more: whilft in these limbs, as death Others, their legs lopp'd off, attempt to rise, comes on,
While the poor foot lies trembling by, and dies : 1 Her parts are all dist lv'd, before she's gone; And when the head's chopp'd off, the eyes and face Nay while she's yet alive, some strokes preo Still keep their nat'ral, still their vital grace ; vail,
569 The look is vivid still, nor seems like dead, And shake the soul; her pow'rs hegin to fail; Till every particle of soul is fied. The members tremble, and the face looks pale, So likewise chop a ven’mous serpent's train, 630 As if 'were real death. This happens when we You'll see each lingle part is vex'd with pain ; swoon;
Each turns, cach bleeds, and sprinkles all the Ev'n then the niind and foul are almost gone;
ground The ties of union almost all undone :
With pois'nous gore, each wriggles at the wound: For then the mind's assaulted, and would bow What then? Has ev'ry part its proper soul? To fate, if taken by a stronger blow.
This were to place a thousand in one whole. Then who can think, that from the members gone, Thus then the soul, by the same fatal blow, Expos'd to th' air, all vaked, and alone,
That chopp'd the pois'nous tail, is cut in cwo: but one short moment be secure;
Therefore 'tis mortal, subject unto fate, Much less, as long as time, as endless years, en
Because divisible as well as that. dure;
€80 Farther: were loul's immortal, ne'er began, 640 Besides; what patient c'er perceiv'd the soul But creep'd into the limbs to make up man, Forsake the dying members, safe and whole ? Why cannot they remember what was done Or that by now degrees it seems to rise,
In former times? Why all their mem'ry gone? Firit through the throat, then higher jaws; then Now it the mind's frail pow'sa fy far can walte, 7 fies :
As to forget those nuni'rous actions past, But ev'ry sense in'ts proper organ dies.
Tis almost dead; and sure can die at last.
S Еe iiij
Therefore the former soul must needs be dead; Belides; why lions fury? Why the deer
But when the body's made, when we begin Why foxes craft? Why proper pow'rs adorn To view the light, is then the soul creep'd in, 650 Each diff'rent kind, unless the fouls are born? How is it likel; it fhould seem to grow,
For were the souls immortal, could the mind Increase, and flourish, as the members do? Fly off, and leave his former case behind, No: she would live confin'd to her close cage, And take another of a diff'rent kind? With pow'rs, as great in infancy, as age.
What change in an’mals manners must appear? Again then and again, the fou, is born and dies : The tyger-dog would fly pursuing deer; For let's suppose it fram'd without; what ties The hawk forget his rage, and learn to scar, Could knit this soul fo clofe? How could this mind, Trembling at ev'ry litrie dove that flies; As sense assures, with ev'ry limb be twin'd ? Men would be fuolitti all; and beasts be wisc. For now 'tis knit to ev'ry nerve, and vcin, For 'tis absurd, that this immortal mind To ev'ry bone, that ev’n the teeth (cel pain: 660 Should change according to the diff'rent kind As when with sudden chop they grind a ftone; Of body, unto which the foul's confin d. Or when cold water thrills the heated bone. For things thus changeable, the nat'ral tie Since then 'cin join'd so close, how can this soul, Of union broke, the scatter'd parts can fly Loos'd from limbs, bones, and nerves, fly off se- Dispers’d, disorder'd, and themselves can die. cure and whole?
But if they fay, that fuuls, expellid by fate, But now suppose the mind was fram'd before, To other bodies of like kind retreat; And then infus'd : Grant this, I'll ask no more: Then tell me why: Why does the wisert soul, This proves
'tis mortal too: for while the soul When creep'd into a child, become a fool? 750 Infinuares her li.bitance o'er the whole,
Why cannot new born colis perform the courie Its parts niuft be dissolvd ; the nat'ral cie With equal (training as a full growo horse ? Of union loos'd. Therefore the soul can Jie. 679 But that the souls are born, increase, and grow, As meats, diffus'd through all the members, lale And rise mature, as all their bodies do. Their former nature, diff'rent things compose : Perchance they'll say; weak minds, and terder So minds, though fafe and whole they first begin
sense To enter, are difflu'd in ent'ring in,
Belong to tender bodies : Poor defence ! Because thole fubtle parts, this foul contains, This yields the cause : this grants shat minds are Must be viffus'd through all the nerves and veins: frail, And that which enter'd, rules the body now, Whose former life and pow'rs can change and fi. Is the same soul, that dy'd in pailing through ; Belides; come tell me, why a soul fhuuld grow, And therefore souls are born, and perish too. And rise mature, as all the members du?
