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gods, thus, the herald of heaven is that which Ver. 1347. These verses of Chrýsaor and Cal. brings divine things to light.
lirhoe, are, doubtless, placed here by mistake, since Ver. 1300. Bacchus is said to be born of Si- they were introduced before in a more proper mele, which word Le Clerc derives froin the Phee- manner : here they are absurd, because Chrysaor Dician fedeb, which significs a virgin ripe for and Callirhoe are not reckoned mortals. man. The Greek name of Bacchus is Alwupos, Ver. 1354. I believe Memnon and Hemathion which is literally the son of Jove; some have a were called by the ancient Greeks, fons of Aurora, different derivation, but fince this agrees with his because they were of the orientals which settled in birth, according to the Thevnogy, it will be need Greece. Memnon was king of Ethiopia, which lefs to leck any other. He is the god who pre- country is in the eart from Greece. Le Clers. lides over the vintage ; therefore, as all pleasures Tzetzes tells us, that Macedon was so called from are from God, he is justly derived from the same Hemathion, who was lain by Hercules ; but that source. See farther in the Discourse at the end. does not agree with Memnon being lain by Achil
Ver. 1304. The story of Jupiter poffeffing Alc- les, because the distance of time betwixt Hercules mena in the shape of her husband Amphitryon, and Achilles was too long , besides Memnon was is well known : Hercules physically significs lain in his youth, which increases the error in ftrength and courage, which are from Jove. point of time. The reason which Lord Bacon
Ver. 1346 Vulcan and Aglaia are here hur- gives for Memnon being the son of Aurora, is, band and wife; but Venus is made the confort of that as he was a youth whose glories were shortVolcan by other authors. Vulcan, the god of as lived, he is properly said to be the son of the cificeri in fire, and Aglaia, one of the Graces, are morning, whose beauties soon pass away. The properly joined, because, by the help of both, all fame remark, perhaps, may be applied to Hemathat is ornamental is brought to perfection. Vul thion and Phaëthon. co is called lamp, because fire cannot subsist with. Ver. 1366. Many passages may be collected, out fuel. These two are brought together, but no from which the Argonauts will appear to have dildren are born of them, which does not answer been Theffalian merchants, who failed to Colchis; the title of the generation of the gods, therefore but, fince Hesiod intended not to relate the expeimproperly introduced in a poem under that title, dition, it would be needless to give the history as are the other persons who meet and not propa. here. Le Clerc. gate.
Ver. 1380. Æacus, Achilles, and Æneas, are Ver. 1312. Hercules is married to Hebe, that names well known in history, and seem to be menis, to eternal youth, the reward of great and glo- tioned only as the reputed Tons of goddesses by rious actions.
mortals without any physical view ; which seems Ver. 1318. Circe, as an enchantress, is proper to be the end of introducing Agrius, Latinus, and ly said to be a daughter of the Sun; and Medea, other names. for the same season, is justly derived from the Ver. 1394. Le Clerc takes Nausinous to be the fame source.
inclination which Ulysses had to leave Calypso, Ver. 1332. We are now come to the last part and Naufithous the ship in which he failed from of the poem, where goddesses submit to the em- her, both words, indeed, are expreslive of such braces of mortals. How ridiculous would these meanings, but as many persons have had names korias leem, were they to be understood in the from their dispositions, offices, or some particular very kiter: Such, therefore, (an observation i circumstance of their lives, or names given them have made before) as remain obscure to us, we fignificant of some quality or employment, yol pot must conclude to have lost of their explanation applicable to those who are so named, we are not thrcugh the leogth of time in which they have certain whether these are deligned as real names been banded down to us. The meeting of Jason or not. and Ceres in Crete, plainly signifies the land be Ver. 1403. This concludes the Theogony, aś ing cultivated by that hero; and Plutus, the god the poem now stands, from which it appears, that of riches, being the produce of their loves, means the poet wric or intended to write, of women of the fruits of his labour and industry.
renown; but such a work could not come under Ver. 1340. Cadmus and Harmonia have, doubt the title of the Theogony; of which see farther less, some relation to persons in history. Polydore, in the fifth section of my Discourse on the Writing the Scholiaft, says, was so called, because the gods ings of Helod. distribored their gifts at the nuptials of his parents.
