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construction of the names. He produces a passage from Pindar, Olymp. 13, where they can be understood in no other fense; the words of the poet, in English, are these. Here Eunomia dwells with her sisters, Dica the safe foundations of cities, and Irana endowed with the fame manners, with the other, the disposers of riches to men, the golden daughters of Themis good in counsel. We are to observe the difference of the names in Hesiod and Pindar is only from a change of the dialect in the latter. Mombritius has taken the hours in the fame fense:
Dein horas Themis ediderat, Jovis altcra cnnjux, Justitiam, legemque bonam pacemque virentem.
The poet before makes the Fates spring from Night; a mistake therefore must be in one place; Le Clerc supposes it here. Mr. Robinson, to avoid the contradiction which is made by the common interpretation of Mugac, &c. here places M«/>x after mftum, in the construction, and not after Tixk; which gives it a better fense; however, ofxivn M.-ijnt, with their names as they stand here, will not well admit of this construction which Mr. Robinson makes, "bouse leges, iustitia, et pax, "humanam fortem pulchram et felicem reddunt." I am inclined to think the three verses here concerning the fates spurious: I am sure they are absurd.
Ver. 1151. Aglaia from mykmn, splendid; Euphrosyne signifies joy; Thalia from 3«A<ai, banquets.
Ver. 1257. Persephone, by the Latins called Proserpina, Le Clerc derives from the Phœnician word perisapboun, in English hidden fruit, which means the fruit committed to the earth; Jove, therefore, whether we understand him as the Supreme Being, or physically the air, is properly called the father of Persephone, and Ceres her mother. Pluto is the heat in the earth which contributes towards maturing the fruits. Besides this interpretation, a story is told of Ceres, a queen of Sicily, whose daughter was forced away by Pluto.
Ver. 1164. Grævius makes one inference from <he Muses having diadems of gold on their heads, which is that luxury in dress which prevailed among the ancients. On this occasion he uses the w,ords ef Ælian from his Various History, book 1. chap. 18. " Who can deny that the women among "the ancients abounded in luxury?"
Ver. 1167. Le Clerc fays Phœbus Apollo comes from the Hebrew pbc-ho-bapollon, having a wonderful mouth; but we must take notice that the poet calls him only Apollo here. Artemis, whom the Latins call Diana, the fame critic derives from the Phœnician words bar, a mountain, mithamab, admired.
Ver. 1271. The poet means by this, that Juno was the last of goddesses whom he took to his bed, and whom he made his wife; the rest were only concubines. The word Omutis, a wife, our author uses to none but Juno.
Hebe, the goddess of youth is derived from the Hebrew word tb, to flourish; Aftt, in Latin Mars, from Hari, which signifies a mountain-man: it is Will known that the feat of Mars was oa th«
I mountains of Thrace. EiA«*W, or Lucina, is from I Itilidia, she caused to bring forth; a proper name
for a goddess who presides over human birth. Lm
The meaning of this may be, that to the supreme beings, or to earth and air, which are here Jupiter and Juno, we owe our birth, our bloom of youth, and vigour or maturity; which are denoted by Lucina, Hebe, and Mars
Ver. 1280. The vulgar reading of this passage is this j nor is it in any edition I have seen otherwise.
Hf« S* ttQaifOt Kxvtoi Iv QiXe-TttTi fjtiyctffa
Juno, joining in love, brought forth the renowned Vulcan ; than which reading nothing can he more absurd. This is a flagrant instance of the ignorance of the transcribers; nor indeed are those free from censure who have had the care of the press in the printed editions. The very word* which follow point out the mistake of in fiXann.
ual frt/tsiitn, Kai n^tffu « wa^anc/Jir.