Besides; from carcases, some parts alone, 680 If 'twere not born? When feeble age comes on, Or the whole suhitance of the soul is gone, Why as't in hatte, and eager to be gone? If only part, 'is dead, its feeds disjoin'd; What? does it fear, it makes such halte away, For some do fly away, some luik behind : To be imprisou'd in the itinking clay? But if all goes, why then do troops of flies, What? does it fear the aged heap's decay? Why num'rous infects from the bodies riie, Or that 'twill fall, and crush the mind beneath? Swarm o'er the members? What's the cause of Fond frar! inmortal beings are exempt frenz this?
death. But grant you can believe, a proper soul
'Tis fond to think, that whilft wild beasts beget, For ev'ry worm defcends secure and whole; Or bear their young, a thousand fouls do wait, Nor think it strange, that when the former's gone, Expect the falling body, fight and strive, 750 A thousand little louls thould conie for one ; 690 Which first shall enter in, and make it live. Yet till pris doubtful, whether ev'ry mind Or is t agreed, do previous leagues declare, Hunts carefully for leeds of proper kind,
That 'tis her lawful right, who first comes And fashions iis own cafe, or else does wait
there, Till all the limbs are perfect, all complete, To enter in; and so no need of war? And then goes proudly in, and takes her feat. Besides; no trees in heav'n, no fars below, For what thould prompi the soul to all this pains ? The bills no filh, the stones no moisture know; What make her work? Since free from fluvish Each has its proper place to live and grow. chains
So neither souls can live without the blood, of matter; hunger, cold, no sharp disease, And nerves, and veins, and bones : for grans they To anxious cares her happy substance feize :
75) From the united limbs the luffer there. 700Then through one single part, as arm, or head, But grant it good for minds to put on clay, Twould first be tram'd; and thence o'er th' others How are the bodie- forni’d, what curious way?
spread; How, in what maupur is the action done? As water, into vessels pour’d, does fall Souls cannot, therefore do not frame their own. First to one part, then rife, and cover all. And do they enter p rfect frames, what art Bue lince 'tis certain, that a proper place Coue suhtly twire one loul with ev'ry part; Is lettled for the lile, and the increase Thar this thould act on that so nearly join'd; Of mind and soul, 'tis folly to believe, The mind affect the limbs; the limbs the mind? They can be made without the limbs, or live
Therefore the soul, spread o'er the limbs, mult Now we ne'er joy, nor grieve to think that we fail,
Were heretofore, nor what those things shall be, And die with them, as years and death prevail. Which, fram'd from us, the foll'wing age thall For that immortal beings should lie confin'd 770
830. To mortal, and their diff'sent pow'rs be join'd, When we revolve how num'rous years have sun, Aniad on one another, is absurd; [ford, How of the east beheld the rising fun, Plain nubícule! What more fond can dreams af. Ere we began, and how the acommove, Than mortal with immortal join'd in une, How the unthinking seeds for ever Itrove ; Should feel thore harms, 'twas free from when 'Tis probable, and rcalon's laws allow, alone ?