ON THE THEOLOGY AND MYTHOLOGY OF THE ANCIENTS.
In the following discourse I fall cor fine myself Hermes invented letters, and the lyre of three to the Theoloyy and Mythology of the ancient chords; the first instituted divine worship, and orGrecks, howing their uile and progress, with a dained sacrifices to che gods. view ouly to the Theogony of Hefiod, intending The same historian proceeds to relatc the exit but as an appendix to the notes.
pedition of Osiris, who was accompanied by his The Grecks, doubtless, derived great part of brother Apollo, who is said to be the first that their religion from the Egyptians; ard though pointeil out the laurel. Osiris took great delight Herodotus tells us, in one place, that Hefiod, with in moric, for which reason he carried with him a Homer, was the firit who introduced a l'hcogony company of musicians, among which were nine an:ong the Grecians ansi the first who gave names virgins eminene for their fkill in singing, and in to the god-, yet he coutradicts that opinion in his other sciences, whom the Greeks call the Muses, fecond book, where he says Melampus seems to and A pollo they style their president. Ogris at his have learned the florics of Bacchus from Cadmus return was deified, and afterwards nurdered by and other Tyrians, which came with him from his brother Typhon, 3 turbulent and impious inan. Phænicia to the country now called Bæotia. he llis and her son revenged themselves on Typhou must therefore mean that Hefiod and Homer were and his accomplices. the firit who gave the gods a poetical dress, and Thus far Diodorus in his first book; and Pluwho usid them with more freedom in their writ tarch, in his treatise of ifis and Osiris, seenis to ings than preceding authors.
think the Grecian poces, in their fories of Jupiter Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, and Pausanias, all and the Titans, and of Bacchus and Ceres, indebtmention Cadnius fitting in Baotia, and Egyp ed to the Egyptians. tian colonies in other parts of Greece; and Hero Diodorus, in his third book, tells us Cadmus, dotus says aln of all ihe names of the gois in who was derived from Egypt, broughe letters Greece were from Egypt: to enforce which, from Phænicia, and Linus was the firit among the have translated the following account from Dio Greeks who invented poetic numbers and melody, dorus Siculus.
and who wrių an account of the actions of the Grit We learn from the Egyptians that many by Bacchus; he had many disciples, the most renature mortal, were honoured with immortality nowned of which were Hercules, Thamyris, and for their wildom, and inventions which proved Orpheus. We are told by the fame author, that useful 10 mankind, some of which were kings of Orpheus, who was let into the theology of the Egypt; and to such they gave the names of the Egyptians, applied the generation of the Ofiris of ccleftial deities. Their first prince was called old, to the then modern times, and, being gratiH:2005, from the planet of tha: name, the sun. We fied by the Cadmeans, instituted new rites Siare told that HR01505, or Vulcan, was the inventor nele, the daughter of Cadmus, being deflowered, of fire, that is, the we of it ; for seeing a tree on bore a child of the same likeness, which ihry alirithe mountains blafled from heaven, and the wood buted to Osiris of Egypt; Orpheus, who was adburning, he seceived much comfort fron the heat, mitted into the mysteries of the religion, endeabeing then winter ; from this he fired some com voured to veil her Thame, by giving out that Sibustible matter, and preserved the use of it after melc conceived by Jove, and brought forth wards to men; for which reason he was made Bacchus. Hence men, parely through ignorance, ruler of the people. After this Chronos, or Saturn and partly through the honour which they had reigned, who married his filter Rhea, of whom for Orpheus, and confidence in him, were de. five deities were born, whose names were Ofiris,ceived. 