She used her utmost endeavours, and contended with her husband. For what did she contend with her husband? To bring forth without his assistance, as he did without her. Had the poet intended to make Vulcan the son of Jupiter and Juno, he would have placed him in the list with Hebe, Mars, and Lucina; but, instead of that, he lets the birth of Minerva, though he had given an account of it before, intervene, that the reason of the resentment of Juno may immediately appear: let US therefore read it ■ fiXornn suynra, and the fense will be this: Juno, without the joys of love, brought forth the renowned Vulcan, resolving to revenge herself on her husband. Thus Tzctzes and Grævius take it; and thus Mombritius haa translated it:
Sic quoque, nullius commixta libidioe, Juno
Sic quoque is here very proper, because it atludeg to the preceding lines of tie birth of Minerva. Hfturet, I believe, comes from ac*/*/, up burn, and from mttu, to destroy. I have another reason which may possibly enforce this reading, and which I have never met with. As Vulcan is called the god of artificers, in metals he is rightly the sen of Juno only, who is sometimes physically taken for the earth.
Ver. 1285. Triton is feigned to be the son of Neptune and Amphitrite, and by later poets mads the trumpeter of Niptune. Le Clerc takes the name from the Chaldean word rttat, he stirred up a clamour.
Ver. 1288. This passage, where Terror and Fear are made the sens of Mars, wants no explanation; why Harmonia is the daughter of him aud Venus I know not, unless the poet means that beauty is sometimes the reward of courage.
Ver. 1296. Maia is one of the Pleiades; how she may be said to be the daughter of Atlas, fee ia the Works and Days, book 2. note I. The Scholiast interprets Hermes, being the messenger of the
pods, shut , the herald of heaven is that which bring* divine things to light.
Ver. 1300. Bacchus is said to be born of SiStek, which word JLe Clcrc derives from the Phcemcua tj'mrimt, which signifies a virgin ripe for mas. "Ike Greek name of Bacchus is Autturct, which is literally the sen of Jove; some have a dirwres- derivation , but since this agrees with hit birth, according to the Theunogy, it will be needless to feck any other. He is the god who presides over the vintage; therefore, as all pleasures arc from God, he is justly derived from the fame fcarce- See farther in the Discourse at the end.
Ver. 1304. The story os Jupiter possessing Alcmrr.i a the shape of her husband Amphitryon, ■a wtM known: Hercules physically signifies nxenytfc aed courage, which are from Jove.
Ver. 1316 Vulcan and Aglaia are here husband icd trife . but Venus is made the consort of Vicm by other authors. Vulcan, the gad of arcaccTi is fire, and Aglaia, one of tbe Graces, are properly joined, because, by the help of both, all that i>ornamental i* brought to perfection. Vulcac i> called hunw, because fire cannot subsist without fuel. These two are brought together, but no children are born of them, which does not answer the title of the generation of the gods, therefore ataprcccrly introduced in a poem under that title, as are the other persons who meet and not propaftsr.
Vet. tjM, Hercules is married to Hebe, that it, to etcroil youth, the reward of great and glonocsaoxxsv.
Ver. 131S. Circe, at an enchantress, is properly bid 10 be a daughter of the Sun; and Medea, for the /ame reason, it justly derived from the lame source.
Ver. 13 J a. We are now come to the last part «s the peem, where goddcsse« submit to the embraces of mortals. How ridiculous would these Basics seem, were they to be understood in the very le-ter'. Snch, therefore, (an observation I kiTt cade before) as remain obscure to us, we cas .socladc to have lost J their explanation tareac* tbe length of time in which they have here Lstded down to us. The meeting of Jason aed Ceres in Crete, plainly signifies the land beer; rskivated by that hero; aud Plutus, the god (/ riches, bang the produce of their loves, means tbe fruit* of hit labour and industry.
Ver. 134c Cadmus and Harmonia have, doubtless, fccac relation to persons in history. Polydore, the ScfeeHafi, fays, was so called, because the godt d-fefcKed their giftt it tbe nuptials of his parents.
Ver. 1347. These verses osChrysaor and Cal
lirhoe, are, doubtless, placed here by mistake, since
I they were introduced before in a more proper
j manner: here they are absurd, because Chrysaor
j and Callirhoe are not reckoned mortals.
