Sivut kuvina

may signify the shameful retreat he made in his time «-f danger.

Ver. 485. Ccrbrru«, Le Clerc derives from tbratn^S, having many heads, she Hydra, he tells us meant the inhabitants about the Like l.erna: Jann miy therefore signify the ear-.h who nourished lU Hydra.

Ver. 497. Chimxra is from the Phœnician .i.imirj&y barred ; it was a mountain so called because it emitted flames; of which fay* Pliny, the mountain Chimxra in Ph.iselis flames, without ceasing, nignt and day. Strabo thinks the fable took a rife from this mountain : the three htadt* may be three diffi; Bochart supposes them to be three leaden of the people of PisiJia, whose names may have a seniliride to the nature of the three animals, the Bob, the goat, and the serpent. Eellerophon is bid to cnxraer this monster, to whom the poet gives Pegalos. because to gain the summit of the Staostaia, no less than a winged horse was required- L* Cltrc. The interpretation of Chimæra, a mountain, is not unnatural, when we consider her the daughter of Typhaon, of whom we shall speak more largely in a following note.

Ver. job". Sphinx is thus described by Apollodoras; flic had the breast arid face os a woman, taSe feet and tail »<s a lion, and the wings of a bird." Le Clerc ban this interpretation, which seems the raeft reasonable, of this monster. After deriving the name from Spbica which is a murderer, he tells us rxS'rajrut is shadowed a gang of robbers which Wked in trfe cavities of a mountain ; file is said to i-a»e bad the face and breast of a woman, because rome v-omen were among them, who perhaps al. hired the travellers ; the feet and tail us a lion, because they were cruel and destructive; and the SMBgt of a bird, from their swiftness. She is said to have slain those who could net explain her enigma; that is, they murdered such as unwarily came where they were, and knew not their haunts. Oedipas U recorded to have unravelled rhe cnigBa, because he found them and destroyed them.

The Nemæan lion may he an allegory of the nature, or literally a lion.

I>c 31ft verse, in the original, is commonly given thus t

in which Tnr*jn i> taken as an adjective signifying « «e-,ir-yi . iiut Mr. H.ibinion. in his edition of HeSod, published since my trai.ilanon us our poet, rsgirtry j jslges reirreu to be a proper name, and tjB. Tc» a p'ssag< fioin Diodorus Siculas, and anwstr from Pausai ias, in which the den of the Mc-rrzan lion is said to have bten in the mountain Treturn -. read therefore, henceforward,

Rjfcrsw Tir.Tjto, Ni/jlirf, *V aTua»Ta(.

Vtr j I 7, Serpen's are often in fabulous history conQim.ed guard, of things c if immerse va.ue. The lerpett Python kept the oracle at Delphi; and a serpent is made to watch the golden fruit. What1 *• rhe moral of all tbi When we are intrusted s»iui affairs of price and importance, we ought to he »« vigilant as serp- n'». The word of if, " a ser"fa:," from ftypsw, " to see i" and the Phceni

cian nabbafeb, " a serpent," is front a verb in the fame language, to see. Ls CLrc. I must add to this explanation, the serpent being placed "in a cave to guard the fruit, denotes secrecy, as well aj vigilance.

Ver. j 11. The commentators have concluded Hcsiod later than Homes, from his naming the chief river in Egypt under the appellation of the Nile, which, they fay, was net so called in the days of Homer, but Egyptus. This argument cannot prevail, when we consider the word in the tadix, which, says Le Clerc, i« nuhhul and Mil, and in Hebrew nabbal, which is the common name for any river; Hcfiod, therefore, might choose Nile, Kttr i\'Xr** r eminence, it being the principal river; or snr the same reason, which is not unlikely, rhat Homer might choose Kgyptus, because ic came more readily into the verse: but whatever their reasons were foe choosing these different names of the fame river, here is no foundation to determine so difficult a point as the age of either of these poets from it.