113, Typhon, Apollo, Aphrodite. Osiris, is Bacchus From these passages we learn that the religion ard llis, Ceres, or Demeter. Isis was married in and gods of Egypt were, in part, trandated with Osiris, and, after the fared the dominior, made the colonies into Greece; but they continued not many discoveries for the benefit of life; the found long without innovations and alterations. Linus the use of corn, which grew before neglected in first fung the exploits of the first Bacchus or Oliris; the fields like other herbs; and Ofiris began to he, doubeless, took all the poerical liberty that he cultivate the fruie-trees. In remembrance of these could with his subject : Orpheus after him banihperfons annual rites were decreed, which are now ed the first Bacchus from the theology, and introprelerved; in the time harvest they offer the duced the fecond with a lie to conceal the shame tirft-fruits of the corn to lfis, and invoke her. I of a polluted woman. In short, all the forics
A DISCOURSE ON THE THEOLOGY AND MYTHOLOGY OF THE ANCIENTS. 63 which were told in honour of those Egyptians, different ends, some with a view to the nature of who had deserved well of their country, were, things, and other to civil ailairs. with their names, applied to other perfons. Thus, We have another fign, and that no small one, according to the historian, che divine Orpheus sec of this hidden sense which we have been speaking car with bribery, flattery, and delusio!).
of; which is, that some of these fables are in the Hchud tegins his Theogony with the first prin- narration, that is, in themselves literally under. ciple of the bearheo system, that Chaos was the stood, so foolith and absurd, that they seem to proparece et al, and Heaven and Earth the parents of claim a parable at a distance. Such as are proall rilible things. That Heaven is the father, says bable may be feigned for amusemeni, and in imi. Pic:arch, in his Inquiry after God, appears from tation of history; but where uo such designs aphis
pouring down the waters which have the sper-pear, but they seem to be what none would imamatic facoly, and Earth the mother, because she gine or relate, they must be calculated for other brings furth. This, according to the opinion of uses! What a fiation is this ! Jove took Metis for Pisarch, and many more, was the origin of the his wife, and as soon as he perceived her pregnant, Detekcity of gods, men efteenring those bodies eat her, whence he himself conceived, and brought in the bravers and on the earth, from which they forth Pallas, armed from his head. Nothing can received benefit, the inimediate objects of their appear more monstrous, more like a dream, and gatitude aod adoration : the fanie were the more out of the course of thinking, than this stonotives afterwards which induced them to pay ry in itself. What has a great weight with me, divae hodours to mortal men, as we lee in the is, that many of these fables seem not to be invent2.0 and we have from Diodorus. The design of ed by those who have related them, Homer, He. the part w 25 s) give a catalogue of chole deities fiod, and other writers; for were they the fictions wto wers, in any sense, esteemed as such in the of that age, and of those who delivered them down times in which he lived, whether fabulous, hifto. to us, nothing great and exalted, according to my tical or physical; but we must take notice that opinion, could be expected from such an origin : cita a here a story had rise from lable, or history, but if any one will deliberate on this subject attenhe feems to labour a; reducing it to bature, as in tívely, there will appear to be delivered and rethat of the muses : what was before of mean ori. lated as what were before believed and received, gizal
, frum nine mintiels, llaves to a prince, is and not as tales then firit invented and communi. ta dered great by the genius of the poet.
cated: besides, as they are told in different manlinal conclude, thinking it all that is further ners by authors of almost the fame times, they are Dreizy to be said, "and particularly on the My- easily perseived to be common, and derived from Edisgy, with the following tranflacion from the old memorial tradision, and are various only from preke of Lord Bacon to his treatise on the Wif the additional embeilishments which diverse donc he Ancients.