Theld feeds of ours were once combin'd as now: Besides, what is immortal, must be so
Yet now who minds, who knows his former state, Becaule 'ris folid, 'bove the pow'r of blow; The interim of death, the hand of fate, Whose parts no wedge divides; which knows do Or stopp'd the seeds, or made them all commence pore;
Such motions, as destroy'd the former sente? 840 Ard fuch are feeds, as I explain'd before :
He that is miserable, must perceive Orelse, because like enipry 1pace, 'tis such 780 Whilst he is so : he then must be and live : As is secure from Iroke, and free from touch; But now, lnce death permits to feel no more Or elle, because it can admit no bound,
Those cares, those troubles which we felt before : 'fis infinite, and knows no place beyond
It follows too, that when we die again, Tu which the feeds may tink: this inakes the all We need not fear; for he mult live who lives in E:ernal; there's no place whence seeds may fall,
pain. And breed confufion chere: no space does lie But now the dead, though they thould all return Without the whole, to which the parts may fly, To life again, would grieve no more, por mourn And leave the nighty all to waste and die. For evils palt, than if they'd ne'er been born. Now 'tis not perfect solid; ev'ry mass 789 Now when you hear a man complain, and Boeween the feeds contains some empty space :
850 Nor is it void untouch'd; for subtle wind, And mourn his fate, because, when life is gone, With rapid loris, can hurry on the mind, His limbs must wafe, and rot in carth, or fealt Or take one part, and leave the rest behind. The greedy flanies, or some devouring beast, Besides, there's space enough, to which the tie All is not well: He, by Itrong fancy led, 01 union loos’d, the scatter'd parts may ily. Imagines sense reniains aniong the dead. Thus then the mind is mortal, and can die. Nor can I think, though he hinilslf denies,
But if you think’t inmortal, free from wound, And openly declares the whole man dies, Because its substance is encompass'd round, But that some itrung conceits die still believes, Ferc'd from destructive caufcs; or chat such Fond fool! that he himself himíclf survives : Can very seldom if at all approach :
800 For now, ev'n while he breathes, ev'n while he Or if they should fly off before they make
86. Confusion there : chis is a grand mistake : And thinks he must be torn, or burnt, he grieves : For, not to mention how difcafes vex
Thinks Itill his carcale must be he, and thence The soul, what fears of future ills perplex; His ille fears infer, there must be sepse : Whence guilty conscience shall affright the mind; And hence he grieves, that he was born to die, For lios trike deep, and leave despair behind : Subject to treacherous mortality: [death 'Tis mad, forgetful, sometimes lethargy,
But never thinks, fund fool! that when kind Ard deadlike step Gic heavy on the eye.
Shall close his eyes is night, and stop his breath, Then what has bugbear death to frighten man, Then nothing of this thinking thing remains Since fuul can die as well as bodies can? 810 To mourn his fate, or feel tharp griefs and pains. For as we neither knew, nor'felt those harms, And if 'tis milerable to be torn When dreariful Carthage frighted Rome with By bcasts, when dead; why is't not so to burn? arms,
If that's an ill, why not as great a one And all the world was shook with fierce alarms; To be opprefs'd with earth, or marble stone ? Whilt undecided yet, which pare fhould fall, Or dipp'd all o'er in honey? or be rollid, Which nation rise the glorious lord of all:
O'er boitt'rous waves, on cliffs expos'd to cold? So after death, wheo we shall be no more,
Ay, but he now is fnatch'd from all his joys; What though the feas forsake their usual thore, No more shall his chalte wife, or practling boys And rise to heav'o? What though stars drop from Run to their dad with eager hafte, and itrive thence? Which firft shall have a kuts, as when alive.
870 How can all this disturb our perith'd sense ? Ay, but he now no more from wars shall come,
But now, fuppole the soul when separate, 820Bring peace and safety to his friends at home. Can live, and think in a divided state ;
Wretched, 0 wretched man! one fatal day
Has Inatch'd the vast delights of life away:
Nor add, that his desires and walits are gone;
o'er Since all the mem'ry of past life is guce? Their empty, causeless fears, and weco no morc?
'Tis true, thou Deep'it in death, and there shalt lie, | Him Mhe more fiercely chides : Forbear, thy sighs
, Free from all cares, to all eternity:
889 | Thou wretch, cease thy complaints, and dry thy But we shall mourn thee ftill; no length of years
eyes. Shall overcome our grief or dry our tears. If old, thou hast enjoy'd the mighty store Now I would gladly know, come tell me why, Of gay delights, and now can't tafte no more; Why dost thou pinc with grief, and weep, and But yet because thou still did's strive to meet 941 figh?
The abfent, and contemn’dst the present sweet, Why dost thou vex thyself, and beat thy breast, Death seems unwelcome, and thy race half run, Because thou once mult sleep in death, and rest? Thy course of life seems ended, when begun;
So when the jolly blades, with garlands crown'd, And unexpected hasty death destroys, Sit down to drink, while frequent healths go Before thy greedy mind is full of joys. round,
Yet leave these toys, that none befit thy age; Some, looking grave, this observation make : New actors now come on; resign the fage. All the delights are short we men can take : If thus she chides, I think 'tis well enough; Now we enjoy, but gone, we wish in vain, 900 I think 'tis nothing but a just reproof : In vain desire to call them back again :
For rising beings still the old pursue, As if the greatest ill in graves they fear,
And take their place; old die, and frame ebe Were thirst, or to want wine, or garlands there, Or any other thing they fancy here.