Ver. 513. Alphcus is a river in Elis, and has something more extraordinary, says Pausanias, in it than any other river; jt often slows under ground and breaks out again. l\tidanu% a river, fays the Scholiast, of the Sceitat. Strymon, a river in Thrace. Mæandcr, in L.ydia or lcaria. . lsler, in Scythia. Ph3fis, in ColchU. Rhesus, in Troy. Athelous,in Acarnia or Æcolia. NeiTus, in Thrace. Rhoilius, in Troy. Haliacnmn, in Macedon. Hcptaporut, Granicus, and Æsapus, in Troy. Hermus, in Lydia. Simois, in Troy. Pcneus, in Thcssaly; and some, says Tzetzcs, fay Granicu« and Simois are in Thrfialy. Caicus, in MyGa. Sangarins, in Upper Phrygia. .Ladon, in Arcadia; this river, fays Pausanias, exceeds all the rivers in Greece for clearness of wattr. I'arthcnius, in Paphlagonia. Evenut, in Æ*o!ia. Ardefeua, in Scythia. Scamander, in Troy. The daughters of Tethys and Ocean, are only poetical names; designed fays the Scholiast, for lakes and rivers of less note than the son1.. They arc said, conrinucs he, to have Lhc ere of mankind from their birth jointly with Apollo, heenuse heat and moisture contribute to generation, and the nutriment of men through life.

Ver 581. The fun is called Hi\i>t, from the Phœnician word itlojo, that is, high; though this name may suit all the planets, yet it is more properly given to the most eminent of them. He is sprung from Hyperion, that is, from him that exists i n high.

Ver. jSi The word SiAsjm, the moon, or in the Doric is from the Phœnician word

fcbcltutab, that is, one that wanders through the ni^ht. Auroia, or the morning, being born off the fame pa. en's, needs no explanation.

Ver. 5S5 Le Cere i'sys, the children of Creus aud Eurybia, are nrt 10 be found in any ancient history,' nor to be cxpla'ned from the nature of tiling" ; but if we r the etymologies of the names ot*the parents, his remark will prove invalid. Crc'js in >T' 1. th" verb to judge, and Eurybia, as T have before observed, signifies wide com.

mand; judgment, therefore, and power, are made the parents of three offsprings of renown. 1 must here observe, that Pallas cannot be the fame with her, who is afterwards said to spring from the head of Jove. Our poet calls this Pallas only, and the latter Athena and Tritogenia. The following verses, which tells us the winds sprung from Altrxus and Aurora, I should suppose spurious, because we are told in the same poem they sprung from Typhœus, which is every way agreeable to the physical fense; We must therefore suppose them supposititious, or the poet has committed a very gfcat blunder. Sec farther in the note to ver. 119.5.

Ver. ,593. Styx, fays the Scholiast, is from rvyw, to hate, to dread; why her offsprings are made attendants on the Almighty, is conspicuous; but I am not satisfied in Pallas being their father: Tzetzes tells us, that he understands by Pallas, the superior motion which produces such effects, i'he name, I believe, must come from -r»AX», a verb, to express extraordinary action; in Latin, -j/ire agilo, &c. We arc told here, that Sryx was ordained by Jove, the oath of the gods; on which Lord Bacon has the following remark. Necessity is elegantly represented by Styx, a fatal ami irremeable river. The fame noble author goes on to show, that the force os leagues is to take away the power of offending, by making it necessary that the offender should undergo the penalty enacted. Thus he proceeds; if the power of hurting be taken away, or if, on breach of covenant, the danger of ruin, or loss of honour or estate, must be the consequence, the league may be said to be ratified, as by the sacrament of Styx, since the dread of banishment from the banquets of the gods follow*; under which terms arc signified by the an. cients, the laws, prerogatives affluence, and felicity of empire. See farther, ver. ic8i.

Ver. 62,5. Le Clerc derives Phorbe from the Phœnician, fbc-fab, which is u in ilia, that is, a prophetic mouth; for, in the Phœnician tongue, the oracle is called the mouth of God; and, to fay we consult the mouth os God, is the fame as to fay we consult the oracle. Latvia, in Greek, Ltto. the same critic derives from lout, or lito or Iria, which is to use magic charms; therefore, fays he, Apollo and Diana, who preside over magic arts, are said to be b 'rn of her. Asteria, he tells us, conies from bajselbimb, which signifies lying hid, not an improper name for an enchantress.

Ver. 633. Hecate is by the Phœnicians called Xtialia, that is, the only unica; for which reason the poet calls her pmytm, the only begotten She is esteemed the chief president over magic arts, and reckoned the fame with the moon. The Phœnicians invoked her, because she is the regent or the night, the time when all incantations, charms, and the like, are performed. The fun is in the fame language called bhadad, the only, or one unut, Hecate is here laid to have the fate of mariners jointly with Neptune in her power, because the moon has an influence over the sea, as well at over tbe land. Lt Clerc. The Scholiast fays, the poet gives this great character of Hecate, because the person who was, perhaps, after her

death honoured with divine rites, was a Boes-i , tian.