Ver. 1354. I believe Memnon and Hemathion were called by the ancient Greeks, sons of Aurora, because they were of the orientals which settled in Greece. Memnon was king of Ethiopia, which country is in the cast from Greece. Le Clue. Tzetzcs tells us, that Maccdon was so called from Hemathion, who was slain by Hercules; but that does not agree with Memnon being slain by Achilles, because the distance of time betwixt Hercules and Achilles was too long , besides Memnon wat slain in his youth, which increases the error in point of time. .The reason which Lord Bacon gives for Memnon being the son of Aurora, is, that as he was a youth whose glories were shortlived, he is properly said to be the son of the morning, whose beauties soon pass away. The fame remark, perhaps, may be applied to Hemathion and Phaethon.
Ver. 1366. Many passages may be collected, from which the Argonauts will appear to have been Thessalian merchants, who sailed to Colchis; but, since Hesiod intended not to relate the expedition, it would be needless to give the history here. Le Clert.
Ver. 1380. Æacus, Achilles, and Æneas, are names well known in history, and seem to be mentioned only as the reputed sens of goddesses by mortals without any physical view ; which seems to be the end of introducing Agrius, Latinus, and other names.
Ver. 1394. Le Clerc takes Nausinous to be the inclination which Ulysses had to leave Calypso, and Nausithous the (hip in which he sailed from her 1 both words, indeed, are expressive of such meanings, but as many persons have had names from their dispositions, offices, or some particular circumstance of their lives, or names given them significant of some quality or employment, yet not applicable to those who are so named, we are not certain whether these are designed as real names or not.
Ver. 1403. This concludes the Theogony, as the poem now stands, from which it appeart, that the poet writ or intended to write, of women of renown; but such a work could not come under the title os the Theogony; of which see farther in the fifth section us my Discourse on the Writings of HcCod.
ON THE THEOLOGY AND MYTHOLOGY OF THE ANCIENTS.
In the following discourse I shall cor.sine myself so the Theology and Mythology os the ancient precks, showing their rise and progress, with a view only to the Theogony of Hesiud, intending it but a* an nppendix to the notes.
The Greek*, doubtsefs, derived great part of their religion from the Egyptians; and though Hcrodoiu- tells us. in one place, that Hcsiod, with HoniiT, wa» the firil who introduced a Theogony among c!'e Grecians, and the first whu gave names to the god-, yet he contr...:,.' thtt opinion in his second book, where he lays Melampus seems to have learned the stories of Bacchus from Cadmus and other Tyrians, which came with him from Phœnicia to the country now called Bceutia he must therefore mean that Hc-siod and Homer were the first who g?ve the pods a poetical dress, and who used them with more freedom in their writings than preceding authors.
Herodotus Diodorus Siculus, and Pausanias, all mention Cadmus settling in Bceotia, and Egyptian colonies in other parts of Greece; and Herodotus fays aln.oO al! the names of the gc's in Greece were from Egypt: to enforce which, I have translated the following account from Diotserus biculus.
We learn from the Egyptians that many by nature mortal, were honoured with immortality for their wisdom, and inventions which (roved useful to mankind, fume of which were kings of Egypt; and to such they gave the names of the celestial deities. Their first prince was called >iixjc(, from the planet cf that name, the fun. We are told that Hfcuf;,or Vulcan, was the inventor cf file, that in, me tnc of it; for seeing a tree on the mountains blasted from heaven, and the wood turning,be received much comfort fron. the heat, being then winter; from this he fired some combustible matter, and preserved the use os it afterwards to men, fur which reason he was made ruler of the people. After this Chronos, or Saturn reigned, who married his sister Rhea, of whom five deities were born, whose names were Osiris, lsi«, Typhon, Apollo, Aphrodite. Osirisis Bacchus and Hi*, Ceie\ or Demetcr. Isi« was married to Osiris and, after Oic shared the dominion, made many discoveries for the benefit of life; she found the use of corn, which grew before neglected ill the field« like other heibs; and Osiris began to cultivate the fruit-trees. In remembrance of these persons annual rites were decreed, which are now preserved; in the time of harvest they offer the first-fruits of the corn to Ifis, aud invoke her.