But nothing links to hell, and sulph'rous fames
, Fools! ev'n in common sleep what cares moleft? The feeds remain to make the future frames : What thoughts for life, or health, disturb our relt? All which shall yield to face as well as thou; For men eternally might ftill feep on,
And things fell heretofore ev'n just as now: Free from such cares, their reft difturb'd with And lill decaying things shall new produce;
For life's not giv'n to poffefs, but ufe. Yet then the mind is well, 'tis whole, it lives, Those ages that in long poffeffion ran, And apely moves, may, and almost perceives; And measur'd hasły time, ere we began; (on; Small It:okes will make the man, and he re What are they all to us! From this think farther vives.
911 And what is time to us, when life is gone? Then death, if there can be a less than least, Besides, what dreadful things in death appear? Is troubled less with anxious cares than rest. What tolerahle cause for all our fear? Because in deach few parts of mind remain ; What fad, what dismal thoughts do bid us weep? And he that fleeps in death ne'er wakes again. Death is a quiet state, and soft as fleep.
But now, if nature should begin to speak, And all, which we from pocts cales receive, And thus with loud complaints our folly check: As done below, we fee, ev'n whill alive. Fond mortal, what's the matter thou dost sigh? No wretched Tantalus, as stories tell, Why all these fears, because theu once must die, Looks up, and dreads th' impending stone in hell: Muit once submit to strong niortality? 920 But heavy weights of superstitious care 981) For if the race thou hast already run
Oppress che living; they disturb us here, Was pleasant; if with joy thou saw'st the sun;
And force us chance, and future ills to fear. S If all thy pleasures did not pass thy mind
No Tityus there is by the eagle torn; As through a Geve, but left fome sweets behind, No new fupplies of liver still are born : Why dost thou not then, like a thankful guest, For grant him big enough, that all the nine, Rise cheerfully from life's abundant ftalt,
Those poets acres, his valt limbs confine And with a quiet mind go take thy reft? To narrow bounds; but let him spread o'er all, But if all those delights are loft and gone, And let his arms clasp round the wat’ry ball; Spile idly all, and life a burden growni;
Yet how could be endure eternal pain?
999 Then why, fond mortal, dost thou ask for And now his eaten liver grow again?
930! But he's the Tityus here, that lies oppress'd Why Bill Jefire t'increase thy wretched store, With Vexing love, or whom fierce, cares moleft: And wish for what must waste like those before? These are the eagles that still rear his breast. Not rather free thyself from pains and fear,
He's Sisyphus, that strives with mighty pain And end thy life, and necessary care?
To get some offices, but strives in vain : My pleasures always in a circle run,
Who poorly, meanly, begs the people's voice, The same returning with the yearly fun.
But still retus'd, and ne'er enjoys the choice : And thus, though ihou dost still enjoy thy prime; For Itill to seek, and still in hopes devour, And though thy limbs feel nor the rage of time ; And never to enjoy the long'd-for pow'r, 1000 Yet I can find no new, no fresh delight,
What is it but to roll a weighty tone The fame dull joys mus vex the apperite, 940 Against the hill, which straight will tumble down? Although thou could'It prolong thy wretched Almost at top, it must return again, breach
[death. And with wist force roll through the humòle For num'rous years, much more if free from plair. What could we answer, wha excuses trust?
Lally, since nature feeds with gay delight, We must confess that her reproofs are juft. And never fills the greedy appetite,
But if a wretch a man opprefs'd by fate, Since ev'ry year, with the returning springs, Mourns coming death, and begs a longer daie, She new delights, and joys, and pleasures brings :
And yet our minds, amidit this mighty store, Nor whence thy care, proceed: but reel's about Are still unsatisfy'd, and wish for more: IOIO In vain unsettled thoughts, condemn'd to doubt. Sure this they mean, who teach that maids below Did men perceive what 'tis disturbs their rest, Do idle pains, and care, and time bestow, Whence rise their fears, and that their thoughtIn pouring Itreams into a leaky urn,
I 06 Which flow as fast again, as fall return.