i Ver. 694 T.nn, by the Latins called VeJIa, is by
• the learned justly derived from Escb, or the Syrian
i escbtba, sire; she is esteemed the goddefi of sire.
I Ceres, the Greek A»kit«, comes from dai, a Phœ-
nician word, signifying plenty; a proper name for
her who has the honour of being thougnt the first
! who taught to cultivate the ground, and to raise
fruit-trees. Hfn, the Greek name of Juno, is from
! the Phcrmician word him or Lar ah, jealousy; than
I which no name could be more apt to Juno, who
I is often represented as teazing her husband with
j-alous surmises AiSor, or Pluto, is from the Phœ-
nician word ti or ajid, which is death'or destruc-
tion; the poet calls him hard of heart, because he
spares none. Plutarch tells us, in his life of l"he-
seus, that the descent which that hero is said to
make into hell, means nothing more than his
journey to Ejiirus, of which Aii*;, or Pluto, was
king Pluto is sometimes called the god of riches,
because he had in his kingdom many mines of sil-
ver and gold. We now come to the etymologies
of Evw/'yxio; and Hoe-aZaiv, the names of Neptune,
Pofedon signifies a destroyer of ships, muiymut,
earth-shaker. Jupiter is called the father of gods
and men, because all sovereigns are fathers of
their people. Saturn is said to swallow his chil-
dren, that is, he imprisoned them. Thus far Le
Clerc. I shall conclude thi» note with the follow-
ing remark from Lord Bacon. The first distinc-
tion of ages is signified by the reigu of Saturn,
who, through the frequent dissolutions and short
continuances of bis sons, is said to have devoured
them; the second is described by the reign of Ju-
piter, who drove those continual changes into
Tartarus, by which place is meant perturbation.
Quietus thinks the twelve lines from ver. 745. to
757. supposititious.

Ver. 769. The learned will have Japhet to be the son of No3h, whose posterity inhabited Europe; but, sineejb many interpolations and fa'schoods are mixed with the history of antiquity, we cannot wonder if this story, in some degree, remains yet obscure. Atlas is si id to support the heavens near where the Hefperides are situated: Atlas might probably have been the founder of the people who possessed the extremeft parts of Africa about the mountain Atlas; which mountain, through the extraordinary height, seemed to prop up heaven, and because it was far in the west, where they imagined heaven almost met the earth. This mountain might have had the name fiom the first ruler of the people. Mensetius is called vCrimtt contumelious, or injurious, which is agreeable to the radix, the Chaldean word menjib, he terrified. Bochart, in his Phaleg, bonk I. chap. 4. tells us the true name of Prometheus was Magog, who was the son of Japhet: lie is said to have been bound to Caucasus, because he settled near it, and to have stole sirt from heaven, because he found out the use of those metals which were in the mines about Caucasus. Æschylus puts these words into the mouth of Prometheus, " Who will fay he found out brass, iron, silver, and gold, before me?'*

Tie etymology of Magog seems to favour the story of the vulture gnawing his liver; the Hebrew Dame is Bex/ or nagng, which is to waste away. The radix of Gog is, he burned, not an improper ca tie for him who was enamoured with Pandora. La CJrrc. To these accounts, I shall add the {.-Bowing from Diodorui Siculus: "The Nile, B>der the rising of the Dog-star, at which time it was usually full, overflowed the bounds, and laid great part of Egypt under water. Prometheus, who tried to preserve the people, by endeavouring to stop the stood, died throngh grief, because he could not accomplish his design. Hercules, inured to labour, and to overcome difficulties, stopped the current, and turned it to the former channel. This gave rise, among the Greek poets, to the story of Hercules killing the eagle which preyed on the liver of Prometheus. The name of the river was then Airec, the Greek word for an eagle."

Since toe opinions of the learned are so various on tina and several other fables of antiquity, we must rest on those interpretation! which come nearest to nature, and which leave us least in the dark. My judgment is, that whatever might give birth to chi> fable, our poet, not regarding the different relations in his time, designed it as a moral lesson, (bowing the bad effects of a too free indulgence of the passions; and, in the character of , the benefits of regulating them with i; which I think 1 have showed in my this story, as told in the Works and D«V, t0 which I shall add the following reflec cars from Lord Bacon, which arc more properly introduced here, at they more particularly regard this fable, as told in the Theogony.