writers have bestowed on them. I am not ignoraat how uncertain fi&tion is, and lu old times, when she invensions of men, and bcu liable to be wrested to this or that lense, nor the conciufions deduced from them, were new and bow prevalent wit and discourse are, so as ingenjuncommon, parables, and fimiles, of all kinds ady to apply fuch meanings as were not thought I bunded. As hieroglyphics were more ancient
crizu.alls: but lte rot the follies and license than parables, parables were more ancient than e lew lessen the esteem due to parables; for that arguments. We shall close what we have here sauld be profane and bold, lince religion de said, with this observation; the wisdom of the ansites in such veils and shadows : but, reflecting cients was either great or happy; great if these e human wisdom, J ingeniously confess ny real figures were the fruits of their industry, and hapProcon is, that mystery and allegory were from py if they locked no farther, that they have af. the original intended in many fables of the ancient forded matter and occasiun so worthy contemplaprets; this appears apt and conspicuous to me, whether ravished with a veneration for antiquity, or because I find such coherence in the fimilitude
POSTSCRIPT. id ehe things lignified, in the very texture of the fable, and in the propriety of the names I CANNOT take my leave of this work without exwhich are given to the persons or aciors in the presing my gratitude to Mr. Theobald for his fable; and no man can positively deny that this kind allistance in it. Much may with justice be a ti fer le proposed from the beginning, and said to the advantage of that gentleman, but his incuriofly veiled in this manner, How can the own writings will be testimonies of his abilities, Chicory and judgment of the names be obscure when, perhaps, this profession of my friendship
2? lictis being made the wife of Jeve. plain for him, and of my zeal for his merit, shall be lyl Er coorlei No one should be moved if forgot. he i me: it.c, finds any addi'ion for the sake of Such remarks as I have received from my friends
by wav femr.bellishnieni, or if chrono. I have diftinguished from my own, in justice to logy Pacoli ha per to be confounded, or if part of those by whom I have been so obliged, left, by a one sable frald be tran-ferreri to another, and a general acknowledgment only, such crrors as c Des slegory introd.did; for these were all ne may have poflibly committed, should, by the wrong ceflary and io be expectcd, leeing th. y are the in guess of some, be unjustly imputed to them. Tenders of men of different ages, and who writ to Fob. 15. 1728.
Murders ib. / Wars 213 Slaughters
Lies 216 License
ib. ib. 35% ib. ib. 353 354
357 363 #364
From Heaven and Earth. Ocean Cæus Creas Hyperion Japhet Thea Rhea Themis Mnemosync Phæbe Tethys Saturn
From the blood of Heaven,
From the members of Heaven. Venus
218 | Domestic Wounds
ib Perjury 219
From Sea and Eartb. ib. 220 Nereus 221 Thaumas
ib. Phorcys 222
Ceto 223 Eurybia
From Nerns and Doris. 227
Proto 237 Eucrate 238 ] Sao ib. Amphitrite
Thetis 289 Galene 290 | Glauce 291 Cymothoe
Eulimine 327 Agave
ib. Pasithea 328 | Erato ib. Eunice ib. Doto 327 Proto 330 Pherufa 331 Dunamene 335 Nisaa ib. Actce
ib. 373 ib. ib. 374
ib. 375 376 377 378 379 ib.
Verse 516 527
398 | Caic
ib. 537 538
385 Phalis Doris
388 Neffus Hippoboe
389 Rhodius Hippopot
390 Haliacmon Cymrodece
ib. Hermus Halined
ib. Simois Glauconome
ib. Sangarius Eragore
ib. Parthenius Polynome
ib Scaniander Erarne
406 Admete Nelo Espompe
ib. Electra Themisto Pronoe
ib. Prymno Nemertes
518 From tbe blood of Medusa.
Tx Harpies} Ocgpete
ib. 549 550
ib. SST 532
ib. 553 ib. ib. 554
ib. 555 556
ib. 557 558 559 560
ib, 565 566
ib. 567 ib. ib. 568 569
Frem Typback and Ecbidna.
From Ortbus and Cbimera,
From Ocean and Tetbys.
From Hyperom and Tbie.