Is by the mind's own nat'ral weight oppress’d. The furies, Cerberus, black hell, and flames, Did they know this, as they all think they know, Are airy fancies all, mere empty names :
They would not lead such lives as now they do ; But whilst we live, the fear of dreadful pains Not know their own deGires, but seck to find For wicked deeds, the prison, scourge, and chains, Strange places out, and leave this weight behind. The wheel, the block, the fire, affright the mind, One, tir'd at home, forsakes his stately seat, Strike deep, and leave a conttant Iting behind. 1020 And seeks some melancholy close retreat, Nay, those not felt, the guilty foul presents But soon returns; for, press'd beneath his load These dreadful shapes, and still herself torments, Of cares, he finds no more content abroad: Scourges and stings; nor even secms to know Others, with full as eager halte, retire, 1070 Ao end of these, but fears more fierce below, As if their father's house were all on fire, Eternal all. Thus fancy'd pains we feel,
To their small farm; but yet, scarce enter'd And live as wretched here as if in hell.
there, Bur more to comfort thee
They grow uneasy with their usual care; Coplider, Ancus perish'd long ago;
Or, leeking to forget their grief, lie down Ancus, a better man by much than thou : To thoughtless relt, or elle return to town: Consider, mighey kings in pomp and state 1030 Thus they all strive to thun themselves in vain, Fall, and inglorioufly submit to fate.
For troublesome he sticks close; the cares reConsider, even he, tha: mighty he,
main ; Who laugh'd at all the threat'ning of the sea; For they ne'er know the cause of all their pain : Who chain'd the ocean once, and proudly led Which if they did, how soon would all give o'er His legions o'er the fetter'd waves, is dead. Their fruitless toys, and study nature more? 1080 Scipio
, that scourge of Carthage, now the grave' That is a noble search, and worth our care; Keeps pris'per, like the meanest common llave. On that depends eternal hope or fear : Nay, greatest wits, and poets too, that give
| Thac teaches how to look beyond our fate, Eternity to others, cease to live.
1039 And fully shows us all our future state. Homer, their prince, that darling of the nine Our life must once have end : in vain we dy (What Troy would at a second fall repine Pursuing fate ; ev'n now, ev'n now we die. To be thus sung)? is nothing now but fame; Life adds no new delights to those posless'd; A lafting, far diffus'd, but empty name.
But since the absent pieasures seem the bek, Democritus, as feeble age came on,
With wing'd defire and halte we those pursue; And cold him it was time he should be gone; But those enjoy'd we loche, and call for new. 1090 For then his mind's brisk pow'rs grew weak, he Life, life we wish, fill greedy to live on; cry'd,
And yet what fortune with the foll'wing sun I will obey thy summons, fate, and dy'd.
Will rise, what chance will bring, is all unNay, Epicurus' race of life is run;
known. That man of wit, who other men outfhone, What though a thousand years prolong thy As far as meaner stare the mid-day fun. 1050
breath, Then how dar'lt thou repine to die, and grieve, How can this shorten the long state of death? Thou meaner soul, thou dead, ev'n whilft alive? For though thy life shall num'rous ages fill, That deep'lt, and dream'ft the most of life away;
The state of death will be eternal fill : Thy night is full as rational as thy day?
And he that dies to-day, shall be no more, Still vex'd with cares, who never understood As long as those that perilh'd long before. The principles of ill, nor use of good;
NOTES ON BOOK III.
Ver. 1. In the first thirty-two verses of this acknowledges the benefits he has conferred on book, Lucretius addresses himself to Epicurus of mankind, in having explained the Nature of Athens, and calls him the father of the Epi- Things, overthrown all belief of Providence, and curean philosophy. Democritus, indeed, was the expelled the fears and terrors that arose from that first who set it on foot ; but Epicurus so improve opinion. Then he asserts almost the same thing, ed and perfected it, that the poet, with good that L. Torquatus does, in Cicero, lib. i. de Finib. reason, Ityles him the parent and inventor of it. “ Ego arbitror Epicurum unum vidiffe verum, He praises him for the happiness of his wit, and maximisque erroribus hominum animos liberasse,