"After the improvement of arts and tha human mdnftanding, the parable passes to religion, for the cultivation of arts was followed by the instituriofi of divine worship, which hypocrisy soon polluted. Under the twofold sacrifice, the religious person and the hypocrite are truly represented: car contains the fat, which is the portion of God, b? the flame and fumes arising, from which the ifrciion and zeal for the glory of God arc signified, by the entrails and flesh os the sacrifice, vhkh are good and wholesome, are meant the bowels of charity. In the other is nothing but dry and naked bones, which only stuff up the skin, while they make a fair show of a sacrifice. In the other part of the fable, Prometheus means prudent men who consider for the suture, and warily avoid the many evils and misfortunes which human narare is liable to: but this good property is accompatud with many cares, with the deprivation of pleasure*; they defraud their genius of various joys of life, they perplex themselves with intestine fears and troublesome reflections, which are deby the eagle gnawing his liver while he is to the pillar of necessity: from the night they obtain some relief, but wake in the morning to fresh anxieties. Prometheus having assistance from Hercules, means fortitude of mind. The fae is the explanation by the Scholiast of the eat,!;. The poet goes farther than what Tzetzes *J Lard Bacon have observed: he makes Her

cules free Prometheus by the consent of Jupiter; the meaning of which must be, that such miseries are not to be undergone patiently without divine aid to support the spirits. This story is not yet without obscurities; for Hesiod calls Prometheus ojMsxvra, blameless, hurtful to none; and at the fame time makes him playing tricks with Jupiter in his offerings. I must here observe, that this fable is more consistent in every part as told in the Works and Days; nor is it to be wondered at, when we consider that poem as the work of his riper years, when his genius was more sedate, and his judgment more settled." I shall conclude this note with an allusion which Milton has, in his description of Eve, to the story of Pandora; from which it is evident he took the box of Pandora in the fame fense with the forbidden fruit; and, as I have already observed in my notes to the Works and Days, many have been of opinion that both are from one tradition. The lines in Paradise Lost are these:

More lovely than Pandora, whom the gods
Endow'd with all their gifts, (and, O! too like
In fad event!) when, to th' unwifer son
Of Japhet brought by Hermes, she ensnar'd
Mankind with her fair looks. Booi 4,

Ver. 916. Here begins the battle of the gods, which continues to ver. 1112. In this the learned are much divided concerning the intention of the poet, and from whence he took his account of the war. Some imagine it of Egyptian rise, from the story of Typhon; nor are they sew who believe it, from the tradition of the battle of the angels; but Tzetzes thinks it no other than a poetical description of a war of the elements: but they are certainly wrong who think it entirely from either. 1 do not in the least doubt but the poet had a physical view in some passages, and in seme particulars may possibly have had a regard to some relations, fabulous or real, of antiquity; but his main design seems to have been that of relating a war betwixt supernatural beings, and, by raising his imagination to the utmost height, to present the dreadfullest ideas which the human mind is capable of conceiving: and I believe I may venture to fay, some parts of this war are the fublimest of the sublime poetry of the ancients. If a nicer eye should discover every part of this war to be entirely physical, which I think imp..dibit, yet I am unjustifiable in my supposing his design to be that of relating a war betwixt supernatural beings; for while those parts of nature are clothed in prosepcpæias they cease to be parts of nature till the allegory is unfolded. our ideas, therefore, are to be placed on the immediate objects of fense, which are the persons of the war, as they directly present themselves to our eyes from the description cf the poet. I must here observe, that all the commentators on our poet are silent on the poetical beauties of this war, which makes me think them to have been men of more learning than taste.

Our poet tells us the gods eat nectar and ambrosia; and Homer mentions a river of nectar and ambrosia, aftZ^trtni Kmi tturm^s m-m^tm^.

Odyss. T.: from which we may conclude those words to be used both for meat and drink among the gods.

Ver 973. The reader is to take notice, that though must of the Titans were against Jupittr, all were not, for Cottus, Gyges, and Briartus, were Titans; what an image in these three brothtrs tearing up the rocks, and throwing them against the enemy; Heaven, earth, the ocean, and hell, ate all disturbed by the tumult. The poet artfully takes care to raise our ideas, by heightening the image" to the last. The description <»f the buttle, from ver. 970. to 993. is great, but it is in-possible that any reader should not seel himself more nffected with the grandeur and terror with which Jupi'rr urge* the fight. Heaven, carlh, the ocean, and hell are all disturbed as before, but the additional terror, and the variation of the language, make a new scene to the mind.

One conflagration scenx to rise on all,
And threatens Chaos with the gen'ra! fall.