Hermes invented letters, and the lyre of three chords , the first instituted divine worship, and ordained facrilices to ihe gods.
The fame historian proceeds to relate the expedition of Osiris, who was accompanied by his brother Apollo, who is said to be the first that pointed out the laurel. Osiris look great delight in mode, for which reason he carried with him a company of musicians, among which were cine yirgins eminent for their skill in sinking, and in other sciences, whom the Greeks call the Muses, and Apollo they style theif president. Osiris at his return was deified, and afterwards murdered by his brother "Typhon, a turbulent and impious mao. lsis and her son revenged themselves oil Typhon and his accomplices.
Thus far Diodorus in his first book; and Plutarch, in his treatise of lsis and Osiris, seems to think the Grecian poet', in their stories of Jupiter and the Titans, and of Bacchus and Ceres, indebted to the Egyptians.
Diodorus in his third book, tells us Cadmus, who was derived from Egypt, breught letter* from Phœnicia, and Linus was the first among the Greeks who invented poetic numbers and melody, and who writ an account of the actions of the first: Bacchus; he had many disciples, the most renowned of which were Hercules, Thamyiis, and Orpheus. We are told by the fame author, that Orpheus, who was let into the theology of the Egyptians, applied the generation of the Osiris of old, to the thtn modern times, and, being gratified by the Cadmeans, instituted new rites Simelc, the daughter of Cadmus, being deflowered, bore a child of the seme likeness, which ihey attributed to Osiris of Egypt; Orpheus, who was admitted into the mysteries ol the religion, endeavotiicd to veil her shame, by giving out that Simrle conceived by Jove, and brought forth Bacchus. Hence men, partly through ignorance, and partly through the honour which they had for Orpheus, aud confidence in him, were deceived.
From these passages we learn that the religion and gods of Egypt were, in part, translated with the colonies into Greece; but they continued not long without innovations and alterations. Linus first fung the exploits of the first Bacchus or Osiris; he, doubtless, took all the poetical liberty that he could with his subject: Urpheus after him banished the first Bacchus from the theology, and introduced the second with a lie to conceal the shame us a polluted woman. In short, all the stories wkich were told in honour of those Egyptians, who had deserved well of their country, were, with their cairic% applied to other persons. Thus i£cordir.|r to the hiltotian, the divine Orpheus set oat with bribery, flattery, and delusion.
A DISCOURSE ON THE THEOLOGY AND MYTHOLOGY OF THE ANCIENTS. «J
Hc&od tegins hisThrogony with she first principle i.f the heathen system, that Chaos wax the parect of Je, and Heaven and Earth the parents of aflnEiie thicks. That Heaven is the futher. fays Pfcurcn, in his Inquiry after God, appears from hit poarirz down the waters which have the spermtic family, anij Earth the mother, because she Wrap firth. This, according to the opinion of rWarch, anj many more, was the origin of the Œst'fUctr-of pods, men esteeming those bodies in the fcravetrs aud on the earth, irom which they reterird benefit, the immediate objects of their gratitude and adoration: the sense were the awtrtes iiterwacrcjs vthicb induced them to pay disuse boe*«ur& to mortal men, as we lee iu the acdGrr we have from Diodorus. Th? design of tie poet was ;-> give a catalogue of those deities who wrre, in any sense, esteemed as such in the meet in which bj: lived, whether sahul'us, historical, or physical; hjit we mist take notice, that even v/bsvrc a dory had rise from fable, or history, beseem to labour a; reducing it to nature, as in that ef the nibses : what was before of mtjii ori(jail, fna cine mijiflrels, ilave* to a prince, is xccict-d ftit by the genius of the poet.
\ fc»H o^ctodx, tjiinking it all that is farther
Bret Cars tabs Cud. and particularly op the My
lUtT, wch tV.e following translation from the
preface of Lord Eac in to his treatise on the Wis
ekas or" the AocitSts.