How elevated are these in the original'. Could the genius of man think of any thing sublimer to paint the horror os the day, attended with the roar «>f all the winds, and the whirling of the dust; Could he think of ought more adequate to our ideas, to express the voice of the war by, than by likening it to the confused meeting of the heavens and the earth, to the wreck of worlds!" Do you "fee," fays Longinus on another author, " the "earth opening to her centre, the regions of death "just ready to appear, and the whole fabric of the "world upon the point of being rent asunder and "destroyed, to signify, that in this combat, hea"ven, hell, things mortal and immortal, every "thing, co-laboured, as it were, with the gods, "and that ail nature was endangered." This passage of Longinus could never be applied with more justice than here, nor more properly expressed in our own language, than in the words of Mr. Wcllled, from his translation os that author. Milrrn, in hi< Battle of the Angels, has judiciously imitated sevtral parts of our poet, hi one place, lays he.

Hell heard th' unsusscrablc noise

And, a little farther,

confounded Chaos roar'd,

And felt tenfold confusion. Bool 6.

Le Clerc thinks Chaos here means the whole vast extent of air; but Grzvius takes it for ftiym X<i*i>*i " the vast chasm that leads to hell;" in which last fense Milton likewise takes it, describing the pals slum hell to earth: Before their eyes, in sudden view, appear The secicts of the hoary deep; a dark Illimitable ocean! without bound, Without dimension; where length, breadth, and

height, And time, and place, are Inst; where eldest Night, And Chaos, ancestors of nature, hold Eternal anarchy, amidst the noise Us endiese wait. Boot a.

And, in the first book,

the universal host upsent

A shout that tore Hell's concave, and beyond Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night. Ver. 1030. From this verse to ver. 1134. the poet judiciously relieves the mind from the rage of battle, with a description of Tartarus, btyx, &c. with an intent to end the war, and surprise us with something more sublime than we could expect, after what had preceded the tingle combat betwixt Jupiter and Typhœus". In the description of Tartarus, Mtlton has many imitations of our poet:

With earth thy vast foundations covet'd o'er


Satan describing his realm.

lately heav'n, and earth, another world,

Hung o'er my realm. Milton, tool 2.

The entrance there, and the last limits, lie
Of earth, the barren main, the starry fley,
And Tart'rus; there of all the fountains rife.

H.JM. ————— this wild abys«, The wotub of nature, and perhaps her grave.

Milton, book 1.

- where heav'n

With earth and ocean meets. Bool 4.

And afterwards:

• and now, in little space.

The confines met of empyrean heav'n,
And -of this wurld, aud on the left hand hell.

Bool 10.

Here storms in hoarse, in frightful murmurs play. HtsioJ.

nor was his car less pcal'd

With noifcs loud and ruinous. Milton, loci 1* And a little lower, in the fame book:

At length a universal hubbub wild

Of stunning sounds, and voices all confus'd,

Borne through the hollow dark, assaults his ear*.

TzetzeJ fays the beginning and end of things are laid to be here figuratively, because we are in the dark as to the knowledge of them. The verses in which Atlas is made to prop up the heavens, Quietus supposes not genuine.

Ver. 1x81. The story of Stjx, with the punishment of the perjured gods, is chiefly poetical. Why this river should be detestable to immortals I know not. unless they think it a fad restraint to be deterred from perjury: this thought has too much impiety in it, therefore we must give it another turn v as relating to the oaths of great men. or in the fame fense that death is called a foe to the gods, which is from the grief they are sometimes made to suffer for the death of any favourite mortal, as Venus for Adonis, and Thetis for Achilles.

Ver. 1136. Typhceus and Typhaon seem to be different persnns (though some will have them two names of one person), because Typhceus is no sooner born but he rebels, and is immediately destroyed: and Typhacn is made the father of

many children. \jt Cierc derives the wor J Typhorus (ram the Phœnician word/a^ion, the radix of which Htfft, to overs! w, to overwhelm. He is not is judiciously called the father of the winds, and the son of Earth and Tartarus ; the various voices which the poet gives him are agreeable to the several tones of the winds at several times. Lord lacoo bat this reflection on the poetical description of thi« monster. Speaking of rebellion, he says, brcaase of the infinite evils which it brings tm princes a»d their subjects, it is represented by tie horrid image of Typhceus, whose hundred heads are the divided powers and flaming jaws ncendictis designs.

Ver. 11J4. With what dignity Jupiter sets out for the single combat! heaven and earth tremble :eith V im when he rises in anger. to « paflige. is the seventh verse of the eighteenth ihn. "Then the earth shook and trembled, the "forrdiriorii of the hills also moved, and were ", because he was wroth."