/ am sot ignorant how uncertain fiction is, and hew luise Co be wrested to this or that sense, nor bow prevalent wit and discourse arc, so as ingenieauTy to app'y such meanings as were not thought of cxi*i»-ally: but let not the follies and license •(sew lessen the esteem due to parables; for that vn* be profane and hold, since religion detftacisBch veils and shadows: but. reflecting ca Issaan witdotri, 1 ingeniously confess n.y real '■f-atc n, that mystery and allegory were from ue cri^i-.a] intended in many fabjes of the ancient ryeri; th:» apy-eirs apt and conspicuous to me, W*=«t ravished with a veneration for antiquity, «-• berajic I fisd such coherence in the similitude w«± the things signified, in the very texture of tac fable, and in the propriety of the names wi-i are given to the persons or a.ctors in the ia.b4t; amd no man can positively deny that this wa»ti_ srese tripose'' from the beginning, and atvaeSriatily veiled in this manner. How can the Cfcifsyry and judgrrert of the Fames be obscure ta a-» ' Mrti-» being madr the wife ot Jove plainly l-f sV.c^or.sei No one should be moved if ht • cir: rr-e. finds any addi-ion for the fake of kuaurr oy wav < f rmhcllifhnicnr, or.if chronosary b<*>'^ hamper to he confounded, or if partof «a» faWr fc< jlo he tren-st rred to another, and a ac. . ieyory intrtd ced: for these were ail necawiry »rd to be expected, seeing th y are the inveataxt of aqcn of different ages, and who writ to 5
different ends, some with a view to the nature of things, and other to civil aflairs.
We have another sign, and that no small one, os this hidden'sense which we have been speaking of; which is, that some of these sables are in the narration, that is, in themselves literally understood, so foolisti and absurd, that they seem to proclaim a parable at a distance. Such as are probable may be feigned for amusement, and in imitation of history; but where no such designs appear, but they seem to be what none would imagine or relate, th^y must be calculated for other uses! What a fiction is this! Jove took Metis for his wife, and'as soon as he perceived her pregnant, eat her, whence he himself eunceived, and brought forth Pallas, armed from 1ns head. Nothing caa appear more monstrous, more like a dream, and more out of the course of thinking, than this story in itself. What has a great weight with me, is. that many of these fables seem not to be invented by those who have related them, Homer, Hefind, and other writers; for were they the fictions of that age, and of those who delivered them down to us, nothing .great and exalted, according to niy opinion, could be expected from such an origin: but if any one will deliberate on this subject attentively, these will appear to be delivered and related as what were before believed and received, and not as tales then first invented and communicated: besi les, as they are tojd in different manners by authors of almost the fame times, they arc easily perceived to be common, and derived from old memorial tradition, and aro various only from the additional embellishments which diverse writers haye bestowed on tjiem.
In old times, when the inventions of men, and the conclusions deduced from .them, were new and uncommon, parables, and similes, of all kinds ab ur.ded. As hieroglyphics were more ancient than parables, parables were more ancient than arguments. We shall close what we have here said, with this observation ; the wisdom of the ancients was either great or happy; great if these figures were the fruits of their industry, and happy if they loi ked no farther, that thry have afforded H.alter and otoli. u so worthy contemplation.
I Cannot take my leave of this work without expressing my gratitude to Mr. Theobald for his kind alfistancc in it. Much may with justice be said to the advantage of that gentleman, but his own writings will he testimonies of his abilities, when, perhaps, this profession of my friendship for him, and of my zeal for his merit, shall be forgot.
Such remarks as I have received from my friends I have distinguished from my own, in justice to those by whom 1 have been so obliged, lest, by a general acknowledgment only, such errors as ( n-.ay have pi flibly committed, should, by the wrong guess of some, be unjustly imputed to them.
fti. i,$. l^it. Thomas Cooi.r.
Japhet - - •
r Brontes The Cyclops < Saeropes
From the Hood of Hi
From the members of Hi Venus
Dreams - - •
The Hefperides - .
Clot ho ...
Domestic Wounds I'erjury
From Sea and Earth.
Thaumas Pborcys Ceto Eurybia
From Norms and Doris.