Hire are three circamfUnces which exalt the imagea above those in the former battles, the winds bearing the fire on their wings, the giant fcnrng from his hundred heads, and the similitude of the furnace.

Ver. 1195. In the winds which are here said to be from the god*, the poet omits the east wind; thsagb ( mt will have spyfrw to be the name of a vned, and aa such Mombritius takes it in his transition; Aulus Gcllius indeed gives it as the name si a wind, but as one that blows from the weft, by the Latins called Caurun. Stephens gives examples of it being used fur the epithet swift: and Seap-jia quotes Aristotle to show he uses it in the time fense. «#y«n$ xigauioi the swift lightnings: «f}vrtf is from the fame radix, and of rhe fame sigBficaticn with aeyirvt. 'I he poet call* the winds sprung from Typhceus greatly destructive to ■serta's, and those from the gods profitable: the rsrQ following verses from Exodus, therefore^ will, as lone degree, countenance my interpretation of ArretJes; which I make an adjective to agree wnh £»£*fv, i. e. afyiftv cjifugi*. "The Locd 'brought an cad-wind on the land all that day, "and all that night, and when it was morning "the cast-wind brought the locusts." Chap, x I J. " The Lord turned a mighty strong • vest-wind, which took away the locusts." Ver. If Though this is related as a miracle, we may the properest winds were chosen to bring nW evil and the good on the land. In whatever tease thii word is taken our poet is not free from aktordiry in his philosophy, when he n akes the ■rrth, s->uth, and west winds, spring from the gods, and those which tyrannize by sea and land from Typhceus; for the winds from each corner are btmful sometimes, all depending on what circuTr.fliDcrs she clement* are in, and not from what part the winds come.

Ver mi Here ends the war. Tzetzcs fays tV cor,<]ge which Jupiter gained over the sue, •*»'he tranquillity of nature after the confusion •f tic elements was laid. However the physic.I itios may hold good through the whole,

the war is regularly conducted, and justly concluded; the hero is happily situated, the enemy/ punished, and the allies rewarded.

Ver. 1213. I shall give the explanation of the story of Minerva springing from the head of Jove, in the words of Lord Bacon, from his hS'.y on Counsel.

The ancient times do set forth in figure, both the incorporation, and inseparable conjunction, of counsel with kings, and the wife and politic use of counsel by kings; the one in that they fay Jit. piter did marry Metis, which signifie'h counsel, whereby they intend that sovereignty is married to counlel; the other in that which followtth, which was thus; they fay after Jupiter was married to Metis she conceived by him, and was with child ; but Jupiter suffered her not to stay till she brought forth, but eat her up; whereby he became himself with child, and was delivered ot Pallas armed out of his head; which monstrous fable containeth a secret of empire, how kings ate to make use of their council of state; that first they ought to refer matters unto them, which is the fiist begetting or impregnation . but when they are elaborate, moulded, and shaped, in the womb of their council, and grow ripe, and ready to be brought forth, that then they suffer not their counsel to go through wkh the resolution and direction as if it depended on them, but take the matter back into their own hands, and make it appear to the world that the decrees and final directions (which, because they come forth with prudence and power, are resembled by Pallas armed) proceeded from themselves, and not only from their authority, but, the more to add reputation to themselves, from their head and device. Thus far Lord Bacon. What to make of the son whom Jupiter destroyed before his birth, 1 know not, unless tyranny is shadowed in that allegory, which often follows power, but was here quelled before it could exert itself, by wisdom or reflection. Aliiton has judiciously applied this image of Pallas springing from the head of Jove to Sin and Satan, in the second book of Paradise Lost, where Sin giving an account of her birth, thus speaks to Satan,

All on a sudden, miserable pain
Surpris'd thee, dim thine eyes, and dizzy swum
In darkness; while thy head flames thick and

Threw forth, till on the left side op'ning wide;
Likest to thee in shape, and count'nance bright,
Then shining heavenly fair, a goddess arm d,
Out of thy head 1 sprung.

Ver. 12^9. Jupiter and Themis are said to be the parents ot the hours ; the meaning of which is, power and justice bless the land, or make the seasons or hours propitious, by laying down good law* sshich preserve property and peace. Some taLe, Eunomie, Dice, and trene, to be only poetical names for rhe hours or seasons of the year; but Grxvru^ laughs at the ignorance of such interpreters, and proves, beyond contradiction, they mean good laws, right, and peace; which is the literal

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